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Gc  M.  U« 




3  1833  01066  8975 




I.  S.  BARTLETT,  Editor 







Where  Nature  held  her  soHtary  reign 

Through  the  long  cycles  of  the  ages  past; 

Where  lofty  mountains  burst  above  the  plain 
Creating  solitudes  profound  and  vast. 

Where  the  strong  billows  of  the  foothills  break 
On  mountain  walls  like  sea  waves  on  the  strand ; 

Where  mighty  canyons  and  dark  forests  make 
The  wilderness  an  ancient  wonderland. 

Remote  from  man's  dominion,  wild  and  free, 
A  spell  of  deep  enchantment  o'er  it  cast; 

Here  wrought  the  power  of  Nature's  alchemy 
To  make  a  new  and  better  land  at  last. 

Where  men  and  women  brave  all  perils  meet. 
And  wring  from  Destiny  her  promise  late, 

Which  points  the  path  of  Empire  to  their  feet 
And  shows  the  firm  foundations  of  a  State. 



The  history  of  Wyoming,  in  all  its  details  and  phases,  presents  a  story  of 
gripping  human  interest.  Sixty  years  ago  great  herds  of  antelope  and  buffalo 
roamed  over  the  plains,  elk  and  deer  by  thousands  found  shelter  in  the  foothills 
and  mountain  ranges,  while  predatory  animals,  such  as  timber  wolves,  bears  and 
mountain  lions,  held  undisputed  possession  of  the  forests.  The  soil  was  then 
untouched  by  the  plow  of  the  husbandman,  the  groves  and  forests  had  not  yet 
echoed  the  sound  of  the  woodman's  ax,  the  rich  treasures  of  coal  and  ore  had 
not  felt  the  stroke  of  the  miner's  pick,  and  the  only  civilized  persons  who  had 
penetrated  the  vast,  primeval  solitudes  were  the  trappers,  hunters,  Indian  traders 
and  missionaries,  or  the  emigrants  on  their  way  to  the  gold  fields  of  California 
or  the  Mormon  settlement  at  the  Great  Salt  Lake. 

Then  came  the  cry  of  "Westward  Ho !"  and  the  spirit  of  Wyoming's  dream 
was  changed.  Brawny,  red-blooded  men  came  flocking  in  from  the  older  states 
and  began  a  work  of  development  unparalleled  in  the  nation's  history.  Great 
irrigating  systems  were  constructed,  arid  lands  were  reclaimed,  and  the  desert 
was  made  to  "blossom  as  the  rose."  Thousands  of  cattle  and  sheep  grazed  where 
once  the  antelope  and  bison  held  their  undisputed  sway.  The  immense  deposits 
of  coal,  iron  and  the  precious  metals  were  made  to  give  up  their  wealth  for  the 
benefit  of  mankind.  The  drill  penetrated  the  subterranean  lakes  of  oil  to  add 
to  the  comforts  of  the  human  race  the  resources  that  had  lain  concealed  through 
all  the  centuries  of  the  past.  The  council  wigwam  of  the  Indian  has  given  way 
to  halls  of  legislation,  the  war-whoop  of  the  savage  has  been  supplanted  by  the 
.hum  of  peaceful  industry,  and  all  this  development  has  been  made  within  the 
memory  of  people  yet  living. 

To  tell  the  story  of  this  wonderful  progress,  as  well  as  to  give  accounts  of 
the  pre-historic  inhabitants,  the  trappers,  traders  and  early  explorers ;  to  keep 
green  the  memories  of  the  past :  to  recount  the  deeds  and  achievements  of  the 
\\'yoming  pioneers,  that  subsequent  generations  may  emulate  their  worthy  exam- 
ples and  profit  by  their  mistakes,  is  the  purpose  of  this  history.  How  well  that 
purpose  has  been  attained  is  for  the  reader  to  determine. 

The  work  has  been  one  involving  great  care  and  labor,  but  the  publishers 
confidently  assert  that  no  effort  has  been  spared  to  make  this  History  of  Wyo- 
ming both  authentic  and  comprehensive.  Authentic,  because,  as  far  as  possible, 
the  official  records  have  been  drawn  upon  as  sources  of  information :  and  com- 
prehensive, because,  it  is  believed,  no  important  event  connected  with  Wyoming's 
growth  and  development  has  been  overlooked  or  neglected. 

Much  credit  is  due  to  the  old  settlers  of  the  state,  whose  letters,  scrap-books 
and  personal  recollections  have  contributed  in  no  small  degree  to  the  compilation 
of  the  history.  Letters  were  written  to  county  ofificials  and  others,  asking  for 


incidents  connected  with  local  history,  and,  while  a  few  failed  to  respond,  much 
information  was  obtained  through  this  channel. 

The  editor  and  publishers  take  this  opportunity  to  acknowledge  their  obliga- 
tions to  these  old  settlers  and  county  officials  for  their  willing  cooperation ;  to 
the  various  state  officers  and  their  assistants  for  their  aid  in  consulting  the  public 
records;  to  Bishop  Nathaniel  S.  Thomas,  who  permitted  the  use  of  his  large 
and  well  assorted  private  library;  and  to  the  state  librarian.  Miss  Agnes  R. 
Wright,  and  her  assistants  for  their  unifonn  courtesies  while  the  work  was  in 
course  of  preparation. 

Our  thanks  are  also  due  to  Governor  Frank  L.  Houx  for  his  contribution  to 
this  history  on  "Wyoming,  the  New  Oil  State'' ;  to  Albert  B.  Bartlett,  for  his 
valuable  paper  on  the  "Geology  of  Wyoming" ;  to  Hon.  W.  E.  Chaplin,  for  data 
relating  to  the  early  history  of  the  Press  of  the  state;  to  Bishop  Patrick  A. 
McGovern,  for  material  relating  to  the  early  history  of  the  Catholic  church,  and 
to  Dr.  Grace  Raymond  Hebard  of  the  University  of  Wyoming,  for  access  to  her 
extensive  personal  collections  relating  to  Wyoming  history. 

The  hearty  cooperation  of  these  and  other  good  people  over  the  state  has 
made  our  task  a  pleasant  one  and  has  greatly  enhanced  the  interest  and  value 
of  the  work. 















WYOMING     31 






AND    FISH     45 
















versy over  the  navigation  of  the  mississippi  river — treaty  of  madrid 
napoleon  and  talleyrand secret  treaty  of  san  ildefonso — retro- 
cession of  louisiana  to  france sentiment  in  the  united  states — 

Jefferson's  diplomacy — Livingston  and  monroe — purchase  of  Louisi- 
















CHAPTER  IX      - 











PRAYER     134 





































EXPOSITION — ELECTION    OF    1906 225 




















PAIGN OF  1876 ouster's  last  fight PEACE  AT  LAST 274 



Spain's  oppression  of  cuba — the  ten  years'  war — revolution  of  1895 — 
weyler's  cruelty — protests  of  the  united  states — destruction  of 


volunteers — Wyoming's  response — the  infantry  battalion — roster 

OF  E.'^CH  of  the  companies — IN  THE  PHILIPPINES THE  WYOMING  BAT- 
MENT        289 








10  .    CONTENTS 







PLAINS      325 










































































cattlemen's    INVASION    OF    1892 — WAR    ON    THE   RUSTLERS — ORGANIZING    THE 











Wyoming  State   Flag   Frontispiece 

Little  Goose  Creek  Falls,  near  Sheridan i6 

Scene  in  Big  Horn  Mountains 19 

Cloud  Peak,  Big  Horn  Range 19 

Castle  Rock,  Green  River    21 

Teakettle  Rock  and  Sugar  Bowl,  Green  River   21 

Devil's   Garden,    Meeteetse    25 

Natural  Bridge,  Clear  Fork,  Green  River 25 

"The  Club  Sandwich"  on  Rock  Creek 29 

Upper  Ouartzite  Stratum  showing  Jasper  Nodules ^^ 

"Spanish  Diggins"    35 

Old  Faithful,  Yellowstone  Park   47 

Castle  Geyser,  Yellowstone  Park   49 

Firehole  River  Falls.  Yellowstone  Park 49 

Yellowstone  Lake,  Yellowstone  Park 51 

Yellowstone  Canyon,'  from  Inspiration  Point 51 

Cascade  Geyser,  Yellowstone  Park 55 

Yellowstone  Falls   55 

Two  Moons  58 

Medicine  Crow   63 

Jim  Baker 105 

John  Hunton 143 

State  Capitol   183 

Tablet  to  mark  Site  where  the  Council  of  the  First  Territorial  Legislature  of 

Wyoming  convened 199 

Governor's  Mansion ._ 235 

Wyoming  State  Hospital,  Sheridan   -. 267 

Wyoming  State  Penitentiary,  Rawlins 267 

Fort  Kearny  Monument 285 

Old   Fort  Laramie   304 

Old  Fort  Laramie,  1899   307 

"Mike"  Henry,  of  Douglas 309 

Monument  marking  the  Old  Oregon  Trail  at  Torrington 327 

George  Gardner  and  O.  P.  Hanna   331 

Last  Black  Hills  Coach  leaving  Cheyenne 335 

Last  Stage  out  of  Saratoga 335 

Union  Pacific  Station,  Cheyenne 343 

Union  Pacific  and  St.  John's  Hospitals,  Cheyenne 343 

Dry  Farm  Crop  of  Potatoes,  Golden  Prairie,  near  Cheyenne 355 

Dry  Farm  Wheat  Crop,  near  Cheyenne 355 

Sheep  on  the  Range  near  Buffalo 367 

Home  of  the  Corriedales  367 

Wyoming  Corriedale  Sheep  Company's  Corriedales 369 

Champion  Corriedales    371 

Laramie  Boy,  Grand  Champion   373 

Midwest  Refinery.  Casper    383 

Standard  Refinery,  Casper 383 

The  Big  Muddy,  near  Casper 387 




In  the  Big  Muddy  Field 387 

Central  Coal  and  Coke  Company's  No.  2  Mine,  Rock  Springs 391 

Mine  No.  3  of  the  Bear  River  Coal  Company,  Inc.,  at  Evanston 391 

Cambria  Fuel  Company,  Cambria   393 

Carney ville.  One  of  the  Coal  Camps 395 

Dietz,  Home  of  "Sheridan  Coal" 395 

First  National  Bank,  Cheyenne 419 

The  Stock  Growers  National  Bank,  Cheyenne 419 

High  School  Building,  Cheyenne 429 

Central  School,  Cheyenne   429 

Schools  of  Casper 433 

Catholic  Academy,  Cheyenne   433 

High    School,   Kemmerer    437 

High  School,  Sheridan 437 

High  School,  Newcastle 439 

High  School,  Evanston 439 

State  University  of  Wyoming,  Laramie 445 

Women's  Hall,  University  of  Wyoming,  Laramie 445 

St.  Mary's  Cathedral  and  Bishop's  Residence,  Cheyenne 477 

Catholic  Church,  Laramie 479 

St.  Patrick's  Church,  Kemmerer 481 

St.  Joseph's  Catholic  Church,  Rawlins    481 

St.  Matthew's  Cathedral,  Laramie 483 

Presbyterian  Church,  Laramie 483 

Episcopal  Church,  Evanston 485 

Catholic  Church,  Evanston   485 

St.  Peter's  Episcopal  Church,  Sheridan 487 

Presbyterian   Church,   Cheyenne    491 

Churches  of  Casper 491 

Baptist   Church,   Evanston    495 

Presbyterian  Church,  Evanston   495 

Baptist  Church,  Laramie ' 499 

First  Methodist  Episcopal  Church  and  Parsonage,  Laramie 499 

Baptist  Church,  Cheyenne 501 

Methodist  Episcopal  Church,  Cheyenne 501 

Postofifice,  Laramie  505 

Albany  County  Courthouse    505 

Residence  of  Mr.  and  Mrs.  Robert  H.  Homer 507 

John  Owens 5^9 

Carbon  County  Pioneers 513 

Crook  County  Courthouse 517 

F.  S.  King  Ranch,  near  Cheyenne 525 

Original  Homestead  of  F.  S.  King 527 

Natrona  County  Courthouse  531 

Postofifice,  Casper  531 

Sheridan  County  Courthouse   539 

Uinta  County  Courthouse   543 

Postoffice,  Evanston   543 

Weston  County  Courthouse 547 



Bird's-eye  View  of  Newcastle 547 

Commercial  Club,  Cheyenne 549 

Plains  Hotel,  Cheyenne 549 

Masonic  Temple,  Cheyenne    553 

Elks'  Home,  Cheyenne 553 

Senator  Warren's  Residence,   Cheyenne 557 

Carnegie  Public  Library,  Cheyenne 559 

Postoffice  and  Laramie  County  Courthouse,  Cheyenne 559 

Bird's-eye  View  of  Casper 565 

Carnegie  Library,  Casper   567 

Masonic  Temple,  Casper 567 

Main  Street,  Casper 569 

Cody  in  1897 ■'-  ■  •    569 

Colonel  William  F.  Cody 571 

View  of  Evanston 573 

Douglas  in  1886  573 

Public  Library,  Evanston   575 

Masonic  Temple,  Evanston 575 

First  Boys  leave  Green  River  for  the  World  War 579 

Marshall  Day,  Kemmerer 583 

Bird's-eye  View  of  Kemmerer 583 

Laramie  in  1870   585 

Ivinson  Memorial  Hospital,  Laramie*. 587 

Carnegie  Library,  Laramie   587 

Masonic  Temple,  Laramie    589 

Elks'  Home,  Laramie 589 

Residence  of  Edward  Ivinson,  Laramie 591 

Holliday  Building,  Laramie    593 

Daily  Parade  at  Fort  Russell 593 

City  Library,  Newcastle   595 

Company  A  Armory  Building,  Newcastle 595 

Bird's-eye  View  of  Rawlins 597 

Osborne  Block,  Rawlins   597 

Postoffice,  Rawlins   597 

Residence  of  Charles  H.  Anderson 598 

West  Pine  Street,  Rawlins 598 

Elks'  Home,  Rawlins   ' 599 

Masonic  Temple,  Rawlins 599 

South  Front  Street,  Rock  Springs  601 

North  Front  Street,  Rock  Springs 601 

Postoffice  and  Masonic  Temple,  Rock  Springs 603 

School  at  Rock  Springs   603 

Views  of  Sheridan   605 

Sheridan  Sugar  Factory,  Sheridan .   607 

View  of  Main  Street,  Sheridan,  in  1887 607 

Elks'  Home,  Sheridan 609 

Home  of  United  States  Senator  John  B.  Kendrick,  Sheridan   609 

"Frontier  Days"  Celebration  at  Cheyenne 629 

"Frontier  Days"  Celebration  at  Cheyenne 631 

From  the  Herbert  Coffeen  > 


History  of  Wyoming 






Wyoming  has  an  area  of  about  98,000  square  miles,  or  to  be  exact,  62,664,960 
acres.  It  is  a  parallelogram  about  three  hundred  and  fifty  miles  long,  east  and 
west,  and  two  hundred  and  eighty  miles  wide.  It  is  an  empire  equal  to  the  com- 
bined area  of  New  Hampshire,  Massachusetts,  Rhode  Island,  Maine  and  Penn- 
sylvania and  these  states  have  over  15,000,000  inhabitants.  If  we  compare  the 
state  with  foreign  lands,  Wyoming  has  an  area  greater  than  England  and  Switzer- 
land combined  and  they  have  a  population  of  about  40,000,000. 


The  topography  of  the  state  is  diversified.  It  is  an  elevated  plateau  of  the 
Rocky  Mountain  uplift,  broken  by  foot  hills  and  lofty  mountain  ranges,  with 
intervening  valleys  and  extensive  stretches  of  level  and  rolling  plains.  Approach- 
ing from  the  east  the  great  plains  have  a  gradual  rise  to  the  foot  hills  of  the 
Rockies  and  maintain  an  average  of  from  five  thousand  to  six  thousand  five 
hundred  feet  above  sea  level. 

The  front  range  of  the  Rock'ies  extends  from  Colorado  northward  to  the 
North  Platte  River,  and  consists  principally  of  the  Laramie  and  Medicine  Bow 
mountains  which  rise  above  the  plains  from  fifteen  hundred  to  three  thousand 
feet.  Beyond  the  North  Platte  the  foot  hills  and  mountain  ranges  trend  to  the 
northwest  and  culminate  in  the  Big  Horn  range  which  reaches  an  elevation  of 
twelve  thousand  to  over  thirteen  thousand  feet.  Beyond  the  front  range  in  the 
northwestern  part  of  the  state  is  the  Wind  River  range  extending  south  and  east. 
Its  spurs  and  elevations  from  the  Rattlesnake  and  the  Seminole  Mountains  south 
along  the  Sweetwater  River.  South  of  the  Sweetwater  is  a  treeless,  unwatered, 
high  plateau  known  as  the  Red  Desert,  broken  near  its  southern  border  by  the 
spurs  of  the  Uinta  Mountains.  West  of  the  Red  Desert  the  plateau  maintains 


an  elevation  averaging  7,000  feet  above  the  sea  level.  On  the  extreme  western 
.boundary  of  the  state  the  Salt  and  Teton  ranges  extend  south  from  the  Yellow- 
stone Mountains.  From  the  northeast  corner  of  the  state  the  Black  Hills  of 
Dakota  extend  in  a  southerly  direction  rising  from  the  plains  in  spurs  and 
buttes  and  become  the  Black  Hills  of  Wyoming. 

The  topography  of  Wyoming's  surface  is  so  varied  as  to  be  impossible  to 
describe  in  definite  terms.  The  mountain  areas  take  all  forms  of  majestic  and 
rugged  beauty,  and  frame  mountain  parks,  beautiful  with  flowers  and  leaping 
cascades.  On  the  highest  peaks  crowned  with  everlasting  snows,  glaciers  are 
ftDrmed  and  become  the  source  of  pure  nmning  streams  abounding  in  trout,  and 
flowing  down  through  the  valleys  and  low  lands,  give  water  to  the  ranches  and 
become  tributaries  of  the  great  rivers  that  course  through  the  state. 


Wyoming  has  more  large  rivers  and  streams  than  any  state  of  the  arid  or 
semi-arid  region.  In  the  northern  part  of  the  state,  among  the  large  streams, 
are  the  Snake,  the  Yellowstone,  the  Big  Horn  and  Wind  rivers.  In  Southern 
and  Central  Wyoming  we  have  the  Green,  the  Laramie  and  the  North  Platte. 
These  and  other  rivers  with  their  numerous  tributaries  make  a  network  of 
streams  over  the  entire  state.  The  North  Platte  alone  has  over  fifty  tributary 
streams.  The  sources  of  the  Columbia,  the  Colorado  and  the  Missouri  rivers 
are  found  in  the  mountain  ranges  of  Wyoming. 

The  Continental  Divide  beginning  in  Sweetwater  County  on  about  the  twelfth 
meridian  follows  the  mountain  ranges  in  a  northwesterly  direction  and  on  the 
west  slope  of  these  ranges  the  waters  flow  to  the  Pacific  Ocean.  The  principal 
streams  on  this  slope  being  the  Snake  and  Green  rivers  and  their  tributaries. 

It  is  estimated  that  seventy-five  per  cent  of  the  waters  of  the  state  go  to  waste 
in  floods  and  natural  run  olif,  and  that  a  system  of  reclamation,  impounding 
these  waters  in  dams  and  catchment  basins  would  irrigate  15,000,000  acres 
of  land.  A  beginning  has  been  made  in  this  direction  by  reclamation  projects 
under  the  United  States  service  and  the  Carey  Acts. 

The  potential  energy  that  can  also  be  derived  from  these  rivers  in  the  form 
of  hydro-electro  power  is  so  great  as  to  be  almost  impossible  to  estimate.  At 
present  not  one  per  cent  of  this  power  has  been  utilized.  The  streams  having 
their  sources  high  up  in  the  mountains  and  rushing  down  their  sides  afford  ad- 
mirable location  for  power  sites  in  every  section  of  the  state. 

The  canyons  and  waterfalls  made  by  these  rivers  and  lakes  are  noteworthy 
features  of  the  topography.  The  canyons  of  the  Yellowstone,  Big  Horn  and 
North  Platte  rivers  are  wonderful  gorges  cut  through  the  mountains  and  are 
deep,  dark,  silent  and  mysterious.  In  majesty  and  sublimity  they  are  only  ex- 
celled by  the  Grand  Canyon  of  Arizona,  while  in  variety  they  are  in  many 
respects  superior.  The  Grand  Canyon  and  Falls  of  the  Yellowstone  afford 
a  marvelous  view  of  scenic  grandeur  and  impressive  beauty. 

The  mountain  lakes  of  Wyoming  are  numerous  and  are  found  in  the  highest 
ranges,  the  largest  being  Yellowstone  JLake  in  the  National  Park.  Jackson  Lake 
is  next  in  importance,  located  at  the  base  of  the  Grand  Tetons.  There  are  many 
lakes  in  the  Wind  River  range  and  in  the  Sierra  Madre,  in  Southern  Wyoming, 




found  at  various  altitudes  from  9,000  to  11,000  feet  above  sea  level.  These  lakes 
are  beautiful  in  scenic  surroundings,  their  waters  being  clear  and  cold  and 
abounding  with  fish  mostly  of  the  trout  species.  Jacksons  Lake  is  the  most 
beautiful  and  interesting  of  all  lakes  in  its  magnificent  surroundings  of  moun- 
tains and  forests  which  aft'ord  the  finest  hunting  ground  for  large  game  animals, 
to  be  found  in  the  United  States.  It  is  also  noted  for  its  fine  fishing,  making  it 
a  famous  resort  for  sportsmen  from  all  parts  of  the  world. 


The  forest  area  of  Wyoming  covers  over  10,000,000  acres.  Of  this  area 
8,385,288  acres  have  been  designated  by  the  United  States  Government  as  forest 
reserves.  The  Yellowstone  Park  contains  1,954,560  acres  which  is  largely  timber 
land.  These  magnificent  forests  are  constantly  increasing  by  natural  growth, 
the  cut  off,  mostly  for  railroad  ties,  not  being  equal  to  the  increase  by  growth. 
The  forest  reserves  being  under  Government  control  and  supervision,  are  ad- 
mirably cared  for  and  conserved  by  forest  supervisors  and  rangers  who  make 
their  home  in  the  reserves.  Good  roads  and  telephone  lines  are  built,  new 
forests  are  seeded,  forest  fires  are  fought  and  predatory  animals,  such  as  timber 
wolves,  mountain  lions,  bears,  etc.,  are  trapped  and  killed  oflf.  Under  a  gov- 
ernment leasing  system  the  timber  reserves  are  utilized  largely  for  grazing  of 
live  stock,  including  sheep,  cattle  and  horses.  Under  this  system  grazing  per- 
mits are  issued  for  thousands  of  these  animals  to  the  great  benefit  of  the  state 
and  nation. 

The  largest  national  forest  reserve  is  the  Teton,  on  the  western  borders  of 
the  state  and  lying  south  of  Yellowstone  Park.  The  Shoshone,  the  Washakie 
and  the  Wyoming  forest  reserves  are  the  next  in  importance,  these  all  being  in 
the  western  part  of  the  state.  The  Big  Horn  National  Forest  practically  covers 
the  Rig  Horn  Mountains  in  the  northern  and  central  part  of  the  state.  The 
Black  Hills  reserve  is  located  in  the  northeastern  part  of  Wyoming  and  the 
Hayden  and  Medicine  Bow  forests  are  on  its  southern  border. 


In  referring  to  the  mountains  and  forests  of  Wyoming  we  must  naturally 
revert  to  the  wild  life  of  these  regions,  the  animals,  birds  and  fish  that  here 
find  congenial  homes.  Nate  P.  Wilson,  state  game  warden  says  in  his  latest 
report:  "No  state  in  the  Union  has  the  natural  resources  that  appeal  to  the 
sportsman  and  lovers  of  nature  as  those  of  Wyoming,  and  the  greatest  of  all 
is  our  wild  life.  From  the  lowlands  to  the  highest  peaks  can  be  found  game  and 
fish  in  abundance.  Each  year  sportsmen  from  all  civilized  countries  journey  to 
Wyoming  to  spend  their  vacations  where  they  can  be  sure  of  getting  their  limit 
of  game  and  enjoy  the  best  of  fishing.  It  is  indeed  a  rare  case  when  one  is 

"Within  the  borders  of  our  state  are  to  be  found  vast  herds  of  that  wonder- 
ful game  animal — the  North  American  Elk;  high  up  above  timberline  on  any 
of  our  mountain  ranges  the  energetic  hunter  can  find  the  most  prized  of  all 
game — the  big  horn  or  Rocky  Mountain  sheep.     Grizzly,  black  and  brown  bear 




are  plentiful  in  many  districts.  Deer  are  to  be  had  in  every  county.  Antelope 
are  still  to  be  seen  roaming  on  our  plains  districts.  Moose  are  increasing  wonder- 
fully— many  have  been  killed  this  year.  Game  birds  and  fish  are  everywhere. 
Our  streams  are  well  stocked  with  trout  of  all  kinds,  especially  Cut  Throat 
(Mountain  Trout),  Rainbow.  Brook,  Loch  Leven  and  iMackinaw.  Last  season  a 
Mackinaw  weighing  275/'  pounds  was  caught  in  Jacksons  Lake." 

This  state  leads  all  the  other  states  in  its  provisions  for  protecting  and 
increasing  its  wild  game  by  its  legislation  and  by  the  establishment  of  game 
preserves,  where  game  animals  can  live  in  security  and  raise  their  young.  Con- 
sequently our  game  resources  are  increasing  every  year.  The  game  preserves 
established  by  the  state  are  the  Big  Horn,  960,000  acres;  Teton,  507.000  acres; 
Shoshone,  200,000  acres;  Hoodoo  Basin,  200,000  acres;  Popo  Agie,  165,000 
acres ;  Boulder  Basin,  50,000  acres. 

Among  the  large  game  animals  we  have  the  elk,  moose,  mountain  sheep,  deer 
and  antelope.  The  bear  is  also  regarded  as  a  game  animal  and  is  found  in  great 
numbers.  Nowhere  on  the  continent  are  there  such  immense  herds  of  elk  as  in 
the  Jackson  Hole  region.  In  this  section  and  the  Yellowstone  Park  it  is  esti- 
mated there  are  fifty  thousand  elk,  and  for  the  last  ten  years  many  states  have 
been  re-stocked  from  these  herds  in  addition  to  supplying  the  demands,  of 
museums  and  zoological  parks  in  this  country  and  abroad.  The  deer,  moose  and 
antelope  herds  are  increasing.  The  beaver  is  found  in  every  section  of  Wyo- 
ming. The  principal  game  birds  are  the  pine  grouse,  the  sage  hen.  all  kinds  of 
ducks  and  geese  and  all  of  these  exist  in  great  abundance. 

A  fisherman's  paradise 

Wyoming  is  a  paradise  for  fishermen.  Out  of  the  twenty-one  counties  that 
compose  the  state  there  is  not  one  without  its  mountain  streams  abounding  in 
trout,  while  in  the  larger  streams  and  rivers  the  pike,  catfish,  sturgeon,  black 
bass  and  other  varieties  are  caught.  The  purity  and  coldness  of  the  waters  hav- 
ing their  source  in  the  mountain  springs  make  the  flesh  of  the  fish  of  fine  quality 
and  gives  the  strength  and  gameness  to  the  fish  that  make  the  sport  attractive  and 
exhilarating.  The  state  has  three  fish  hatcheries,  located  respectively  in  the 
counties  of  Albany,  Bighorn  and  Sheridan,  and  these  hatcheries  are  supple- 
mented by  the  United  States  hatchery  at  Saratoga.  Thus  all  the  streams  and 
lakes  in  every  section  are  stocked  with  young  fish  whenever  the  demand  exists. 

The  economic  value  of  the  game  and  fish  in  adding  to  the  food  supply  of  the 
people  is  much  greater  than  is  generally  estimated,  in  addition  to  the  healthful 
recreation  and  sporting  pleasure  given  the  hunter  and  fisherman  in  vacation  and 
camping-out  life. 


The  Yellowstone  National  Park  with  its  marvelous  physical  phenomena,  hot 
springs,  spouting  geysers,  mud  ^•olcanos,  petrified  forests,  mountains  of  glass, 
canyons,  lakes,  forests  and  waterfalls,  is  described  in  another  chapter  as  the 
world's  wonderland. 

In  other  sections  are  peculiar  and  eccentric  manifestations  of  nature  such  as 


the  soda  lakes  with  millions  of  tons  of  almost  pure  sulphate  of  soda,  which 
glisten  like  snow  and  ice;  or  the  weird  stone  formations  in  the  bad  lands  which 
assume  shapes  of  castles,  towers,  monuments,  and  ruined  cities,  and  sometimes 
the  grotesque  forms  of  animals.  In  Converse  County  on  the  La  Prelle"  and  in 
Sweetwater  County  on  Clear  Fork,  there  are  natural  bridges  of  stone  made  by 
centuries  of  natural  chiseling.  In  Crook  County  is  one  of  Nature's  most  curious 
formations  called  the  "'Devil's  Tower,"  a  large  mass  of  basaltic  rock  rising 
abruptly  from  the  plain  in  bold  and  column-hke  outlines,  1300  feet  high.  This 
is  now  placed  as  a  monument  in  a  United  States  reserve. 

The  "Club  Sandwich"  is  another  eccentric  rock  formation  in  Johnson  County. 
The  "Devil's  Garden,"  near  Meeteetse  is  still  another  example  of  Nature's  unique 
carving  in  the  eternal  rocks. 

The  climate  of  Wyoming  is  remarkably  healthful  and  invigorating.  Con- 
trary to  the  prevailing  idea  regarding  much  of  the  Rocky  Mountain  region,  the 
winters  are  not  severe  and  cold  waves  are  of  short  duration.  The  dryness  of 
the  atmosphere  and  the  universality  of  sunshine  ameliorates  the  severity  of  the 
cold  waves  of  winter.  In  the  lower  altitudes  which  constitute  the  settled  por- 
tion of  the  state  the  snow  fall  is  generally  light  even  when  heavy  snows  cover 
the   high   ranges  to  great  depths. 

While  the  winters  are  mild,  the  summers  are  delightfully  cool  and  hot  nights 
are  practically  unknown  anywhere  in  the  state,  even  in  mid-summer. 

The  climatology  of  the  state  for  Weather  Bureau  observations  is  divided 
into  three  sections,  designated  as  southeastern,  northeastern  and  western.  Of 
the  southeastern  section  the  United  States  Bureau  reports  the  annual  mean  tem- 
perature over  the  greater  portion  to  be  from  40°  to  45°.  Temperatures  in  excess 
of  100°  are  seldom  registered.  At  Cheyenne  the  maximum  temperature  of  100° 
was  reached  only  once  in  thirty-nine  years.  For  many  seasons  it  has  not  been 
above  95°.  At  Laramie  the  maximum  on  record  for  a  period  of  nineteen  years 
is  only  92°.    The  air  of  the  section  is  pure  and  dry. 

An  important  climatic  factor  is  the  high  percentage  of  sunshine,  it  averag- 
ing nearly  70  per  cent  in  the  plains  region.  This  plays  an  economic  part  in 
the  flavor  and  maturing  of  agricultural  products. 

In  the  northeastern  section  the  climate  does  not  differ  materially  from  the 
southeastern,  except  that  owing  to  the  higher  mountain  ranges  there  are  greater 
extremes  of  temperature — the  mean  temperature  being  between  42°  and  45°. 
Sunshine  records  kept  at  Lander  and  Sheridan  show  the  average  of  70  per 
cent  of  the  possible  amount  for  the  year. 

The  western  section  which  is  largely  covered  by  rugged  mountains  and  in- 
cluding the  Red  Desert  has  a  mean  temperature  of  about  40°  ranging  from  about 
20°  in  January  to  70°  in  July  and  August.  The  ^'alley  records  made  at  eleva- 
tions from  six  thousand  to  seven  thousand  feet  show  a  mean,  annual  tempera- 
ture of  from  :^J°  to  40°  except  in  the  Green  River  Valley  where  it  is  from 
32°  to  34°  degrees.     No  good  mountain  records  are  available. 

In  general,  Wyoming  is  a  part  of  the  great  Rocky  ^Mountain  region,  central 
in  location  and  not  subject  either  to  extreme  heat  or  cold.     With  its  abundant 


sunshine,  ozone,  and  pure  mountain  air,  no  more  healthful  climate  can  be  found 
on  the  continent. 


In  the  so-called  arid  states  with  which  Wyoming  may  be  classed,  precipita- 
tion is  a  subject  of  the  utmost  importance.  The  farming  and  live  stock  interests 
are  largely  dependent  on  the  snow. and  rainfall.  Both  irrigation  and  dry  farming 
exist  by  utilizing  the  fall  of  moisture,  the  first  in  the  mountains  and  the  second 
on  the  plains.  The  recent  report  of  the  United  States  Weather  Bureau  at 
Cheyenne  gives  interesting  data  showing  the  precipitation  in  every  part  of  the 
state.  An  area  comprising  over  one-half  of  the  state,  largely  its  central  and 
eastern  part,  has  a  rainfall  of  from  ten  to  fifteen  inches.  About  one-fourth  of 
the  state  lying  southeast  and  northeast,  and  sections  in  the  northwest  have  a 
precipitation  of  from  fifteen  to  twenty  inches.  A  small  area  in  the  Jackson  Hole 
region  shows  precipitation  from  twenty-five  to  thirty  inches.  In  the  Big  Horn 
Basin  and  Red  desert,  comprising  about  one-eighth  of  the  state,  the  precipitation 
is  less  than  ten  inches. 

Recent  practical  experience  has  demonstrated  the  fact  that  dry  farming  can 
be  carried  on  successfully  where  the  precipitation  is  ten  inches  and  upwards. 
The  state  has  nearly  30,000,000  acres  of  unappropriated  public  lands  and  it  is 
considered  a  fair  estimate  that  20,000,000  acres  can  be  classed  as  farming  land, 
^nd  the  remainder  as  grazing  land.  Wyoming  will  soon  be  numbered  among  the 
farming  states. 

Primitive  Wyoming  was  classed  as  a  part  of  the  "Great  American  Desert" 
and  its  native  plant  productions  were  sage  brush,  cactus  and  grama,  or  buffalo 
grass.  A  wonderful  transformation  has  taken  place  as  will  be  shown  in  the 
chapter  on  Agriculture,  exhibiting  the  rapid  increase  of  farming  settlements  and 
agricultural  crops. 


The  present  status  of  all  the  lands  of  Wyoming  is  given  in  a  recent  classifica- 
tion by  State  Engineer  James  B.  True,  as  follows : 

Patented  Lands 10,890,521  acres 

Forest  Reserves   8,385,288  acres 

Yellowstone  Park i,954.56o  aci;es 

Under  Reclamation  Filings   12,016,499  acres 

Unappropriated  Public  Lands 29,418,092  acres 

Total 62,664,960  acres 

The  patented  lands  are  mostly  occupied  as  farms  and  stock  ranches,  a 
small  proportion  only  being  patented  under  the  mining  and  placer  acts.  The 
acreage  designated  as  under  reclamation  filings,  includes  incompleted  irriga- 
tion projects,  the  actual  amount  of  lands  now  under  irrigation  being  estimated 
at  2,500:000  acres.  Of  the  unappropriated  public  lands,  after  taking  out  the 
mountainous  and  desert  areas,  Wyoming  has  at  least  20,000,000  acres  suitable 
for  farms  or  grazing  homesteads. 




In  describing  the  surface  area  of  \\'yoming  and  its  agricultural  and  live  stock 
products  we  are  apt  to  forget  the  enormous  underground  mineral  resources  of 
the  state  in  coal,  iron,  oil,  phosphate,  etc. 


No  State  in  the  Union  can  compare  with  Wyoming  in  its  marvelous  unde- 
veloped resources  of  oil,  coal  and  iron,  the  great  factors  of  modern  industry  and 
commerce.  Geologists  estimate  25.000,000  acres  underlaid  with  coal;  15,000,000 
acres  underlaid  with  oil;  1,500,000  acres  of  phosphate  lands,  and  mountains  of 
iron  containing  1,250,000,000  tons  of  ore.  In  fact,  it  is  safe  to  say  no  ecjual  area 
in  the  world  so  far  discovered,  contains  such  enormous  deposits  of  the  minerals 
valuable  to  the  world. 

The  following  summary  of  Wyoming's  resources,  including  the  lands,  made 
from  United  States  Geological  Surveys,  State  Geological  and  land  reports  and 
special  examinations  of  experts  will  give  some  idea  of  the  state's  undeveloped 

29,000,000  acres  public  lands,  $5  per  acre $      145,000,000 

Water  resources  for  15.000,000  acres,  $20  per  acre.  .  .  .  300,000,000 

10,000,000  acres  forest  lands,  $300  per  acre 3,000,000,000 

Electro-water  power  for  12,000,000  H.  P.,  $25  per  acre  300,000,000 

15,000,000  acres  oil  deposits,  $500  per  acre 7,500,000.000 

424,000,000,000  tons  of  coal  at  I2^c  per,  in  the  ground  53,000,000,000 

1,500,000,000  tons  iron  ore,  $1,  in  the  ground 1,500,000,000 

10,000,000  tons  natural  soda,  $10  per  ton 100,000,000 

1,500,000  acres  phosphate  lands,  $500  per  acre 750,000,000 

Metallic  ores,  gold,  silver  and  copper,  estimated 1,250,000,000 

Asbestos,  Graphite,  Sulphur,  mica,  etc.,  estimated.  .  .  .  500,000,000 

Building  stone,  cement,  gypsum,  etc.,  estimated 100,000,000 

Other  natural  resources,  estimated 1,000,000,000 


The  above  tabulation  has  been  made  as  far  as  possible  from  official  reports. 
The  largest  single  item,  that  showing  the  state's  coal  deposits  are  the  figures  of 
the  United  States  Geological  Survey.  When  estimates  have  been  made  they 
are  based  upon  the  best  data  obtainable  and  may  be  regarded  as  conservative. 

The  metallic  resources  of  the  state  such  as  gold,  silver,  copper  and  lead  have 
never  been  developed  to  any  large  extent.  There  is  no  question  however  as  to 
the  existence  in  large  quantities  of  these  metals  in  all  the  mountains  of  the  state. 
Geologically  Wyoming  is  directly  on  the  mineral  belt  between  Colorado  and  Mon- 
tana and  its  western  border  adjoins  the  mineral  zone  of  Idaho.  State  lines  do 
not  cut  off  mineral  production,  and  the  only  reason  our  great  mineral  veins  and 
deposits  have  not  been  worked  is  the  fact  that  Wyoming  is  sparsely  settled  and 
the  new  settlers  could  see  quicker  fortunes  in  cattle  and  sheep  on  a  free  range, 
and  in  mining  coal  and  petroleum  which  was  found  everj'where. 

In  early  days  California  miners  took  out  millions  in  the  gold  placers  of  the 
state.     Very  rich  copper  mines  have  been  discovered  and  worked  in  the  Grand 


Encampment  and  Hartville  districts.  It  is  estimated  that  the  Colorado  Fuel  & 
Iron  Co.  produced  $750,000  worth  of  copper  from  one  mine  at  Sunrise  last  year, 
and  this  was  done  as  an  incident  to  their  mining  of  iron  from  the  same  mine. 
In  this  history  we  shall  give  the  facts  to  show  that  the  mountains  are  veritable 
treasure  vauhs  of  metallic  wealth. 

It  should  be  noted  also,  that  this  summary  refers  only  to  undeveIopt?d  re- 
sources, and  that  the  ranches,  cattle,  sheep,  and  industries  of  the  state,  manufac- 
tures, buildings,  personal  and  real  property  are  not  included. 

Although  these  stupendous  resources  have  hardly  been  touched,  the  state  is 
showing  a  remarkable  increase  in  its  agricultural,  live  stock  and  industrial  produc- 
tions as  is  shown  in  the  following  table  of  the 


Oil   $  48,750,000 

Coal    22.108,350 

Iron     2,516,250 

Other  minerals    4,040,000 

Agriculture     54,230,820 

Live  stock 31,897,200 

Wool  and  hides 13,583,000 

Dairy  and  poultry 2.125,000 

Manufactures    15,125,000 

Miscellaneous    7,500,000 

Total   $201,875,630 

This  shows  that  the  annual  production  of  the  state  is  equal  to  over  $1,000 
for  each  person — man,  woman  and  child  in  Wyoming. 

Or,  if  we  take  the  assessed  valuation  of  the  state  for  the  year  191 7,  which  is 
$247,976,465,  we  find  that  the  per  capita  wealth  would  be  $1,239.  As  the 
assessment  is  probably  at  least  twenty  per  cent  below  actual  value,  that  would 
show  the  average  wealth  of  every  individual  in  the  state  to  be  nearly  $1,500. 

Another  fact  disclosed  by  these  statistics  is  the  great  increase  in  production 
during  the  year  1917.  For  instance,  comparing  different  items  with  1916,  agricul- 
ture has  increased  seventy-three  per  cent,  live  stock  over  seventy  per  cent,  and 
minerals  sixty-eight  per  cent. 


Wyoming  is  now  in  an  era  of  wonderful  development.  This  is  shown  by 
some  of  the  facts  and  figures  heretofore  given.  For  forty  years  after  the  terri- 
tory was  organized  it  was  solely  a  range  state.  Some  coal  was  mined  along  the 
Union  Pacific,  but  nine-tenths  of  its  area  was  first  occupied  by  herds  of  cattle 
and  bronco  ponies  and  later,  by  an  influx  of  sheep.  Everj'where  it  was  re- 
garded as  an  unfenced  wilderness  and  the  national  home  of  the  cowboy  and 
sheep  herder.    It  was  a  frontier  land. 

Now  all  is  changed.  A  remarkable  transformation  has  taken  place.  There 
is  no  longer  any  frontier,  and  in  order  to  recall  the  memories  of  the  days  of 


the  Indians  and  cowboys  and  the  phases  of  pioneer  life  of  territorial  days,  an 
annual  Frontier  Day  celebration  is  held  at  Cheyenne  every  summer.  The  pic- 
turesque scenes,  customs  and  exploits  of  the  old  Wyoming  are  reproduced  in 
thrilling  performances  that  attract  crowds  from  all  parts  of  the  country  and 
even  from  foreign  lands. 

While  the  live  stock  industry  has  increased  under  new  and  improved  condi- 
tions in  care,  treatment  and  breeding,  the  state  has  realized  a  great  transformation 
in  the  development,  or  rather,  the  beginning  of  development  of  its  gigantic  mineral 
deposits  and  added  to  that,  the  utilization  of  its  great  agricultural  possibilities 
of  "dry  farming"  and  by  large  irrigation  enterprises  perfected  under  the  Carey 
Act  and  the  United  States  reclamation  service.  Wyoming  is  also  the  greatest 
state  in  the  Union  in  its  production  of  sheep  and  wool. 

Within  the  last  ten  years  thousands  of  settlers  have  come  to  the  state  and 
taken  up  dry  farming  and  grazing  homesteads  and  have  been  universally  suc- 
cessful and  prosperous.  New  towns  have  sprung  up  all  over  the  state  and  with 
them  have  come  banks,  elevators,  flouring  mills,  schools  and  all  the  conditions 
of  high  class  communities.' 

Large  government  irrigation  projects  upon  which  many  millions  have  been 
spent  have  been  completed  and  others  are  under  construction.  The  completed 
projects  are  the  Pathfinder,  the  North  Platte  and  the  Shoshone.  Begun  and 
partially  constructed  are  the  Wyoming  Central,  the  Oregon  Basin  and  the  Wind 
River  projects.  Hundreds  of  other  large  and  small  irrigation  enterprises  are 
completed  or  in  progress  of  construction  in  various  parts  of  the  state,  some 
under  the  Carey  Act  and  State  supervision  and  others  individual  enterprises. 
Lands  under  irrigation  to  the  extent  of  hundreds  of  thousands  of  acres  are 
being  rapidly  settled  up  and  will  prove  a  great  source  of  wealth  to  the  settlers  and 
the  resources  of  the  state. 

Our  greatest  industrial  development  for  the  past  ten  years  has  been  in  the 
oil  fields  and  the  building  of  refineries  resuUing  from  increased  production.  The 
industry  has  increased  by  leaps  and  bounds  as  will  be  shown  in  another  chapter 
of  this  work.  It  is  enough  to  say  here  that  the  value  of  the  oil  production  in 
1917  placed  at  $50,000,000  will  be  enormously  increased  with  future  develop- 
ment. The  number  of  producing  wells  completed  is  given  at  four  hundred  and 
seventy-five  and  the  number  of  wells  now  drilling  is  estimated  at  five  hundred 
and  fifty.  The  number  of  proven  fields  in  the  state  is  twenty-three.  This  will 
give  some  idea  of  what  is  only  a  beginning,  as  it  is  now  believed  by  many  geolo- 
gists that  Wyoming  has  the  largest  producing  oil  territory  of  any  similar  area 
in  the  world. 


In  concluding  this  general  review  of  the  state,  a  feature  important  to  its 
future  welfare  and  the  character  of  its  citizenship,  is  its  educational  advantages. 
In  this  respect  Wyoming  takes  high  rank  and  with  its  splendid  financial  endow- 
ment promises  to  surpass  most  of  the  states  of  our  land. 

The  public  schools  have  a  permanent  endowment  of  three  million  acres  of 
land  which  cannot  be  sold  in  tracts,  for  less  than  ten  dollars  per  acre,  or  a  total 
value  of  thirty  million  dollars.     Some  of  this  land  may  not  be  worth  ten  dollars 

'THE   CLUB    SANDWICH"   ON    ROLK    (  REFK      lOHNSOX    COUNTY,    "  H.   F.   BAR 
RANCH ' ' 


per  acre,  but  on  the  other  hand  some  sections  having  proved  to  be  oil  lands,  is 
worth  from  five  hundred  to  one  thousand  dollars  per  acre.  This  is  leased  by 
the  state  and  a  royalty  on  the  production  goes  into  the  school  fund  and  together 
with  the  receipts  from  sales  of  land  and  grazing  leases,  is  made  a  permanent 
fund  for  all  future  time  to  be  used  exclusively  for  the  maintenance  of  the  public 
schools.  At  the  present  time  the  amount  derived  from  these  lands  is  about  fifty 
thousand  dollars  per  month  or  six  hundred  thousand  dollars  per  annum.  This 
income  will  soon  reach  one  million  dollars  a  year  and  may  go  far  beyond  that, 
and  Wyoming  will  have  the  richest  endowment  of  its  schools,  per  capita  of  any 
state  in  the  Union,  and  no  citizen  of  the  state  will  be  compelled  to  pay  a  school 
tax.  A  public  school  system  can  be  established  that  will  include  normal  train- 
ing, manual  training,  mechanical  and  art  schools  and  night  schools,  so  that  every 
child  in  the  state  may  obtain  without  cost  a  liberal  education.  Already  the  public 
spirit,  liberality  and  intelligence  of  Wyoming's  electorate  has  established  an 
educational  system  based  upon  the  most  advanced  ideas.  Education  is  made 
compulsory,  free  text  books  are  furnished,  hygenic  rules  requiring  physical  ex- 
amination are  required,  human  treatment  of  animals  must  be  taught,  etc.  Wyo- 
ming was  the  first  state  to  adopt  and  introduce  the  Steever  system  of  military 
training,  and  the  legislature  voted  the  necessary  appropriations  to  equip  the 

The  constitution  of  Wyoming  has  an  intelligence  qualification  requiring  that 
every  voter  shall  be  able  to  read  the  Constitution  in  the  English  language.  The 
very  first  legislature  of  the  state  passed  an  act  giving  woman  teachers  the  same 
pay  as  men  for  the  same  kind  of  service. 

So  it  is,  Wyoming,  unsurpassed  in  the  splendid  opportunities  it  ofifers  the 
industrial  worker,  the  farmer  and  the  capitalist,  presents  still  greater  attrac- 
tions to  the  boys  and  girls,  the  ambitious  youth  of  the  nation,  who  prize  an  edu- 
cation above  material  wealth,  and  are  proud  to  become  citizens  of  this  great 








The  story  of  Wyoming's  earliest  inhabitants  is  enveloped  in  a  haze  of  mys- 
tery and  obscurity,  but  recent  explorations  have  developed  the  fact  that  this 
state  has  the  most  ancient  remains  of  vanished  races  to  be  found  on  this  con- 
tinent. In  the  pre-historic  mines  of  this  state  there  is  embedded  the  hidden 
chronicles  of  extinct  races — the  story  of  the  stone  age  and  the  cave  man,  of  the 
buried,  untold  history  of  the  primitive,  rude  and  savage  life  of  the  childhood  of 
the  world. 

Dr.  Harlem  I.  Smith,  a  noted  archaeologist,  after  his  explorations  in  this 
state,  described  the  plains  and  foot  hills  of  Wyoming  as  "Darkest  Archaeological 
America."  Mr.  C.  H.  Robinson,  one  of  the  most  recent  explorers  of  the  Aborig- 
inal Quarries  north  of  Hartville,  says  the  region  he  investigated  is,  "An  Archae- 
ological Wonderland.'' 

The  oldest  students  of  Ethnology  have  been  so  mystified  and  puzzled  by  the 
unique,  remarkable  and  extensive  stone  quarries  and  village  sites  found  in  this 
state  that  they  hesitate  to  give  any  opinions  as  to  the  period  of  their  settlement 
and  active  operation.  Dr.  George  A.  Dorsey  says,  "There  are  here  many  prob- 
lems unsolved  but  well  worthy  of  solution."  All  evidences  point  to  their  existence 
before  the  period  of  the  mound  builders  or  the  cliff  dwellers. 

In  addition  to  the  remains  of  the  stone  workers  there  have  been  recently 
discovered  in  Wyoming  the  medicine  wheels  and  cave  dwellings,  the  latter  being 
found  in  the  vicinity  of  the  quarries.  The  medicine  wheels  are  found  on  the  tops 
of  mountains  of  the  Big  Horn  range. 


The  editor  of  this  volume  was  the  first  to  give  to  the  world  an  account  of 

the  ancient  aboriginal  quarries  discovered  about  thirty  miles  north  of  Hartville, 

where  he  was  then  engaged  in  mining  operations.    This  was  in  1892,  and  after  a 

visit  to  the  locality  he  wrote  to  the  San  Francisco  Examiner  and  St.  Louis  Repub- 



lie  a  description  of  his  trip  and  what  he  saw.  Up  to  this  time  the  working  had 
been  known  to  cowboys  as  "The  Spanish  Diggins." 

In  1899  he  made  a  second  visit  to  the  qtiarries  accompanied  by  his  son, 
Sydney  E.  Bartlett  and  Judge  Sydney  E.  Eastman  of  Chicago.  Judge  Eastman 
took  the  specimens  of  stone  work  he  collected  to  Chicago  and  submitted  them 
to  Dr.  George  A.  Dorsey,  Curator  of  the  Department  of  Anthropology  of  the 
Field  Columbian  Museum.  Dr.  George  A.  Dorsey  was  so  much  interested  in  the 
find,  he  wrote  requesting  me  to  arrange  an  expedition  for  him  to  the  locality  and 
I  arranged  with  Mr.  William  Lauk  and  W.  L.  Stein  of  Whalen  Canyon  (near 
Guernsey),  two  experienced  miners  and  prospectors  who  knew  the  country 
thoroughly,  to  supply  the  teams  and  equipment  and  accompany  the  party  as 

This  was  the  first  scientific  expedition  to  the  quarries  and  shop  sites.  Doctor 
Dorsey's  report  of  this  investigation  appears  in  the  Anthropological  series  of  the 
Columbian  Museum  of  December,  1900,  with  photographic  illustrations  showing 
the  pits,  quartzite  workings,  excavations  and  about  fifty  examples  of  stone  im- 

Since  that  time  many  explorations  have  been  made  by  archaeologists  repre- 
senting various  museums,  colleges  and  scientific  societies  of  this  country  and 


Among  other  expeditions  to  these  fields  may  be  mentioned  the  following: 
Dr.  Harlem  I.  .Smith  of  the  Canadian  Geological  Survey — two  trips — one  in 
1910  and  one  in  1914.     These  resulted  in  his  issuing  a  publication  entitled,  "An 
Unknown  Field  in  American  Archaeology"  and  another  work  on  "Cave  Explora- 
tions in  Eastern  Wyoming." 

Amherst  College  sent  two  expeditions  under  Professor  Loomis  in   igo"  and 

1908.  These  were  research  expeditions  of  students  on  vacation. 

Dr.  Erwin  H.  Barbour,  at  the  head  of  the  Department  of  Geology  of  the  Uni- 
versity of  Nebraska,  visited  the  locality  in  1905. 

Dr.  M.  H.  Everett  of  Lincoln,  Nebraska,  accompanied  Dr.  Barbour  on  this 
trip  and  became  so  interested  he  made  two  more  trips. 

Professor  Richard  Lull  of  the  Yale  College  Department  of  Geology  made 
an  investigation  of  the  field  in  1903. 

R.  F.  Gilder,  of  the  Omaha  World- Herald,  has  been  a  most  enthusiastic  inves- 
tigator of  Wyoining's  ancient  remains,  and  has  made  many  visits  to  the  aboriginal 
quarries  since  1905,  and  has  written  interesting  reports  of  same  in  the  "Records 
of  the  Past"  magazine  appearing  in  the  issues  of  August,   1908,  and  February. 

1909.  Probably  Mr.  Gilder  has  spent  more  time  in  exploring  these  workings 
than  any  other  person. 

C.  H.  Robinson,  of  Bloomington,  111.,  an  earnest  student  of  Ethnology,  repre- 
senting the  Illinois  State  Museum  and  the  McLean  County  Historical  Society, 
visited  the  field  in  August,  191 5,  and  has  written  a  valuable  bulletin  descriptive  of 
his  experiences  and  discoveries. 

In  191 5  the  Smithsonian  Institution  sent  a  party  of  scientists  to  investigate 
the  field  with  a  view  of  establishing  a  National  Park.    This  expedition  was  under- 

Dr.  George  A.   Dorse}-,  curator  Fielil 

Museum,  Chicago. 


taken  upon  representations  made  by  the  writer  and  United  States  Senator  Ken- 
drick,  who  was  then  governor  of  Wyoming.  Its  report  was  favorable  and  will 
be  more  fully  explained  in  this  chapter.  In  addition  to  these  expeditions  in  the  in- 
terests of  science,  hundreds  of  tourists,  curiosity  seekers  and  hunters  have  made 
trips  to  the  region  and  have  carried  away  thousands  of  stone  implements  of 
varied  character,  comprising  war,  hunting,  domestic  and  agricultural  tools. 


The  names  "Mexican  Mines"  and  "Spanish  Diggins,"  were  first  applied  to 
these  workings  by  the  cowboys  who  rode  the  range.  The  ancient  village  sites, 
shop  sites  and  quarries  are  located  over  an  area  of  ten  by  forty  miles,  extending 
from  a  point  south  of  Manville  to  Bulls  Bend  on  the  north  Platte  River.  Not 
all  of  this  ground  is  taken  up  with  workings,  of  course,  but  in  all  this  region 
of  four  hundred  square  miles,  the  visitor  is  seldom  out  of  sight  of  some  village 
site  or  quarry.  C.  H.  Robinson,  who  spent  several  weeks  in  the  region  says  he 
traveled  over  six  hundred  miles  on  foot  and  horseback,  and  collected  for  Illinois 
State  Museum  four  hundred  and  fifty-five  specimens  of  rock  work  and  for  the 
McLean  County  Historical  Society  two  hundred  and  eighty-eight  specimens. 
This  will  give  one  some  idea  of  the  extent  of  these  remains. 

Mr.  Gilder  says,  "In  no  section  of  the  entire  world  can  be  found  ancient 
quarries  of  such  magnitude."  There  must  have  been  a  dense  population  and 
thousands  of  workers  in  active  employment  in  these  fields  for  at  least  half 
a  century. 


A  description  of  the  quarries  first  discovered  (there  were  many  others  found 
later)  was  given  by  Mr.  Bartlett  in  his  correspondence  in  1892,  as  follows: 

"The  region  is  intensely  weird  and  picturesque.  The  surrounding  country  is 
broken  into  a  series  of  rugged  hills,  interspersed  with  rocky  and  sandy  gulches, 
with  stretches  of  mesas  and  desert  plains  to  the  south.  Much  of  the  area  resem- 
bles the  bad  lands  in  its  loneliness  and  its  grotesque  rock  formations.  From 
the  top  of  the  mesa  where  the  principal  workings  are  found,  the  scene  though 
wild  and  desolate  was  magnificent.  The  Laramie  range  loomed  up  in  the  west 
against  a  clear  sky,  the  table  lands  and  foot  hills  between  showing  picturesque, 
rocky  formations  rising  abruptly,  clean  cut  and  distinct,  like  castle  towers  and 
fortifications,  but  everywhere  around  us  was  an  oppressive  silence  and  desolation, 
as  if  we  had  invaded  the  burial  ground  of  a  long  departed  race." 

The  locality  of  the  first  discoveries  is  along  the  Dry  Muddy.  The  country 
is  so  dry  that  live  stock  cannot  range  there.  From  the  dry  creek  there  arises  a 
series  of  clififs  of  sandstone  and  quartzite,  and  along  the  top  of  these  clififs  in 
their  broken  and  irregular  formations  stretching  away  for  some  miles  are  found 
the  quarry  workings,  consisting  of  pits,  tunnels,  open  cuts  and  immense  bodies 
of  rock  dumps  created  by  the  mining  operations.  Beyond  the  workings  and 
broken  ledges  at  the  top  of  the  clifT  a  flat  mesa-like  formation  extends  south- 
wardly an^  here  the  village  and  shop  sites  are  located. 


'■Si'AMSIi  DIGGINS,"  1915 
Vase  14  inehes  high,  10  inches  in  diameter,  7  inches  at  top. 



The  mining  operations  carried  on  in  great  magnitude  among  these  rocks 
seem  to  have  been  on  a  pecuHar  stratum  of  quartzite  lying  in  sandstone.  This 
quartzite  was  selected  undoubtedly  on  account  of  its  conchoidal  fracture  which 
gave  sharp  edges,  and  the  ease  with  which  it  could  be  shaped  and  worked.  In 
order  to  reach  the  vein  of  quartzite  the  overlying  strata  of  other  kinds  of  rock 
had  to  be  mined  and  removed.  It  is  a  curious  fact  that  all  this  rock  mining 
was  done  with  rock  tools,  such  as  wedges  and  heavy  hammers.  In  some  instances 
the  wedges  were  found  set  in  the  rock  seams  ready  to  be  driven,  and  this  seems 
to  bear  out  Doctor  Dorsey's  theory  that  the  region  was  suddenly  abandoned 
either  from  attacks  from  enemy  tribes  or  from  some  cataclysm  of  nature. 

Nowhere  is  there  any  evidence  that  metal  tools  were  used  in  either  mining 
or  for  domestic  purposes.  As  to  their  manner  of  working,  Doctor  Dorsey  says, 
"At  one  place  on  the  bank  near  the  ravine  I  found  a  great  slab  which  evidently 
served  as  a  seat  for  some  workingman.  Seating  myself  upon  it,  I  could  readily 
make  out  the  grooves  in  front  of  the  seat  where  had  rested  the  legs  and  feet,  while 
on  the  right  were  two  hammer-stones  of  different  sizes,  and  all  about  were  chips, 
refuse,  and  many  rejected  and  partially  roughed-out  implements." 

Evidently  their  mining  work  was  a  slow,  tedious  and  laborious  process  and 
very  crude,  requiring  hundreds  of  workers  to  accomplish  what  two  or  three  men 
could  easily  do  today.  Much  of  the  work  was  done  in  pits  from  twenty-five  to 
thirty  feet  in  diameter  and  from  ten  to  thirty  feet  deep.  There  were  some  tun- 
nels and  many  open  cuts  of  large  extent.  Everywhere  were  huge  dumps  of 
broken  rock  which  had  been  worked  out  and  worked  over.  In  most  cases  the 
pits  were  nearly  filled  up  with  accumulation  of  soil  and  debris  and  trees  and 
shrubbery  were  growing  from  them. 


The  implements  manufactured  were  for  war,  domestic  and  agricultural  uses. 
In  the  opinion  of  experts  the  agricultural  tools  predominated. 

A  general  summary  of  the  specimens  found  includes  arrow  and  lance  heads, 
knives,  hide  scrapers,  hammers,  axes,  hoes,  grinding  mills,  wedges,  mauls  and 
various  leaf-shaped  implements. 

The  heavy  hammers  or  grooved  mauls  were  usually  of  dense  hard  granite,  but 
all  the  other  output  of  the  quarries  was  of  the  peculiar  quartzite  here  excavated, 
so  peculiar  in  fact  that  when  in  the  surrounding  country  or  in  the  neighboring 
states  of  Nebraska  and  Oklahoma,  the  tools  can  be  easily  recognized  as  coming 
from  the  Wyoming  quarries — the  character  of  the  rock  at  once  establishing  a 
trade  mark. 

Tons  of  cores  left  just  in  the  beginning  of  being  shaped  are  found  round 
the  pits  and  shop  sites.  As  to  other  rock  manufactures,  R.  F.  Gilder  says: 
"Strange  stone  figures  of  immense  proportions  representing  human  beings  and 
thousands  of  stone  cairns  are  strewn  over  the  landscape  for  many  miles." 



Back  on  the  mesa  in  close  proximity  to  the  workings  are  extensive  village 
sites,  marked  by  hundreds  of  tepee  or  lodge  circles  made  by  stones  used  to  keep 
the  poles  in  place  that  were  covered  with  skins  of  animals  or  brush,  and  these 
were  the  habitations  of  this  primitive  race.  Many  of  such  villages  are  located 
forty  or  fifty  miles  away  in  pleasant  valleys  and  parks  where  there  were  springs 
or  running  streams.  Nearly  all  of  these  villages  were  also  shop  sites  as  is  demon- 
strated by  large  accumulations  of  chips  and  rejects  showing  that  they  were 
simply  adjuncts  of  the  quarry  mining. 

In  these  villages  and  work  shops  scattered  over  a  region  of  probably  five 
hundred  square  miles  there  are  found  many  specimens  of  workmanship  not  made 
from  the  quarry  blocks.  Arrow  and  lance  heads  and  hide  scrapers  are  found 
beautifully  fashioned  from  brilliantly  colored  agates,  jasper  and  chalcedony. 
All  colors  are  represented,  white,  blue,  red,  yellow,  black  and  banded.  They 
are  mostly  small  and  the  work  on  these  is  so  superior  to  that  at  the  quarries  that 
some  are  inclined  to  think  they  may  be  classed  as  the  product  of  the  modem 
Indians  who  occupied  the  country  after  the  quarry  races  had  passed  away. 

The  Indians  of  today  have  no  knowledge,  theory  or  traditions  concerning  these 
remains.  They  have  no  knowledge  of  the  system  of  mining  these  huge  quarries, 
and  never  made  an  efifort  to  perform  such  laborious  tasks. 


The  above  description  applies  to  the  first  discovered  aboriginal  quarries  loca- 
ted on  the  Dry  Muddy.  Recent  explorations  have  brought  to  light  other  exten- 
sive workings,  the  most  important  being  in  the  vicinity  of  Saw  Mill  Canyon, 
near  the  North  Platte  River,  fifteen  or  twenty  miles  southeast  of  the  Muddy 
workings  in  Converse  and  Niobrara  counties. 

Dr.  Harlem  I.  Smith  in  an  article  published  in  the  Archaeological  Bulletin  of 
April,  1914,  says:  "On  my  last  trip  we  discovered  many  miles  south  of  the 
'Spanish  Diggins'  proper,  another  quarry  district.  The  exact  location  of  this 
cannot  be  made  known  at  this  time.  Near  these  quarries  are  shop  sites  covering 
many  acres  where  chips  and  cones  are  in  such  abundance  as  to  stagger  one's 
belief.  Most  of  the  material  is  black  and  yellow  jasper  and  fine  grained  moss 

Mr.  Gilder  refers  to  this  same  locality  probably  when  he  says :  "Another 
quarry  territory  discovered  on  one  of  my  trips  never  explored  is  so  difficult  of 
access  that  I  hardly  know  how  to  tell  just  where  it  is,  but  if  you  follow  the 
canyon  on  the  east  bank  of  the  Platte  until  west  of  the  Saw  Mill  Canyon,  you 
would  reach  a  section  so  prolific  in  material,  so  tremendous  in  scale  of  work 
performed  that  you  would  never  want  to  see  another  such  district  I  am  sure." 

Thus  it  will  be  seen  that  the  exploration  of  this  wonderful  region  which 
links  us  to  remote  ages,  has  only  just  begun.  The  experts,  scientists  and  curi- 
osity hunters  who  have  roamed  over  this  area  of  some  four  hundred  square  miles 
have  only  seen  surface  indications  and  picked  up  such  specimens  as  lay  before 
the  naked  eye.    There  has  been  no  systematic  plan  of  exploration  and  no  excava- 


tion  of  the  pits  to  uncover  the  hidden  rehcs  of  the  race  that  worked  and  dreamed 
and  passed  "life's  fitful  fever"  in  these  desolate  wilds. 


In  May,  1905,  the  writer  addressed  a  letter  to  W.  A.  Richards,  commissioner 
of  the  general  land  office,  Washington,  D.  C,  requesting  the  survey  and  with- 
drawal of  these  lands  for  the  protection  of  pre-historic  remains.  Mr.  Richards 
took  up  the  matter  with  the  United  States  Bureau  of  Ethnology  which  favored 
the  project.  The  area  however  was  so  large,  and  so  many  private  land  titles  were 
involved  that  action  was  deferred.  The  commissioner,  however,  said  that  if 
we  could  give  him  a  description  by  survey  of  the  section  or  sections  upon  which 
the  principal  quarries  were  found,  he  would  recommend  the  reservation.  At 
that  time  it  was  impossible  to  furnish  that  information  and  the  national  govern- 
ment had  no  surveyors  in  the  field  in  this  state. 

In  the  summer  of  1914  I  again  took  up  the  matter  and  succeeded  in  getting 
Governor  Kendrick  interested  in  the  park  or  monument  reserve.  He  gave  me  a 
strong  letter  to  Secretary  Lane,  which  I  presented  in  person.  The  matter  was 
referred  to  the  Ethnological  Department  of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  and  it 
v;as  agreed  to  send  out  a  party  to  survey  and  investigate  the  fields.  Dr.  Grace 
Raymond  Hebard  of  the  University  of  Wyoming  took  a  deep  interest  in  the 
plan  and  urged  such  resen^ation  in  letters  to  the  Smithsonian  people. 

Owing  to  the  great  extent  of  the  region  involved,  400  to  600  square  miles, 
it  was  deemed  impracticable  to  reserve  it  all,  but  it  was  agreed  to  reserve  the 
most  important  of  the  "diggins"'  for  scientific  research.  This  will  undoubtedly 
be  done.  The  next  spring  following  the  examination  made  by  the  Smithsonian 
Institution  the  government  practically  took  charge  of  the  principal  workings  and 
required  all  visitors  who  desired  to  take  away  specimens,  to  secure  a  permit  from 
the  Interior  Department. 


The  writer  has  visited  ancient  remains  in  New  Mexico  and  Arizona  and. 
while  as  objects  they  are  picturesque  and  interesting,  they  cannot  compare  in 
impressiveness.  weirdness  and  mystery  to  the  Wyoming  remains  which  are  to 
be  found  on  the  American  Continent.  Personally  I  am  strongly  of  the  opinion 
that  they  belong  to  the  stone  age,  for  various  reasons.  The  rock  work  was  done 
with  rock,  they  had  no  metal  tools  nor  any  domestic  utensils  except  of  rock  manu- 
facture, they  had  no  dwelHngs  that  show  any  signs  of  architectural  skill,  and 
nowhere  can  be  found  any  foundations  of  buildings  except  the  crude  stone  cir- 
cles that  marked  the  skin  covered  tepees. 

•  Mr.  Robinson,  who  has  made  a  thorough  study  of  the  ^Mound  Builders,  says : 
"The  specimens  of  stone  tools,  implements,  etc..  are  the  same  as  found  in  the 
mounds  of  the  Mississippi  \"al!ey  credited  to  the  handicraft  of  the  Mound 
Builders.  The  theory  is  thus  advanced  that  these  quarries  may  have  been  the 
site  of  the  workshops  of  the  pre-historic  men  who  roamed  over  the  land  ages 
before  the  American  Indian  made  his  appearance.  Here  they  made  their  uten- 
sils and  implements  of  war  and  the  chase  to  be  later  carried  down  the  Platte  to 


the  Missouri  and  ^lississippi  to  be  left  in  Illinois  and  the  various  states  bordering 
on  these  streams." 

Dr.  F.  B.  Loomis  of  Amherst  College  wrote  in  June,  191 5,  as  follows:  "I 
have  in  the  Amherst  Collections  several  implements  from  Arkansas  and  other 
nearer  localities  made  from  material  which  doubtless  came  from  these  quarries, 
so  they  must  have  been  visited  by  tribes  far  and  near,  or  at  least  the  material 
must  have  been  traded  widely.  I  know  of  no  other  place  where  the  quarrying 
of  rock  for  making  stone  implements  was  carried  on  to  anywhere  near  as  large 
an  extent." 


Robert  F.  Gilder  in  an  article  contributed  to  the  "Records  of  the  Past,"  Au- 
gust, 1908,  gives  an  account  of  the  Indian  sites  of  Whalen  Canyon.  The  loca- 
tion of  this  canyon,  or  rather  valley,  is  a  few  miles  east  of  Sunrise  and  winds  in 
a  southerly  direction  to  the  North  Platte  River  through  the  Black  Hills  of  Wyo- 
ming. It  has  always  been  a  favorite  resort  of  the  wild  tribes  on  account  of  the 
fine  grazing,  the  mountain  springs,  that  feed  a  small  stream  which  flows  along 
the  base  of  the  eastern  range  of  hills,  and  the  great  bodies  of  red  hematite  iron 
ore,  which  the  Indians  used  as  a  pigment  to  decorate  themselves,  and  their  domes- 
tic implements.     Especially  on  war  trips  they  made  lavish  use  of  the  paint  ores. 

From  the  north  end  of  this  valley  where  it  is  abruptly  closed  in  by  hills  with 
nothing  but  a  wagon  road  out  to  the  plain,  it  extends  some  fifteen  miles  to  the 
river  with  hills  rising  on  either  side  giving  ample  protection  from  winds  and 
storms  to  those  who  made  it  their  home.  It  was  selected  by  the  Indians  as  an 
ideal  camping  ground  and  for  five  or  six  miles  at  the  base  of  the  eastern  range 
of  hills  they  may  be  traced  by  the  tepee  beds  of  numerous  Indian  villages. 

It  was  near  here  that  Mr.  Parkman  the  historian,  spent  nearly  a  year  living 
with  the  Indians  and  studying  their  manners  and  customs  which  are  so  graphic- 
ally described  in  his  book  "The  Oregon  Trail."  Among  the  hills  at  the  north 
end  of  the  valley  was  the  scene  of  conflicts  among  the  Indian  tribes  and  one 
battle  ground  is  marked  by  an  extensive  burial  ground. 

Around  the  stone  circles  where  their  lodges  were  erected  are  found  abundant 
collections  of  beautifully  colored  stones  of  agate,  chalcedony  and  jasper,  which 
they  used  in  the  manufacture  of  arrow,  lance  heads  and  hide  scrapers,  most  of 
the  implements  being  made  for  war  and  hunting  purposes.  These  were  un- 
doubtedly the  work  of  the  modern  Indian  tribes  and  have  no  relation  to  the 
pre-historic  workings  of  the  so-called  "Spanish  Diggins,"  as  the  former  used 
different  stones  and  produced  much  more  finished  specimens  of  handiwork.  Oc- 
casionally there  is  found  stone  axes  and  hammers  that  were  evidently  brought 
from  the  ancient  workings  on  the  Muddy. 


At  the  northern  end  of  the  valley  among  the  western  hills  there  is  a  gorge 
hemmed  in  by  limestone  cliffs  in  which  natural  caves  are  found  that  evidence 
shows  were  once  inhabited  by  human  beings.  On  the  lower  part  of  these  cliffs 
there  are  a  dozen  or  more  large  and  small  caverns  which  were  first  explored  by 


J.  L.  Stein,  a  miner  and  prospector  whose  home  was  in  Whalen  Valley.  His 
researches  showed  that  the  walls  were  smoke  stained  and  charcoal  embers  were 
found  where  fires  had  been  made,  and  in  the  debris  on  the  floor  of  the  caves 
were  found  flint  chippings  showing  that  work  had  been  done  by  the  dwellers, 
either  during  storms  or  when  hiding  from  tribes  on  the  war  path. 

In  one  cavern  Mr.  Stein  discovered  the  skeleton  of  a  man  covered  with  dust 
and  stone  fragments.  It  had  evidently  lain  there  for  centuries.  The  skull  was 
incrusted  with  lime  accretions.  Mr.  Stein  sent  the  skull  to  Maj.  J.  W.  Powell 
of  the  Smithsonian  Institution  and  it  is  now  a  part  of  their  ethnological  collec- 
tions. These  caverns  were  visited  by  Dr.  George  A.  Dorsey  in  1900,  by  Harlem  I. 
Smith's  expedition  in  1907  and  by  Air.  Gilder  in  1906.  Mr.  Gilder  found  a  jasper 
blade  and  stone  awl  lying  on  a  shelf  in  one  cave,  ten  feet  from  the  entrance. 
Others  found  various  flint  instruments.  The  bones  of  rabbits  and  sage  hens 
which  had  probably  been  used  for  food  were  found  in  these  caves. 


Several  discoveries  of  great  interest  have  been  made  in  the  excavations  made 
in  opening  up  the  iron  mines  six  or  eight  miles  south  of  the  caves  in  the  vicin- 
ity of  Hartville  and  Sunrise.  J.  L.  Stein  and  William  Lauk,  in  running  a  tunnel 
into  the  hill,  found  at  a  depth  of  twenty  feet,  a  stone  mortar  and  grinding  stone, 
an  Indian  necklace  made  of  sinews  strung  with  arrow  heads,  carved  hoof  bones, 
a  stone  tomahawk  and  the  polished  end  of  a  horn.  In  another  mine  nearby  rude 
stone  paint  mills  were  unearthed. 

These  discoveries  tell  their  own  history.  On  account  of  the  presence  of 
large  bodies  of  red  hematite,  the  Indians  made  the  region  a  favorite  resort  to 
obtain  the  brilliant,  soft  pigment  for  coloring  their  various  articles  of  workman- 
ship and  particularly  when  large  bands  were  organized  for  the  warpath,  and  as  a 
first  preparation  for  the  campaign,  their  faces  and  parts  of  the  body  were  painted 
red.  The  rude  stone  paint  mills  found  in  both  these  mines  tell  the  story  as 
vividly  as  if  the  red  warriors  were  fighting  their  battles  today. 

Hartville  is  rich  in  Indian  and  pioneer  history.  The  old  California  and 
Alormon  trail  passes  directly  through  the  townsite.  The  very  gulch  in  which 
the  town  is  located  was  called  "Indian  Spring",  as  far  back  as  the  records  of 
white  men  go.  This  spring  gushes  out  of  solid  rock  at  the  foot  of  a  high  cliff, 
and  formerly  furnished  Hartville  its  supply  of  water.  Along  the  outskirts  of 
the  townsite  and  covering  a  portion  of  it  can  be  traced  the  tepee  beds  of  the 
Indians  who  once  resorted  there,  showing  villages  a  mile  in  extent.  It  was  also 
a  favorite  camping  place  of  the  ■49ers  and  Mormons  on  account  of  its  excellent 
supply  of  water  and  wood,  and  its  beautiful  situation. 

About  ten  miles  above  Hartville  situated  in  a  wild  and  picturesque  spot  in 
the  hills,  between  the  old  trail  and  the  North  Platte  is  Slade's  canyon— the 
home  of  the  famous  desperado  and  his  companions,  and  the  place  where  they 
cached  their  plunder  after  foraging  on  the  immigrant  trains  and  stage  travelers 
of  that  day. 



In  this  relation  of  Wyoming  Antiquities  the  "medicine  wheels"  of  the  Big 
Horn  range  deserve  especial  mention,  as  having  been  recently  discovered  and 
still  a  subject  of  discussion  and  conjecture  as  to  their  origin  and  antiquity. 

In  the  American  Anthropologist  of  March,  1903,  C.  S.  Simms  of  the  Field 
Columbian  Museum  gives  an  account  of  the  wheels  found  on  the  summit  of 
Medicine  Mountain  of  the  Big  Horn  range  at  an  elevation  of  over  12.000  feet. 

Mr.  Simms  was  conducted  to  the  spot  by  "Silver  Tip",  a  prospector  and 
hunter  who  had  lived  among  the  Indians  when  a  boy.  The  ascent  was  slow 
and  difficult  as  there  was  no  good  trail  and  heavy  snow  drifts  were  encountered. 
The  summit  of  the  mountain  is  broad  at  the  west  end  tapering  to  narrow  limits 
on  the  east  where  the  medicine  wheel  is  located.  This  is  described  by  Simms  as 
consisting  of  an  immense  wheel  built  upon  the  ground  with  slabs  and  boulders 
of  limestone.  The  circumference  of  the  wheel  measures  245  feet.  In  the  center 
which  corresponds  to  the  hub  of  a  wheel  is  a  circular  structure  built  of  stone 
about  three  feet  high  and  from  this  there  radiates  twenty-seven  lines  of  stone 
forming  the  spokes.  The  outer  circle  or  rim  at  seven  different  places  is  marked 
by  stone  structures  all  on  the  rim,  except  one  on  the  south  which  is  built  several 
feet  beyond  but  connected  by  one  of  the  spoke  lines.  The  eastern  structure  dif- 
fers from  the  others  by  being  nearly  square,  and  unlike  the  others  is  built  higher 
and  the  opening  is  outside  while  the  others  open  on  the  inside.  On  the  project- 
ing slabs  of  this  structure  rested  a  perfectly  bleached  bufifalo  skull  which  had 
been  so  placed  that  it  looked  to  the  rising  sun.  Within  the  central  structure 
which  resembles  a  truncated  cone  there  is  a  slightly  circular  depression  in  the 
ground.  Mr.  Simms  says  he  was  told  of  the  medicine  wheel  by  the  Crow  In- 
dians, but  none  of  them  could  tell  anything  of  its  origin,  excepting  that  it  "was 
made  by  people  who  had  no  iron." 

W.  M.  Camp,  author  of  a  "History  of  the  Indian  Wars"  visited  the  medicine 
wheel  in  July,  1916,  and  wrote  to  Dr.  Grace  Raymond  Hebard  some  of  his  ex- 
periences on  the  trip.  He  was  accompanied  by  a  Mr.  Shepherd  who  unearthed 
beads  of  a  peculiar  character  which  he  sent  to  experts  in  New  York.  They 
pronounced  the  beads  to  be  of  a  pattern  worked  in  Venice  over  300  years  ago. 
In  his  letter  Mr.  Camp  says  he  discovered  a  second  medicine  wheel  about  forty 
miles  north  in  a  direct  line  from  the  first,  this  one  being  larger  than  the  first  and 
quite  different  in  design  and  in  its  location  to  landmarks,  more  striking  and 

Doctor  Long,  a  Sheridan  minister,  recently  made  a  trip  to  the  Medicine 
Mountain  wheel,  going  up  through  the  main  canyon  of  the  Little  Big  Horn  and 
gives  a  graphic  description  of  his  journey  and  the  magnificent  scenic  views  he 
enjoyed.  He  says  the  history  and  origin  of  the  medicine  wheel  is  veiled  in  ob- 
scurity. The  Indians  of  today  frankly  acknowledge  their  ignorance  of  its  origin. 
One  Crow  chief  said,  "It  was  built  before  the  light  came,"  meaning  it  was  pre- 
historic.    One  said,  "It  was  a  shrine  for  the  worship  of  the  sun." 

Mr.  Long  has  the  idea  it  is  in  some  way  related  to  the  worship  of  the  Aztecs, 
or  a  people  akin  to  the  Aztecs  of  Mexico,  who  at  one  time  inhabited  this  moun- 
tain region.  Others  think  that  its  origin  dates  back  to  a  much  earlier  period,  or 
as  the  Indian  says,  "when  the  people  had  no  iron."     The  Aztecs  carried  certain 


arts  and  manufactures  to  a  high  state  of  perfection.  They  were  especially  skilled 
in  making  potter)'  and  everywhere  they  lived  in  New  Mexico  and  Arizona,  may 
be  found  pottery  and  other  specimens  of  their  handiwork  among  their  ruined 
structures.  Here,  none  of  many  examples  of  Aztec  manufacture  and  domestic 
life  has  been  noted.  The  origin  of  the  medicine  wheel  is  therefore  still  open  to 
conjecture  and  speculation. 


Prof.  Joseph  Leidy.  of  Hayden's  Geological  Survey  of  1873,  gives  a  very 
interesting  report  of  the  remains  of  primitive  art  which  he  discovered  in  Bridger 
Basin,  or  in  the  region  adjacent  to  Fort  Bridger,  made  up  of  table  lands,  val- 
leys, buttes  and  plains.     He  says: 

"In  some  localities  the  stones  strewn  over  the  lower  buttes  and  plains  are 
broken  and  flaked  in  such  a  manner  as  in  many  cases,  to  assume  the  appear- 
ance of  rude  works  of  art.  Among  those  of  rudest  construction  there  are  a 
few  of  the  finest  finish.  In  some  places  the  stone  implements  are  so  numerous, 
and  at  the  same  time  so  rudely  constructed  that  one  is  constantly  in  doubt  when 
to  consider  them  as  natural  or  accidental  and  when  to  view  them  as  artificial. 
Some  of  the  plains  are  so  thickly  strewn  with  natural  and  artificial  splintered 
stones  that  they  look  as  if  they  had  been  the  battlefields  of  great  armies  during 
the  stone  age." 

Representations  of  a  few  of  the  flaked  stones  are  pictured  in  the  report  of 
which  he  says,  "These  with  little  doubt  may  be  viewed  as  rude  implements  of 
art."  He  asked  Dr.  J.  \'an  A.  Carter,  residing  at  Fort  Bridger  and  acquainted 
with  the  language,  history  and  customs  of  the  neighboring  Indian  tribes,  about 
the  origin  of  these  specimens  and  the  doctor  said  the  present  races  of  Indians 
knew  nothing  of  them.  He  said  the  Shoshones  look  upon  them  as  the  gift  of 
God  to  their  ancestors.  Of  the  illustrations  given  of  sixteen  specimens  by 
Doctor  Leidy  all  the  rudest  were  manufactured  from  quartzite  exactly  corre- 
sponding with  the  stone  of  the  great  quarries  first  described  in  this  chapter, 
and  were  of  the  same  shape  and  type  of  workmanship,  of  coarse  flaking.  Un- 
doubtedly these  impletnents  came  from  the  same  locality  and  were  used  by 
the  same  ancient  races. 

In  this  connection  mention  should  be  made  of  a  beautiful  vase  that  was 
found  near  one  of  the  quarries  on  the  Muddy,  standing  upon  a  stone  block. 
This  vase  was  14  inches  high,  ten  inches  in  diameter  and  the  opening  at  the 
top  was  seven  inches.  This  of  course  has  no  relation  to  the  stone  art,  but  was 
left  by  some  late  Indians  or  Mexicans  that  roamed  that  section. 


The  ancient  animal  life  of  the  earth  is  always  interesting.  The  strangeness 
and  mystery  of  this  life,  the  peculiar  types  and  the  enormous  size  of  many 
fossil  specimens  discovered,  have  made  it  the  subject  of  much  scientific  inves- 
tigation and  systematic  research,  as  well  as  of  extensive  mining  operations. 

Wyoming  affords  the  most  remarkable  quarries  and  fields  for  this  research 
and  has  for  the  last  quarter  of  a  century  given  to  the  scientific  societies,  col- 


leges  and  museums  of  the  world  the  most  rare  and  gigantic  specimens  ever  dis- 

In  this  way  the  animals  that  roamed  the  western  plains  in  pre-historic  times, 
the  enormous  reptiles  that  plashed  around  in  these  inland  seas,  and  the  huge 
birds  that  tracked  their  shores,  have  been  reconstructed  from  their  discovered 
fossilized  bones,  and  their  environment  visualized,  so  that  we  of  the  present 
day  may  realize  their  surroundings,  habits  of  life,  powers  of  locomotion  and 
habitat.  The  principal  fields  of  research  for  the  remains  of  extinct  animals  in 
Wyoming  that  have  been  successfully  worked,  are  found  on  Lance  Creek,  north 
of  Lusk,  in  the  foot  hills  north  of  Medicine  Bow,  and  at  Fossil,  a  few  miles 
west  of  Kemmerer.  Operations  have  also  been  carried  on  in  other  sections  of 
the  state  where  valuable  examples  of  pre-historic  animal  life  have  been  un- 

The  question  has  been  often  asked,  how  many  years  ago  did  this  or  that 
animal  live?  Prof.  Fred  A.  Lucas  of  the  United  States  National  Museum, 
says:  "The  time  that  has  elapsed  since  the  beginning  of  the  Jurassic  age  when 
the  dinosaurs  held  carnival,  is  variously  estimated  from  six  to  fifteen  million 

How  these  animals  were  exterminated  or  died  off  from  natural  causes  is  a 
matter  of  conjecture.  Poisonous  gases,  lava,  earthquakes,  floods,  etc.,  may 
have  played  a  part.  The  earliest  traces  of  animal  life  says  Doctor  Lucas,  "are 
found  beneath  something  like  eighteen  to  twenty-five  miles  of  rock !" 

If  an  animal  is  sunk  in  a  quiet  lake  the  waves  accumulate  mud  and  sand 
and  deposit  over  it,  a  process  of  entombment  takes  place,  the  air  is  excluded 
and  the  lime  or  silica  soon  makes  the  strata  a  solid  mass.  The  period  of  fos- 
silization,  however,  is  very  slow,  often  a  matter  of  many  centuries. 

Some  are  animals  changed  into  stone,  some  are  footprints  made  by  animals 
in  an  impressible  stratum,  some  are  simply  moulds  of  the  form  where  the  ani- 
mal lay,  from  which  casts  are  made  in  restoring  the  subject.  Among  the  animals 
found  in  Wyoming  the  dinosaurs  claim  distinction  as  being  the  largest  known 
quadrupeds  that  have  walked  the  face  of  the  earth.  The  broiUosaurus  or  Thun- 
der Lizard,  beneath  whose  mighty  tread  the  earth  shook,  and  his  kindred  were 
from  40  to  60  feet  long,  their  thigh  bones  measuring  from  five  to  six  feet.  A 
tooth  of  the  Mammoth  of  the  elephant  type  in  the  United  States  National 
Museum  has  a  grinding  space  five  by  eight  inches  and  weighs  over  15  pounds. 

The  skull  of  a  Triceratops  when  boxed  for  the  museum  weighed  3,650  pounds. 
This  will  give  the  reader  a  general  idea  of  the  gigantic  size  of  some  pre-historic 
animals.  In  the  West  of  late  years  there  has  been  a  vast  amount  of  collecting 
and  much  new  information  has  been  gained.  In  Wyoming  attention  was  called 
to  our  precious  animal  deposits  by  Professor  Hayden's  reports  in  the  United 
States  Geological  Surveys  of  1868  to  1873.  On  his  expedition  in  1868,  Hayden 
was  accompanied  by  Professor  Agassiz,  the  celebrated  scientist,  and  during  their 
explorations  of  this  section  Agassiz  made  his  headquarters  in  Cheyenne,  his 
especial  studies  being  in  the  department  of  paleontology.  The  fossils  then  un- 
earthed were  small  sea-fish,  shells,  ferns,  etc.,  and  were  studied  with  reference 
to  the  geologic  periods  of  the  formations  examined. 

Impressions  of  feathers  have  been  found  in  the  Green  River  and  Florrisant 
shales  of  Wyoming.     In  the  rock  formations  at  Fossil,  many  forms  of  marine 


life,  various  kinds  of  fish,  as  well  as  snakes,  and  queer  birds,  and  various  forms 
of  typical  vegetation  are  found  in  great  abundance.  The  largest  specimen  taken 
from  this  field  was  a  fish  about  ten  feet  long.  The  products  of  the  Wyoming 
fossil  fields  may  be  found  today  in  museums  in  many  parts  of  the  world,  al- 
though the  deposits  have  been  only  partially  worked. 

Recent  publications  of  the  National  Museum  by  Charles  W.  Gilmore,  de- 
scribe "new  species  of  fossil  turtles,"  from  the  Lance  formation  and  "the  oste- 
ology of  an  orthopodous"  from  the  same  section  in  Wyoming.  Professor  Gil- 
more  is  curator  of  fossil  reptiles  for  the  museum  and  before  going  to  Wash- 
ington, spent  several  years  in  the  great  fossil  fields  of  this  state  while  a  mem- 
ber of  the  faculty  of  the  University  of  Wyoming. 

The  large  reptiles  are  found  in  the  shales,  chalk  or  hard  clay,  and  the  work 
of  excavating  them  comes  under  a  special  class  of  mining  requiring  expert  di- 
rection. It  is  done  with  mining  tools,  picks,  shovels,  drills,  hammers  and 
wedges.  Every  bone  or  section  must  be  carefully  removed  and  is  duly  recorded 
by  letter  and  number  and  its  position  designated  so  the  parts  can  be  assembled 
in  the  work  room  and  the  skeleton  reconstructed.  Single  bones  weighing  from 
lOO  to  500  pounds,  even  when  shattered  into  fragments  are  reunited  by  the 
skill  of  the  paleontologist,  covered  with  plaster  bandages  and  shipped  by  freight 
for  a  thousand  miles  or  more.  The  real  task  of  restoration  is  done  at  the 
museum.  To  clean  a  single  vertebra  of  a  large  dinosaur  requires  a  month  of 
continuous  labor,  and  a  score  of  these  are  included  in  one  back  bone.  In  its 
remarkable  fossil  fields  Wyoming  has  made  notable  contributions  to  science  and 
to  the  study  of  pre-historic  animal  life  on  this  continent. 






In  the  northwest  corner  of  the  State  of  Wyoming  is  situated  the  Yellow- 
stone National  Park,  which  has  justly  been  called  "Nature's  Wonderland." 
Probably  no  other  spot  of  equal  size  on  this  planet  presents  as  much  romantic 
scenery  of  mountain,  lake  and  plateau,  or  as  interesting  natural  curiosities  as 
the  obsidian  clifif  and  the  great  geysers,  which  may  have  been  sending  forth 
their  volumes  of  hot  water  from  the  interior  of  the  earth  "when  the  morning 
stars  sang  together."  The  visitor  to  the  park,  as  he  gazes  with  awe  from  In- 
spiration Point  down  the  Grand  Canyon  of  the  Yellowstone,  or  witnesses  the 
action  of  the  geysers  in  the  Firehole  Basin,  may  well  be  filled  with  wonder  at 
why  American  citizens  will  travel  in  foreign  countries  to  the  neglect  of  the 
beauties  of  their  own  land. 


For  years  before  the  wonders  of  the  Upper  Yellowstone  region  became 
known  to  the  white  man,  the  country  about  the  park  was  inhabited  by  Indian 
tribes  of  the  Algonquian,  Siouan  and  Shoshonean  families.  The  Blackfeet,  an 
Algonquian  tribe,  dwelt  around  the  sources  of  the  Yellowstone  River.  The 
Crow,  a  Siouan  tribe,  lived  farther  down  in  the  valley  of  the  Yellowstone  and 
eastward  to  the  Big  Horn  River.  The  Bannock  Indians  and  another  Shoshonean 
tribe  called  the  Tu-ku-a-ri-ki  (Sheepeaters)  inhabited  the  country  now  embraced 
within  the  limits  of  the  Yellowstone  National  Park.  None  of  these  Indians 
knew  much  about  the  wonders  of  the  park,  for  the  reason  that  their  ancestors 
for  generations  had  a  superstitious  fear  of  the  geyser  region,  and  brave,  in- 
deed, was  the  red  man  who  would  venture  into  the  district  where  the  evil  spirits 
held  sway. 


Even  in  locating  their  trails,  these  aboriginal  inhabitants  studiously  avoided 

close   contact    with   the    dreaded    geysers.    The    principal    Indian    trail    was    the 

"Great  Bannock,"  which  ran  westward  from  the  Mammoth  Hot  Springs,  in  the 

northern  part  of  the  park,  over  the  Gallatin  Range  to  Henry  Lake.    At  the  Mam- 

•  45 


moth  Hot  Springs  it  was  joined  by  a  trail  coming  up  the  valley  of  the. Gardiner 
River.  Another  important  trail  followed  the  Yellowstone  River  from  the 
northern  boundary  of  the  park  to  the  foot  of  Yellowstone  Lake,  where  it  divid- 
ed, one  branch  running  along  the  eastern  shore  of  the  lake  until  it  intersected 
the  trail  leading  to  the  valleys  of  the  Snake  and  Wind  rivers.  The  other 
branch  followed  the  western  shore  of  the  lake,  crossed  the  divide,  and  continued 
southward  to  the  Jackson's  Hole  country  and  the  Snake  River.  From  the  foot 
of  Yellowstone  Lake  a  trail  ran  westward  along  the  base  of  the  Continental 
Divide  to  the  Madison  Plateau.  Nearly  all  these  trails  are  now  established  routes 
of  travel  for  tourists  to  the  park. 


David  Thompson,  an  English  fur  trader,  who  spent  part  of  the  winter  of 
1797-98  among  the  Mandan  Indians,  was  probably  the  first  man  to  give  the 
name  "Yellowstone"  to  the  river,  which  in  turn  gives  its  name  to  this  land  of 
scenic  wonders.  The  Minnetaree  Sioux  called  the  river  the  "Mi-tsi-a-da-zi," 
which  in  their  language  means  "Rock  Yellow  Water."  The  French  called  the 
river  the  "Roche  Jaune"  (sometimes  written  "Pierre  Jaune"),  signifying  "Yel- 
low Rock,"  but  when  or  by  whom  the  name  was  thus  first  applied  is  not  known. 
That  there  is  good  reason  for  the  adoption  of  the  name  is  seen  in  the  report  of 
Captain  Jones,  who  visited  the  Upper  Yellowstone  in  1873.  Says  he:  "In  and 
about  the  Grand  Canyon  the  rocks  are  nearly  tinged  a  brilliant  yellow." 


The  centtal  portion  of  the  park  may  be  described  as  a  "broad,  elevated,  vol- 
canic plateau,  with  an  average  altitude  of  about  eight  thousand  feet  above  the 
sea  level."  Different  names  have  been  given  to  different  parts  of  this  plateau. 
In  the  eastern  part  it  is  called  "Mirror  Plateau,"  in  the  southeast  "Two  Ocean 
Plateau,"  in  the  southwest  "Pitchstone  Plateau,"  and  in  the  western  part  "Madi- 
son Plateau."  At  the  northeast  comer,  where  the  Snowy  and  Absaroka  moun- 
tain ranges  meet,  the  surface  is  broken  and  the  scenery  equals  any  to  be  found 
among  the  Swiss  Alps.  The  Snowy  Range  extends  westward  along  the  northern 
boundary  of  the  park  to  the  Yellowstone  Valley.  West  of  the  Yellowstone  lie 
the  Gallatin  Mountains,  which  extend  to  the  northwest  corner  of  the  park,  where 
Electric  Peak,  the  highest  elevation  of  the  range,  affords  a  commanding  view 
of  the  surrounding  country.  Besides  these  mountain  ranges,  there  are  many 
peaks,  buttes  and  hills  that  have  been  identified  by  name,  such  as  Bison  Peak, 
Mount  Washburn,  Folsom  Peak,  The  Needles,  Overlook  Mountain,  Pyramid 
Peak,  Mount  Hancock  and  Mount  Hoyt,  the  last  having  been  named  in  honor 
of  one  of  the  territorial  governors  of  Wyoming. 

Over  150  streams  of  clear  mountain  spring  water  flow  through  the  park, 
the  principal  ones  being  the  Yellowstone,  Lamar,  Gardiner,  Madison,  Gallatin, 
Snake,  Gibbon  and  Firehole  rivers.  Obsidian,  Soda  Butte,  Boundary-,  Slough 
and  Clear  creeks.  Along  the  courses  of  these  streams  are  numerous  cascades 
and  waterfalls,  the  best  known  of  which  are  the  Upper  and  Lower  Falls  of  the 
Yellowstone,   Tower  Falls,  Osprey  Falls,   Kepler  Cascade,  Fairy  Falls,   Gibbon 



Falls  and  the  Virginia  Cascade.     These  vary   in  height   from  310   feet  at   the 
Lower  Yellowstone  Falls  to  60  feet  at  the  Virginia  Cascade. 

Government  reports  on  the  park  mention  forty-four  lakes,  the  largest  of 
which  is  the  Yellowstone  and  the  one  having  the  highest  altitude  is  Gardiner 
Lake.  Yellowstone  Lake  is  about  sixty  miles  in  length.  At  the  south  end  it  is 
divided  into  two  arms,  between  which  is  a  beautiful  headland  called  "The 
Promontory."  and  an  arm  extending  from  the  west  side  is  called  "The  Thumb." 

In  191 2  Arnold  Hague,  of  the  United  States  Geological  Survey,  made  ex- 
tended investigations  in  the  Yellowstone  National  Park,  and  his  report  gives 
many  interesting  and  scientific  facts  concerning  the  phenomena  of  the  geysers, 
the  general  geological  formation,  etc.  Near  the  northeast  corner  of  the  park 
he  found  an  extinct  volcano,  the  summit  of  which  has  an  altitude  of  10,000 
feet.  The  rocks  of  this  section  he  classified  as  granite,  gneiss,  schist,  etc.,  be- 
longing to  the  pre-Cambrian  series.  Mingled  with  these  rocks  in  places  he 
found  in  abundance  the  volcanic  rock  known  as  "Andesite,"  which  has  played 
an  important  part  in  the  production  of  the  structural  features  of  the  mountains 
in-  and  about  the  park. 

Mr.  Hague  found  evidence  of  glacial  action  in  a  huge  granite  bowlder — 
24  feet  long,  20  feet  wide  and  18  feet  high  above  the  ground.  This  bowlder 
he  found  in  a  forest  on  the  brink  of  the  Grand  Canyon,  and  the  nearest  stone 
of  similar  formation,  so  far  as  known  to  geologists,  is  some  forty  miles  dis- 
tant. Think  of  the  mighty  force  that  must  have  been  exerted  by  the  great  sheet 
of  ice  that  covered  the  northwestern  part  of  the  United  States  at  the  close 
of  the  Pleistocene  period ! 


The  number  of  geysers,  hot  springs,  mud  pots,  paint  pots,  etc..  scattered 
over  the  park,  Mr.  Hague  estimated  at  over  three  thousand.  "To  which,"  says 
he  in  his  report,  "should  be  added  the  fumaroles  and  solfatores,  from  which  issue 
in  the  aggregate  enormous  volumes  of  steam  and  acid  sulphur  vapors,  by  which 
the  number  of  active  vents  would  easily  be  doubled.  Each  of  these  vents  is  a 
center  of  decomposition  of  the  acid  lava." 

There  are  several  well  defined  geyser  basins,  the  most  important  of  which 
are  the  Upper  and  Lower  basins  on  the  Firehole  River,  which  takes  its  name 
from  these  wonderful  phenomena  of  nature ;  the  Norris  Basin,  near  the  source 
of  Obsidian  Creek;  and  the  Heart  Lake  Basin,  at  the  north  end  of  that  lake 
in  the  southern  part  of  the  park.  Of  the  large  geysers  there  are  sixty-seven. 
The  action  of  these  geysers  is  far  from  uniform.  The  one  called  "Old  Faith- 
ful," because  of  the  regularity  of  its  eruptions,  throws  a  column  of  hot  water 
150  feet  into  the  air  every  sixty-five  minutes,  the  eruption  lasting  about  4>4 
minutes.  Excelsior  Geyser,  the  greatest  in  the  park,  throws  water  to  a  height 
of  300  feet  and  spouts  at  intervals  varying  from  one  to  four  hours.  Mr.  Hague 
estimated  the  discharge  of  this  geyser  at  "forty-four  hundred  gallons  of  boil- 
ing water  per  minute." 




Other  noted  geysers,  with  the  height  of  column  and  interval  of  eruption 
are:  The  Giant,  200  feet,  once  in  six  days,  duration  of  eruption  13^  hours;  the 
Giantess,  250  feet,  every  fourteen  days,  time  of  eruption  twelve  hours;  the  Bee 
Hive,  220  feet,  once  every  twenty  hours,  eruption  lasts  eight  minutes;  the 
Grand,  200  feet,  once  in  twenty  hours,  time  of  action  twenty  miirutes;  the 
Castle.  100  feet,  every  twenty-four  hours,  lasts  twenty-five  minutes;  the  Mon- 
arch, 125  feet,  at  intervals  of  twelve  hours,  eruption  lasts  twenty  minutes. 


To  John  Colter  must  be  accorded  the  distinction  of  having  been  the  first 
white  man  to  behold  the  wonders  of  what  is  now  the  Yellowstone  National 
Park.  Colter  was  a  private  soldier  with  the  Lewis  and  Clark  expedition.  In 
August,  1806,  as  the  expedition  was  returning  to  St.  Louis  and  when  near  the 
]\Iandan  villages  on  the  Missouri  River,  two  trappers  named  Hancock  and 
Dixon,  visited  the  camp  and  pictured  in  such  glowing  language  the  excitement 
and  profits  of  a  trapper's  life,  that  Colter  was  induced  to  ask  for  his  discharge 
that  he  might  join  them  on  the  Yellowstone  River.  The  journal  of  the  expedi- 
tion for  August  15,  1806,  contains  the  following  entry.  "As  he  had  always  per- 
formed his  duty  and  his  services  might  be  dispensed  with,  we  agreed  that  he 
might  go,  provided  none  of  the  rest  would  ask  or  expect  a  similar  indulgence. 
To  this  they  cheerfully  answered  that  they  wished  Colter  every  success  and 
would  not  apply  for  liberty  before  we  reached  St.  Louis.  We  therefore  sup- 
plied him,  as  did  his  comrades  also,  with  powder,  lead  and  a  variety  of  articles 
which  might  be  useful  to  him  and  he  left  us  the  next  day." 

The  following  spring  Colter  passed  through  the  Pryor  Gap  of  the  Big  Horn 
Mountains  and  wandered  about  on  Clark's  Fork,  the  Stinking  Water  (now  the 
Shoshone  River),  and  it  is  believed  he  reached  the  headwaters  of  the  Green 
River.  On  his  return  he  struck  the  headwaters  of  the  Wind  River,  which  he 
mistook  for  the  Big  Horn,  but  finally  found  his  way  back  to  the  camp  of  the 
previous  winter.  He  then  decided  to  return  to  St.  Louis  and  set  out  alone  in 
a  log  canoe.  Near  the  mouth  of  the  Platte  River  he  met  Manuel  Lisa,  who 
persuaded  him  to  return  to  the  L'pper  Missouri  country.  Lisa  established  a 
trading  post  at  the  mouth  of  the  Big  Horn  River  and  Colter  again  struck  into 
the  wilderness  to  the  southward  in  pursuit  of  fur-bearing  animals.  Somewhere 
on  this  expedition  he  came  in  contact  with  a  band  of  hostile  Indians  and  wan- 
dered many  miles  out  of  his  way  in  his  efiforts  to  reach  the  trading  post.  It 
was  on  this  occasion  that  he  passed  through  what  is  now  the  Yellowstone 
National  Park.  In  the  spring  of  1810  he  returned  to  St.  Louis,  where  he  met 
his  old  commander.  Captain  Clark,  who  outlined  the  course  described  in  the 
map  of  the  Lewis  and  Clark  expedition,  marking  it  "CoUer's  Route  in  1807." 
By  this  means  Colter's  wanderings  were  given  official  recognition  and  made 
a  matter  of  public  record. 

From  the  map  mentioned  (Colter's  description  was  not  accurate  in  many 
particulars)  the  course  of  this  first  discoverer  can  be  traced  to  the  west  of  Yel- 
lowstone Lake  and  into  the  geyser  district.  That  he  saw  the  Grand  Canyon  of 
the  Yellowstone,  Tower  Falls  and  Mount  Washburn  is  almost  certain.  He  no 
doubt    followed   the   Indian   trail   leading    from   Yellowstone   River  to    the    Big 



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Horn,  finally  arriving  at  Lisa's  trading  post,  after  he  had  long  been  given  up 
as  lost. 

Colter's  account  of  the  wonders  he  had  seen  in  the  Rocky  Mountains  was 
not  accepted  by  the  public.  Even  his  friends  are  said  to  have  tapped  their 
foreheads  significantly  when  referring  to  the  subject,  as  much  as  to  say:  "Poor 
Colter!  He  has  told  that  story  so  often  that  he  probably  believes  it  himself, 
but  his  mind  is  evidently  wandering."  Others,  in  a  spirit  of  derision,  gave  the 
name  of  "Colter's  Hell"  to  the  region  that  later  explorers  were  to  prove  he 
had  graphically  and  truthfully  described. 


After  Colter,  the  next  man  to  visit  the  park  region  was  probably  Jim  Brid- 
ger,  the  famous  scout  and  frontiersman.  Bridger  was  something  of  a  romancer, 
and  the  stories  he  told  of  the  wonders  of  the  Yellowstone  were  somewhat  "over- 
drawn," to  say  the  least.  One  of  his  stories  was  that  one  day,  while  going 
through  what  is  now  the  National  Park,  he  saw  an  elk  quietly  grazing  within 
easy  rifle  range.  Taking  deliberate  aim,  he  fired  his  rifle,  but  much  to  his 
astonishment  the  animal  kept  on  grazing  as  though  it  had  not  even  heard  the 
report  of  the  gun.  Two  or  three  more  shots  were  fired  with  no  better  results, 
so  he  determined  to  investigate.  Approaching  the  elk  stealthily  he  was  again 
surprised  when  he  came  to  a  solid  wall  of  glass,  on  the  opposite  side  of  which 
was  the  elk  at  which  he  had  been  shooting.  Not  only  that,  but  the  wall  of  glass 
acted  as  a  magnifying  lens  and  the  elk  was  twenty-five  miles  away.  No  wonder 
it  did  not  hear  the  reports  of  Bridger's  rifle. 

The  story  was  quite  likely  suggested  to  Bridger's  imagination  by  his  dis- 
covery of  the  obsidian  cliff  of  black  volcanic  glass,  about  half  way  between  the 
Norris  Geyser  Basin  and  the  Mammoth  Hot  Springs,  though  the  obsidian  is 
opaque  and  it  would  be  impossible  to  see  an  elk,  or  any  other  object  through 
it  at  any  distance.  This  volcanic  glass  was  used  by  the  aborigines  for  lance 
and  arrow  heads  and  other  weapons,  large  numbers  of  which  have  been  found 
in  the  vicinity  of  the  park. 

Bridger  told  some  of  his  wonderful  stories  to  Captain  Warner,  Capt.  W.  F. 
Raynolds,  Dr.  F.  V.  Hayden  and  other  early  explorers,  who  received  them  with 
the  proverbial  "grain  of  salt,"  though  they  afterward  found  that  the  old  scout's 
narrative  contained  a  large  percentage  of  truth.  An  editor  of  one  of  the  lead- 
ing western  newspapers  stated  in  1879,  after  the  reports  of  Colter  and  Bridger 
had  been  verified  by  official  explorations,  that  more  than  thirty  years  before 
he  had  prepared  an  article  for  publication,  based  upon  Bridger's  account  of  the 
Yellowstone  region,  but  did  not  publish  it  because  one  of  his  friends  advised 
him  that  he  would  "be  laughed  out  of  town  if  he  printed  any  of  old  Jim  Bridger's 
lies."    He  afterward  apologized  to  Bridger  for  lack  of  confidence  in  his  veracity. 


Capt.  W.  F.  Raynolds  of  the  United  States  topographical  engineers,  under 
orders  from  the  war  department,  led  an  expedition  from  Fort  Pierre  on  the 
Missouri   into   Wyoming,     His   orders   were   to   explore   "the   country   through 


which  flow  the  principal  tributaries  of  the  Yellowstone  River,  the  mountains 
in  which  they  and  the  Gallatin  and  Madison  forks  of  the  Missouri  have  their 
source,"  etc.  Dr.  F.  V.  Hayden  accompanied  the  expedition  as  geologist  and 
James  Bridger  acted  as  guide.  Captain  Raynolds  made  his  report  in  i860,  but 
the  Civil  war  came  on  the  next  year,  which  practically  put  a  stop  to  further  ex- 
ploration for  almost  a  decade. 

During  the  war  parties  of  gold  seekers  penetrated  into  the  mountain  ranges 
in  the  neighborhood  of  the  park  and  some  accounts  of  their  discoveries  were 
published  in  the  newspapers.  In  September,  1869,  David  E.  Folsom,  William 
Peterson  and  C.  W.  Cook  left  Diamond  City  on  the  Missouri  River  and  spent 
about  a  month  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Yellowstone  Lake.  In  the  Western  Monthly 
for  July,  1871,  was  published  an  article  from  the  pen  of  Mr.  Folsom  which 
wielded  considerable  influence  toward  the  sending  of  other  expeditions  into 
the  country  about  the  sources  of  the  Yellowstone. 

What  is  generally  known  as  the  "Washburn-Doane  Expedition"  was  organ- 
ized in  Montana  in  the  summer  of  1870  and  was  provided  with  a  military 
escort  from  Fort  Ellis  by  order  of  Gen.  P.  H.  Sheridan.  The  leader  of  this 
expedition  was  Gen.  Henry  D.  Washburn,  then  surveyor-general  of  Montana. 
Among  those  who  accompanied  him  were  Nathaniel  P.  Langford,  who  wrote 
an  account  of  the  explorations  for  Scribner's  Magazine,  and  who  was  after- 
ward the  first  superintendent  of  the  park;  Thomas  C.  Everts,  ex-United  States 
assessor  for  Montana ;  Samuel  T.  Hauser,  later  governor  of  Montana ;  Walter 
Trumbull,  son  of  United  States  Senator  TnmibuU,  who  also  published  an  ac- 
count of  the  expedition  in  the  Overland  Monthly  for  June,  1871 ;  and  Cornelius 
Hedges,  who  was  the  first  man  to  propose  setting  apart  the  region  as  a  national 
park.  This  party  entered  the  park  on  August  21,  1870,  under  the  escort  of  a 
small  detachment  of  the  Second  United  States  Cavalry  commanded  by  Lieut. 
Gustavus  C.  Doane,  whose  name  is  coupled  with  that  of  General  Washburn. 

From  the  heights  of  Mount  Washburn  (then  unnamed)  they  saw  at  a 
distance  the  Canyon  and  Falls  of  the  Yellowstone,  the  geyser  basin  on  the 
Firehole  River,  which  was  pointed  out  to  them  by  James  Bridger,  and  then  de- 
scended into  the  plateau  for  a  more  systematic  examination  of  the  natural  won- 
ders. On  September  9,  1870,  Thomas  C.  Everts  became  separated  from  the 
other  members  of  the  expedition  and  wandered  about  through  the  wild  region 
for  thirty-seven  days  before  his  comrades  found  him  almost  dead  from  hunger 
and  exposure.  Mr.  Everts,  after  his  recovery,  wrote  an  account  of  his  experi- 
ences for  Scribner's  Magazine,  which  was  widely  read  and  was  afterward  re- 
produced by  General  Chittenden  in  his  "History  of  Yellowstone  National  Park." 
In  this  history  General  Chittenden  gives  the  following  account  of  the  origin  of 
the  national  park  idea : 

"The  members  of  the  party  were  sitting  around  the  campfire  after  supper 
(September  19,  1870),  conversing  about  what  they  had  seen  and  picturing  to 
themselves  the  important  pleasure  resort  which  so  wonderful  a  region  must  soon 
become.  The  natural  impulse  to  turn  the  fruits  of  discovery  to  their  personal 
profit  made  its  appearance,  and  it  was  suggested  that  it  would  be  a  'profitable 
speculation'  to  take  up  lands  around  the  various  objects  of  interest.  The  con- 
versation had  not  gone  far  in  that  direction,  when  one  of  the  party — Cornelius 
Hedges — interposed   and    said    that   private   ownership   of   that    region,    or   any 


part  of  it,  ought  never  to  be  sold  by  the  government,  but  that  it  should  be  set 
apart  and  forever  held  to  the  unrestricted  use  of  the  people.  This  higher  view 
of  the  subject  found  immediate  acceptance  with  the  other  members  of  the 
party.  It  was  agreed  that  the  project  should  be  at  once  set  on  foot  and  pushed 
vigorously  to  a  finish." 

In  1871  the  United  States  sent  two  expeditions  to  the  Upper  Yellowstone — 
one  under  the  leadership  of  Dr.  F.  V.  Hayden  and  the  other  under  Captains 
Heap  and  Barlow  of  the  engineer  corps.  The  reports  of  this  joint  expedition 
aided  materially  the  project  brought  before  Congress  set  on  foot  by  the  VVash- 
burn-Doane  expedition.  In  the  Helena  Herald  of  November  9,  1870,  appeared 
an  article  from  the  pen  of  Cornelius  Hedges,  giving  reasons  why  the  country 
about  the  Yellowstone  Lake  should  be  set  apart  as  a  national  reservation.  A 
little  later  Nathaniel  P.  Langford  addressed  a  meeting  in  Washington,  D.  C, 
presided  over  by  James  G.  Blaine,  then  speaker  of  the  national  house  of  repre- 
sentatives.    In  this  way  the  subject  was  brought  to  the  attention  of  Congress. 


Mr.  Langford  and  William  H.  Clagett,  member  of  Congress  from  Mon- 
tana, drew  up  a  bill  providing  for  the  establishment  of  the  Yellowstone  National 
Park.  This  bill  was  introduced  in  the  house  on  December  18,  1871.  by  Mr. 
Clagett,  and  Senator  Pomeroy  of  Kansas  introduced  it  in  the  senate.  After 
receiving  the  approval  of  the  secretary  of  the  interior  and  Dr.  F.  V.  Hayden,  it 
passed  both  houses  and  was  approved  by  President  Grant  on  March  i,  1872. 
The  boundaries  of  the  park,  as  defined  by  this  act,  are  as  follows: 

"Commencing  at  the  junction  of  Gardiner's  River  with  the  Yellowstone 
River  and  running  east  to  the  meridian  passing  ten  miles  to  the  eastward  of 
the  most  eastern  point  of  the  Yellowstone  Lake;  then  south  along  said  meridian 
to  the  parallel  of  latitude  passing  ten  miles  south  of  the  most  southern  point  of 
the  Yellowstone  Lake ;  thence  west  along  said  parallel  to  the  meridian  passing 
fifteen  miles  west  of  the  most  western  point  of  Madison  Lake;  thence  north 
along  said  meridian  to  the  latitude  of  the  junction  of  the  Yellowstone  and  Gardi- 
ner's rivers ;  thence  east  to  the  place  of  beginning." 

Under  the  boundaries  as  thus  established,  the  park  extends  two  miles  north 
of  the  northern  boundary  of  Wyoming,  and  two  miles  west  of  the  western 
boundary,  being  sixty-two  miles  long  and  fifty-four  miles  wide.  The  act  placed 
the  park  under  the  control  of  the  secretary  of  the  interior,  who  was  given  the 
authority  to  grant  leases,  at  his  discretion,  for  periods  not  exceeding  ten  years, 
and  all  buildings  erected  by  the  lessees  to  be  located  and  erected  under  his 
direction,  the  proceeds  of  such  leases  to  be  expended  by  his  authority  in  the 
construction  of   roads,  etc. 


The  report  of  the  park  supervisor,  Chester  A.  Lindsley,  for  the  year  191 7 
says:  "The  park  was  governed  by  civilian  superintendents,  assisted  by  a  few 
scouts,  from  the  time  it  was  set  aside  until  August  10,  1886,  when  troops  of 
United  States  Cavalry  were  detailed  to  police  it,  the  commanding  officer  acting 




as  superintendent  under  direct  orders  of  the  secretary  of  the  interior.  On  Oc- 
tober i6,  1916,  the  troops  were  withdrawn  from  the  park  and  a  civihan  super- 
visor, with  a  corps  of  twenty-five  rangers,  for  patrol  and  protection  work,  and 
a  few  civilian  employees  for  other  duties,  were  appointed  by  the  secretary  of 
the  interior  to  replace  them.  Under  recent  legislation  by  Congress,  troops  were 
returned  to  the  park  on  June  26,  191 7.  This  action  was  necessary  on  account 
of  a  clause  contained  in  the  sundry  civil  appropriation  act  of  June  12,  1917, 
making  appropriations  for  the  park  for  the  fiscal  year  1918.  By  virtue  of  this 
law,  the  park  supervisor  was  relieved  of  so  much  of  the  park  duties  as  pertain 
to  'protection'." 

Park  headquarters  are  located  at  the  Mammoth  Hot  Springs,  five  miles  in- 
side the  park  line  at  the  northern  entrance.  Here  are  located  the  water  and 
electric  light  systems,  the  telephone  exchange,  etc.  The  maintenance  and  con- 
struction of  roads,  bridges  and  general  improvements  in  the  park  are  carried 
on  by  special  appropriation  under  the  war  department,  an  officer  of  the  engineer- 
ing department  being  in  charge  of  the  work.  Automobiles  were  first  admitted 
on  August  I,  191 5,  but  did  not  come  into  general  use  as  a  method  of  transpor- 
tation until  191 7,  when  practically  all  of  the  transportation  of  tourists 
was  consolidated  under  one  company — "The  Yellowstone  Park  Transportation 
Company."  During  the  season  from  June  20  to  September  15,  1917,  a  total 
of  13,283  tourists  were  taken  through  the  park  by  this  company,  and  21,915  per- 
sons visited  the  park  with  their  own  transportation  and  camping  outfits. 

The  Yellowstone  Park  Hotel  Company  operates  all  of  the  hotels  in  the 
park.  There  are  four  hotels — the  Mammoth  Hot  Springs,  the  Upper  Basin,  the 
Lake  House  and  the  Canyon  Hotel.  At  all  of  these  hotels  garages  and  supply 
houses  are  maintained  and  there  are  four  free  automobile  camps  and  shelter 
houses  in  the  park,  placed  on  the  main  lines  of  travel,  besides  there  are  six 
other  camping  places,  where  oils  and  gasoline  may  be  obtained  by  tourists. 

There  are  four  main  entrances  to  the  park — north,  east,  south  and  west. 
The  northern  entrance  may  be  reached  by  the  Northern  Pacific  Railway,  the 
west  entrance  by  the  Union  Pacific,  the  east  entrance  by  stage  from  Cody, 
where  it  connects  with  the  Chicago,  Burlington  &  Quincy  Railroad,  and  the 
south  entrance  can  be  reached  only  by  automobile  or  other  means  of  private 
conveyance.  Each  year  witnesses  improvements  for  the  accommodation  and 
comfort  of  tourists,  the  number  of  which  is  constantly  increasing. 


Howard  M.  Albright,  acting  director  of  the  National  Park  Service,  in  his 
report  to  the  secretary  of  the  interior  for  the  fiscal  year  ending  June  30.  1917, 
says :  "The  killing  of  wild  animals,  except  predatory  animals  when  absolutely 
necessary,  is  strictly  forbidden  in  Yellowstone  Park  by  law.  The  park  is  there- 
fore the  greatest  wild  animal  sanctuary  in  the  world.  We  endeavor  to  refrain 
from  calling  it  a  game  sanctuary,  because  park  animals  are  not  game  in  the 
popular  sense  of  the  term.  The  park  is,  however,  the  great  source  of  game 
supply  for  the  surrounding  territory,  and  the  states  of  Wyoming  and  Montana 
have  widely  sought  to  assist  in  the  protection  and  control  of  this  supply." 

Elk,  antelope  and  both  mule  and  white-tailed  deer  are  numerous  in  the  park. 


During  the  winter  of  1916-17  more  than  two  hundred  tons  of  alfalfa  were  fed 
to  these  animals  by  the  employees  of  the  park  service.  Heavy  snows  drove  large 
numbers  of  elk  and  antelope  out  of  the  park,  in  search  of  a  lower  altitude.  They 
found  shelter  from  the  severe  weather  in  the  Jackson's  Hole  country  in  Wyo- 
ming and  near  Electric,  Mont.  It  is  in  such  cases  that  the  protective  laws  of 
those  states,  mentioned  by  Mr.  Albright,  come  into  play.  The  animals  were  pro- 
tected by  the  state  game  wardens  from  the  thoughtless  sportsman  and  when  the 
weather  conditions  improved  they  returned  to  the  park  of  their  own  accord. 
Since  191 1  the  total  number  of  elk  shipped  from  the  park  to  other  states  or  mu- 
nicipalities, "where  their  future  protection  is  assured,"  was  2,263,  and  on  June  9, 
1917,  there  were  nearly  twenty  thousand  in  the  park.  A  few  moose  are  fre- 
quently seen,  the  tame  herd  of  buffalo  numbered  330  in  June,  191 7,  black  and 
cinnamon  bears  are  numerous,  and  there  are  194  known  varieties  of  birds  to  be 
found  in  the  park.  The  United  States  Fish  Commission  maintains  a  branch  fish 
hatchery  in  the  park.  It  is  located  on  the  shore  of  Yellowstone  Lake,  near 
the  Lake  House.  During  the  season  of  1917  a  total  of  1,773,000  young  fish  were 
planted  in  the  lakes  and  streams  of  the  park.  Fishing  by  visitors  is  permitted, 
and  Mr.  Lindsley  says  in  his  report  for  1917:  "The  confining  of  fishing  to  the 
strict  letter  of  the  regulations  has  not  been  disappointing  in  its  results,  as  its 
effects  have  already  been  noticed  in  the  additional  interest  in  fishing  manifested 
by  travelers ;  and  it  has  not  proven  as  much  of  a  disappointment  to  the  hotels  and 
camps  as  was  expected,  for  the  reason  that  tourists  have  taken  an  unusual  inter- 
est in  fishing  and  have  caught  many  fish  that  have  found  their  way  to  the  tables." 
The  object  in  planting  fish  in  the  waters,  for  tourists  to  catch,  is  "to  make 
the  national  parks  more  popular  as  playgrounds  of  the  people,  where  amusements 
can  be  found  in  addition  to  the  scenery."  The  lover  of  rod  and  line  should  there- 
fore be  attracted  to  the  Yellowstone  National  Park,  where  he  can  "cast  flies" 
to  his  heart's  content,  while  at  the  same  time  enjoying  the  picturesque  scenery 
and  natural  wonders  of  the  park. 

From  the  Herbert  l.i.n«-ii  CuUc 


A  Cheyeime  Chief  who  led   his   tril>e   in   the  fight   with   General   Custe 









Before  the  white  man  the  Indian;  before  the  Indian,  who?  The  question  is 
more  easily  asked  than  answered.  Archaeologists  have  found  in  Wyoming  evi- 
dences of  the  existence  of  an  ancient  race,  which  some  writers  on  the  subject 
think  was  contemporary  with  the  cliff  dwellers  of  Colorado.  Along  the  Big 
Horn  and  Wind  rivers,  and  about  the  sources  of  the  Yellowstone,  have  been 
found  steatite  vessels,  lance  and  arrow  heads,  stone  knives,  celts  and  other 
weapons  and  utensils  different  from  any  found  in  the  mounds  in  other  sections 
of  the  country.  Many  of  these  utensils  are  of  a  green  marble,  marked  by  veins, 
or  stones  of  volcanic  origin,  and  no  one  has  been  able  to  determine  from  whence 
they  came.  Similar  relics,  as  well  as  cotton  and  a  coarse  thread,  have  been 
found  in  the  Santa  Lucia  \'alley  in  New  Mexico,  from  which  it  is  inferred  that 
the  aborigines  of  that  section  and  those  of  Wyoming  were  closely  related.  Says 
Bancroft :  "Heaps  of  bones,  tools,  ornaments,  weapons,  burial  cairns  and  mining 
sliafts  are  among  the  proofs  of  their  presence.  At  what  period  they  disappeared 
and  recent  tribes  took  their  place  is  among  the  secrets  which  the  past  refuses  to 

Since  the  first  investigations  of  Scjuier  and  Davis  among  the  mounds  of  the 
Mississippi  \'alley,  about  1845  to  1850,  a  great  deal  has  been  written  regarding 
the  first  inhabitants  of  the  American  continent.  The  early  writers  on  the  sub- 
ject were  almost  a  unit  in  attributing  to  the  aborigines  a  great  antiquity,  and  in 
advocating  the  theory  that  they  were  of  a  separate  race.  Morfe  recent  explorations 
among  the  mounds  and  relics  have  disclosed  the  fact  that  their  civilization — ■ 
if  such  it  can  be  called — resembled  in  many  particulars  that  of  some  of  the  Indian 
tribes  encountered  by  the  first  white  men  who  came  to  what  now  constitutes  the 
United  States.  This  is  especially  true  of  the  tribes  inhabiting  the  Lower  Missis- 
sippi Valley  and  the  country  along  the  coast  of  the  Gulf  of  Mexico,  who  the 
first  explorers  in  that  region  found  using  knives  and  other  utensils  of  obsidian, 
very  similar  in  appearance  to  those  found  in  Wyoming  and  New  Mexico.  In 


the  early  part  of  the  Seventeenth  Century,  the  Natchez  and  other  southern 
tribes  of  Indians  were  accustomed  to  the  erection  of  burial  mounds  and  cairns. 
These  and  kindred  facts  have  been  brought  to  light  by  the  research  of  the 
United  States  Bureau  of  Ethnologv',  and  the  general  theory  now  is  that  the  so- 
called  Mound  Builders  and  other  aboriginal  peoples  were  nothing  more  than  the 
ancestors  of  the  tribes  that  inhabited  the  country  at  the  time  it  was  first  visited 
by  white  men. 


Probably  more  pages  have  been  written  relating  to  the  Indian  tribes  of  North 
America  than  on  any  other  subject  pertaining  to  American  history.  To  the 
student  of  history  there  is  a  peculiar  fascination  in  the  story  of  these  savage 
tribes — their  legends,  traditions  and  customs — that  makes  the  topic  always  one 
of  surpassing  interest,  and  no  history  of  Wyoming  would  be  complete  without 
some  account  of  the  tribes  that  inhabited  the  country  before  the  advent  of  the 
white  man. 

When  Christopher  Columbus  made  his  first  voyage  to  the  New  World  in  1492, 
he  believed  that  he  had  at  last  reached  the  goal  of  his  long  cherished  ambitions, 
and  that  the  country  where  he  landed  was  the  eastern  shore  of  Asia.  Early 
European  explorers  in  America,  entertaining  a  similar  belief,  thought  the  country 
was  India  and  gave  to  the  race  of  copper  colored  people  they  found  here  the 
name  of  "Indians."  Later  explorations  disclosed  the  fact  that  the  land  discov- 
ered by  Columbus  was  really  a  continent  hitherto  unknown  to  the  civilized 
nations  of  the  world.  The  error  in  geography  was  thus  corrected,  but  the 
name  given  by  the  first  adventurers  to  the  natives  still  remains. 


The  North  American  Indians  are  divided  into  several  groups  or  families,  each 
of  -which  is  distinguished  by  certain  physical  and  linguistic  characteristics,  and 
each  group  is  subdivided  into  a  number  of  tribes,  each  of  which  is  ruled  over 
by  a  chief.  At  the  close  of  the  Fifteenth  Century,  when  the  first  Europeans  began 
their  explorations  in  America,  they  found  the  various  leading  Indian  families 
distributed  over  the  continent  as  follows : 

In  the  far  north  were  the  Eskimo,  a  people  that  have  never  played  any  con- 
spicuous part  in  history.  These  Indians  still  inhabit  the  country  about  the  Arctic 
Circle,  where  some  of  them  have  been  occasionally  employed  as  guides  to  polar 
expeditions,  which  has  been  about  their  only  association  with  the  white  man. 

The  Algonquian  family,  the  most  numerous  and  powerful  of  all  the  Indian 
nations,  occupied  a  great  triangle,  roughly  bounded  by  the  Atlantic  coast  from 
Labrador  to  Cape  Hatteras  and  by  lines  drawn  from  those  two  points  to  the 
western  end  of  Lake  Superior.  Within  this  triangle  lived  the  Delaware,  Shaw- 
nee, Miami,  Pottawatomi,  Sac  and  Fox  and  other  powerful  tribes,  which  yielded 
slowly  to  the  advance  of  the  superior  race.  Almost  in  the  very  heart  of  the 
Algonquian  triangle — along  the  shores  of  Lake  Ontario  and  the  upper  reaches 
of  the  St.  Lawrence  River — lived  the  Iroquoian  group,  which  was  composed 
of  the  Oneida,  Mohawk,  Onondaga,  Cayuga  and  Seneca  tribes.     To  the  early 


settlers  of  New  York  these  tribes  were  known  as  the  "Five  Nations."  Some 
years  afterward  the  Tuscarora  tribe  was  added  to  the  confederacy,  which  then 
took  the  name  of  the  "Six  Nations." 

South  of  tlie  Algonquian  country,  extending  from  the  Mississippi  River  to 
the  Atlantic  coast,  was  the  region  inhabited  by  the  Muskhogean  family,  the  lead- 
ing tribes  of  which  were  the  Creek,  Chickasaw,  Cherokee  and  Choctaw.  The 
Indians  of  this  group  were  among  the  most  intelligent  as  well  as  the  most  aggres- 
sive and  warlike  of  all  the  North  American  tribes. 

In  the  great  Northwest,  about  the  sources  of  the  Mississippi  River  and  ex- 
tending westward  to  the  Missouri,  lay  the  domain  of  the  Siouan  family,  which 
was  composed  of  a  number  of  tribes  closely  resembling  each  other  in  physical 
appearance  and  dialect,  and  noted  for  their  warlike  tendencies  and  military 

South  and  west  of  the  .Siouan  country  lived  the  "Plains  Indians,"  com- 
posed of  tribes  of  mixed  stock.  Their  domain  extended  westward  to  the  foot- 
hills of  the  Rocky  Mountains.  Among  these  tribes  were  the  Arapaho  and  Qiey- 
enne  in  the  northern  part  and  the  Apache,  Comanche  and  Kiowa  farther  to 
the  south.  All  these  tribes  were  bold  and  vindictive  in  disposition  and  skilful 

West  of  the  Plains  Indians  dwelt  the  Shoshonean  group,  the  principal  tribes 
of  which  were  the  Shoshone,  Bannock  and  Comanche.  This  group  was  one  of 
the  smallest  on  the  continent.  Farther  south,  in  what  are  now  the  states  of 
Arkansas  and  Louisiana  was  the  Caddoan  group,  and  scattered  over  other 
parts  of  the  country  were  numerous  minor  tribes  which  in  all  probability  had 
separated  from  some  of  the  great  families,  but  who,  at  the  time  they  first  came 
in  contact  with  the  white  men  claimed  kinship  with  none.  These  tribes  were 
generally  inferior  in  numbers,  often  nomadic  in  their  habits,  and  consequently 
are  of  little  importance  historically. 

In  a  history  of  such  as  this,  it  is  not  the  design  to  give  an  extended  account  of 
the  Indian  race  as  a  whole,  but  to  notice  only  those  tribes  whose  history  is  inti- 
mately connected  with  the  territory  now  comprising  the  State  of  Wyoming. 
Foremost  among  these  tribes  are  the  Arapaho,  Bannock,  Blackfeet,  Cheyenne, 
Crow,  Shoshone,  and  certain  minor  tribes  of  the  Siouan  stock. 


Some  ethnologists  place  the  Arapaho  among  the  tribes  of  the  Siouan  family, 
but  the  United  States  Bureau  of  Ethnology  classifies  them  as  one  of  the  Algon- 
quian tribes,  which  separated  from  the  main  body  of  that  group  long  before  the 
first  white  men  came  to  America.  One  of  their  traditions  says  that  many  hun- 
dred years  ago  the  tribe  lived  in  Western  Minnesota,  from  which  region  they 
were  driven  by  the  Sioux.  In  their  migrations  they  became  divided  into  three 
tribes — the  Gros  Ventres  of  the  prairie  and  the  Northern  and  Southern  Arapaho. 
This  division  took  place  when  the  tribe  reached  the  Missouri  River,  early  in  the 
Nineteenth  Century.  The  Gros  Ventres  then  went  north  and  joined  the  Black- 
feet,  .seldom  afterward  visiting  their  brethren. 

Dorsey  says  the  word  Arapaho  means  the  "tattooed  people,"  and  says  a 
tribal  tradition  claims  that  these  Indians  once  inhabited  all  the  country  between 


the  sources  of  the  Platte  River  and  the  Arkansas  River.  The  Northern  Arapaho 
call  themselves  "A-no-nai,"  which  in  their  dialect  means  "the  parent  of  na- 
tions," though  the  Southern  Arapaho  say  that  it  means  only  "the  men,"  or  "the 
people."  As  a  matter  of  fact  the  origin  and  meaning  of  the  tribal  name  are 
matters  of  uncertainty.  The  men  of  the  tribe  are  brave  and  intelligent,  and 
both  men  and  women  resemble  the  Sioux  Indians,  which  is  no  doubt  responsible 
for  the  belief  that  the  Arapaho  are  of  that  stock. 

In  religion  the  Arapaho  are  monotheistic.  They  believe  in  a  Great  Spirit  who 
is  good  and  omnipotent,  and  an  evil  spirit  which  is  constantly  working  for  the 
downfall  of  humanity.  They  have  a  standard  of  right  and  wrong  and  believe 
that  the  good  and  bad  deeds  done  on  earth  will  be  rewarded  or  punished  after 
death.  Ghosts  and  spirits  of  departed  ancestors,  especially  their  great  chiefs, 
form  a  part  of  their  superstitious  belief,  and  fairy  stories  or  folk  lore  was 
common  among  them  when  they  were  first  met  by  the  whites.  The  white  buffalo 
they  have  always  looked  upon  as  a  sort  of  deity. 


Sherman  Coolidge,  an  educated  Arapaho,  some  years  ago  wrote  an  account 
of  the  Arapaho  tradition  of  the  flood,  from  which  the  following  has  been 
adapted:  Long  ago.  before  there  was  any  animal  life  on  the  earth,  the  entire 
surface  of  the  planet  was  covered  with  water,  except  the  top  of  one  high  moun- 
tain. Upon  this  mountain  sat  a  lone  Arapaho,  poor,  weeping  and  in  great  dis- 
tress. The  Great  Spirit  saw  him  and  felt  sorry  for  him,  and  in  his  pity  sent 
three  ducks  to  the  poor  Indian.  The  Arapaho  ordered  the  ducks  to  dive  down 
into  the  waters  and  bring  up  some  dirt.  The  first  and  second  tried,  but  after 
remaining  under  water  for  a  long  time  each  returned  without  any  dirt.  Then  the 
third  went  down  and  was  gone  so  long  that  the  surface  of  the  water  where  he 
disappeared  had  become  still  and  quiet.  The  Arapaho  believed  this  duck  to  be 
dead  when  she  returned  to  the  surface  with  some  dirt  in  her  bill.  As  soon  as 
the  Arapaho  received  this  bit  of  earth  the  waters  began  to  subside. 

In  a  short  time  the  waters  had  receded  so  far  that  they  could  not  be  seen  from 
the  top  of  the  highest  mountain,  but  this  Arapaho,  who  was  endowed  with  super- 
natural wisdom  and  power,  knew  that  they  surrounded  the  earth,  even  as  they 
do  to  this  day.  The  Arapaho,  who  had  been  saved  by  the  ducks,  then  became 
the  sole  possessor  of  the  land.  He  made  the  rivers  and  made  the  trees  to  grow 
along  them,  the  buffaloes,  elks,  deer  and  other  animals,  all  the  birds  of  the  air  and 
the  fishes  in  the  waters,  and  all  the  trees  and  bushes  and  all  other  things  that 
can  be  grown  by  planting  seeds  in  the  ground. 

Then  all  the  other  tribes — the  Sioux,  the  Cheyenne,  the  Shoshone,  etc. — 
cnme  to  this  Arapaho,  poor  and  on  foot,  and  he  gave  them  ponies.  He  also 
taught  them  to  make  bows  and  arrows  and  how  to  start  a  fire  by  rubbing  two 
sticks  together.  This  Arapaho  god  also  had  a  peace  pipe,  which  he  gave  to  the 
people  and  told  them  to  live  at  peace  with  each  other,  but  especially  with  the 
Arapaho.  The  Cheyenne  was  the  first  of  the  tribes  to  come  and  receive  gifts 
and  knowledge  of  the  Arapaho  god.  Among  the  gifts  they  received  were  ponies, 
in  the  use  of  which  they  became  expert.     The  Shoshone  had  no  lodges  and  the 


Chief  of  the  Crow  tribe. 


Arapaho  taught  them  to  construct  skin  tepees.     Then  all  the  tribes  loved  the 


Like  the  Arapaho,  the  Cheyenne  Indians  belong  to  the  Algonquian  family. 
A  tribal  tradition  says  these  Indians  once  inhabited  the  valley  of  the  Red 
River  of  the  North,  where  they  were  friendly  with  both  the  Sioux  and  Ojibway 
while  those  tribes  were  at  war  with  each  other.  In  time  the  Ojibway  became 
suspicious  that  the  Cheyenne  were  aiding  the  Sioux  and  drove  them  westward 
into  what  is  now  North  Dakota.  From  there  they  were  driven  by  the  hostile 
Sioux  to  the  upper  waters  of  the  Platte  River.  After  they  became  established 
there  all  the  tribes  of  the  plains  acknowledged  their  superiority  in  their  impetuous 
valor  and  as  fierce,  skilful  warriors. 

When  Bent's  Fort  was  built  on  the  Upper  Arkansas  River,  in  the  early  part 
of  the  Nineteenth  Century,  a  portion  of  the  tribe  moved  to  that  section  of  the 
country  and  became  known  as  the  "Southern  Cheyenne."  Those  who  remained 
in  the  Platte  Valley  extended  their  domain  to  the  Yellowstone  and  became  known 
as  the  "Northern  Cheyenne."  Since  that  time  they  have  been  recognized  as  two 
separate  and  distinct  bands,  the  Northern  Cheyenne  becoming  affiliated  with 
the  Sioux  and  the  Southern  with  the  Kiawa.  By  treaties  with  the  United  States 
they  ceded  their  lands  in  Wyoming  and  were  given  reservations  in  Montana 
and  Oklahoma,  respectively.  In  1910  there  were  about  three  thousand  on  the 
two  reservations.  After  the  separation  of  the  tribe  there  was  very  little  com- 
munication between  them,  though  Brave  Bear,  a  chief  of  the  Southern  Cheyenne 
brought  a  number  of  his  warriors  to  assist  his  northern  brethren  in  the  Custer 

The  Indian  name  of  this  tribe  is  Ab-sa-ro-ka,  meaning  "the  hawk."  They 
belong  to  the  Siouan  group,  though  they  separated  from  the  other  Siouan  tribes 
so  far  back  in  the  past  that  their  oldest  traditions  have  failed  to  preserve  the 
date.  When  first  encountered  by  white  men  they  occupied  the  Upper  Yellow- 
stone Valley,  where  they  were  allowed  to  dwell  in  security  by  the  other  tribes, 
who  knew  too  well  their  warlike  dispostion  and  skill  with  arms.  Formerly  they 
were  frequently  at  war  with  the  adjacent  tribes,  particularly  the  Sioux,  until 
they  had  firmly  established  themselves  in  their  domain,  but  they  were  generally 
at  peace  with  the  whites,  often  furnishing  scouts  to  detachments  of  United 
States  troops  against  the  hostile  tribes. 

When  the  first  trappers  and  agents  of  the  fur  companies  came  into  the  Crow 
country,  the  Indians  stole  their  traps  and  occasionally  ran  ofT  their  horses. 
Concerning  this,  the  artist  Catlin  says:  "While  these  people  have  sometimes 
been  called  rascals  and  thieves,  and  rogues  of  the  first  order,  yet  they  do  not 
consider  themselves  such,  for  thieving  in  their  estimation  is^  a  high  crime,  and  in 
their  eyes  a  disgraceful  act;  that  while  they  sometimes  capture  and  run  off  a 
trader's  horse  and  make  their  boasts  of  it,  they  consider  it  a  kind  of  retaliation 
or  summary  justice,   which  they  think  right  and  honorable  for  the  unlicensed 


trespass  through  their  country  from  one  end  to  the  other  by  the  mercenary 
white  men,  who  destroy  the  game,  catch  the  beaver  and  drive  other  valuable 
furs  off  their  country  without  paying  them  an  equivalent,  or  in  fact  anything 
at  all  for  it,  and  this,  too,  when  they  have  been  warned  time  and  again  of  the 
danger  they  would  be  in  if  they  longer  persisted  in  such  practices." 

The  same  writer  pronounces  the  Crow  Indians  "the  most  honest  and  hon- 
orable race  of  people  among  whom  I  have  ever  lived."  Catlin  may  have  found 
them  so  in  his  relations  with  them,  but  the  early  settlers  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
Crow  country  could  no  doubt  tell  a  dift'erent  story  of  depredations  committed, 
live  stock  stolen,  etc. 

Among  the  Crow  Indians  there  were  a  number  of  military  societies.  To  be 
a  member  of  one  of  these  societies  was  a  privilege  accorded  only  to  those  who 
had  distinguished  themselves  in  warfare.  They  also  had  many  feasts  and  cere- 
moni;,ls,  one  of  which  was  the  planting  of  the  sacred  tobacco  plant.  After  the 
tribe  ceded  its  lands  to  the  United  States  its  members  were  given  a  reserva- 
tion in  Southern  Montana. 


The  Shoshone  (or  Shoshoni)  is  the  leading  tribe  of  the  Shoshonean  family. 
Some  authorities  say  this  name  was  given  to  the  tribe  by  the  Cheyenne,  but  this 
is  probably  a  mistake.  The  name  signifies  "People  of  the  high  land,"  and  no 
doubt  originated  in  the  fact  that  these  Indians  inhabited  the  country  along  the 
eastern  slope  of  the  Rocky  Mountains.  They  were  sometimes  called  the  Rocky 
Mountain  Indians  by  the  first  explorers  and  travelers  through  the  West.  They 
were  also  called  the  Snake  Indians.  Says  Haines :  "It  is  uncertain  why  the 
term  'Snake'  was  given  to  this  tribe  by  the  whites,  but  probably  because  of  their 
tact  in  leading  pursuits  by  crawling  off  in  the  long  grass  or  diving  in  the  water." 

The  first  white  men  to  give  any  account  of  the  Shoshone  were  Lewis  and 
Clark,  who  came  upon  a  band  of  them  in  Western  Montana  in  1804,  while  on 
their  way  to  the  Pacific  coast.  The  explorers  called  them  Snakes,  and  in  the 
journal  of  the  Lewis  and  Clark  expedition  mention  is  made  of  Sac-a-ja-we-a 
(the  bird  woman),  a  member  of  the  band,  who  acted  as  guide  to  the  expedition 
to  the  sources  of  the  Columbia  River.  From  this  woman  and  her  husband, 
Lewis  and  Clark  learned  that  the  tribe  inhabited  the  country  now  included  in 
Western  Wyoming  and  Montana,  Southern  Idaho,  Northern  Utah,  Northeastern 
Nevada  and  Eastern  Oregon.  Those  living  along  the  eastern  slopes  of  the  Rocky 
Mountains  had  ponies  and  hunted  the  buffalo,  but  they  never  ventured  very  far 
from  their  mountain  homes  for  fear  of  the  warlike  tribes  of  the  plains. 

A  Shoshone  tradition  says  that  many  years  ago  they  dwelt  in  a  country  far  to 
the  southward,  where  the  rivers  were  filled  with  alligators.  Consequently,  when 
a  Shoshone  crosses  a  strange  river  he  always  offers  a  brief  prayer  to  the  alliga- 
tors that  may  be  in  it  to  spare  his  life.  After  leaving  that  country  they  came 
to  the  Rocky  Mountains,  where  they  had  lived  for  nearly  fifty  years  before 
the  first  trappers  and  traders  came  into  their  country.  During  that  period  they 
had  frequently  been  compelled  to  resort  to  arms  to  repel  invasions  by  the  Sioux, 
Crow,  Cheyenne  and  Arapaho  tribes. 

They  were   superstitious,   with  a  firm  belief  in  ghosts,   fairies,   little  devils. 


water  babies,  etc.  They  also  believed  in  a  demon  of  bad  luck,  who  resembled 
a  short,  stocky  human  being  dressed  in  goatskin  clothing,  and  who  carried  a 
quiver  filled  with  invisible  arrows.  Any  person  shot  with  one  of  these  arrows 
did  not  die,  but  was  certain  to  suffer  some  reverse  of  fortune  or  health.  If  a 
member  of  the  family  fell  ill,  or  a  horse  went  lame,  it  was  considered  proof 
positive  that  one  of  the  invisible  arrows  had  done  its  work,  and  the  only  relief 
was  removal  to  another  part  of  the  country.  To  hear  a  coyote  howl  at  full 
moon  was  an  omen  of  good  luck,  and  if  a  family,  removing  at  such  a  time  to 
another  place  to  get  rid  of  the  evil  influence  of  the  invisible  arrow  should  hear 
the  howl  of  a  coyote,  the  head  of  the  family  would  give  the  order  to  return  to  the 
old  home,  satisfied  that  the  spell  was  broken. 

Kindred  tribes  of  the  Shoshonean  group  are  the  Comanche,  Bannock,  Piute, 
Flathead  and  a  few  minor  mountain  bands  bearing  different  names,  but  all  off- 
shoots from  the  parent  stock.  The  Bannock  Indians  at  one  time  inhabited 
Eastern  Oregon  and  Southern  Idaho,  though  some  of  this  tribe  lived  with  the 
Shoshone  in  Western  Wyoming,  and  after  the  treaty  of  1868  occupied  for  a 
time  a  portion  of  the  Wind  River  reservation.  In  1871  they  quarreled  with  the 
Shoshone  and  were  removed  to  Fort  Hall,  Idaho.  Four  years  later  the  Shoshone 
agreed  to  allow  the  Arapaho  to  occupy  part  of  the  reservation.  The  arrangement 
was  made,  and,  although  the  two  tribes  had  long  been  enemies,  they  have  since 
dwelt  together  in  peace. 


Washakie,  one  of  the  best  known  of  the  \\'yoming  Indians,  became  the  head 
chief  of  the  Shoshone  in  1857,  being  at  that  time  about  forty  years  of  age. 
He  was  a  real  friend  of  the  white  men  and  it  was  through  his  influence  that 
the  southwestern  part  of  the  state  was  ceded  to  the  United  States  in  1868,  when 
the  Wind  River  reservation  was  established.  In  1876  Washakie,  with  213  of  his 
warriors,  joined  General  Crook  in  the  campaign 'against  hostile  tribes.  On  this 
campaign  General  Crook  consulted  Washakie  daily  as  to  the  habits  of  the  Indi- 
ans of  whom  they  were  in  pursuit,  and  in  nearly  every  instance  the  information 
imparted  was  found  to  be  correct.  His  men  also  performed  valuable  services 
as  scouts. 

After  the  campaign.  President  Grant  sent  to  the  old  chief  a  fine  horse  and 
saddle,  through  Doctor  Irwin,  the  Indian  agent.  When  presented  with  the 
horse  Washakie  said  nothing.  The  agent  suggested  that  he  ought  to  send  his 
thanks  to  General  Grant,  whereupon  the  old  chief  replied :  "Do  a  favor  to  a 
white  man,  he  feels  it  in  his  head  and  the  tongue  speaks.  Do  a  kindness  to  an 
Indian,  he  feels  it  in  his  heart ;  the  heart  has  no  tongue." 

Washakie  ruled  his  people  with  an  iron  hand,  though  he  was  always  earnest 
in  his  efforts  to  improve  their  condition.  On  one  occasion  the  agent  complained 
that  one  man  of  the  tribe  was  making  trouble  by  getting  drvmk  and  fighting. 
Washakie  called  the  man  before  him  and  admonished  him  to  improve  his  con- 
duct. A  little  later  the  agent  again  complained  of  the  Indian's  drunkenness  and 
disorderly  behavior.  The  old  chief  said  nothing  at  the  time,  but  the  following 
day  assured  the  agent  that  the  fellow  would  give  him  no  further  trouble.  Then 
the  agent  learned  that  the  chief  had  taken  the  Indian  out  and  shot  him.   Another 


time,  when  he  was  going  to  be  away  for  a  few  days,  he  left  orders  with  his  wife 
to  remove  the  tepee  to  another  location  while  he  was  gone.  Upon  his  return 
he  found  the  lodge  in  the  same  place  and  inquired  why  his  Dvders  had  not  Ix'cn 
obeyed.  His  wife  said  it  was  because  her  mother  objecteil.  W  ashakie  then  asked 
his  mother-in-law  why  she  opposed  his  wishes.  The  old  squaw  promptly  in- 
formed him  that  it  was  because  she  wanted  the  tepee  to  remain  where  it  was. 
Washakie  then  killed  her  and  ordered  his  wife  to  remove  the  tepee.  This  time 
his  order  was  obeyed. 

He  was  a  polygamist,  with  several  wives  and  numerous  children.  In  this 
respect  he  merely  followed  the  custom  of  the  Shoshone  chiefs  for  generations 
and  saw  nothing  wrong  in  his  having  a  number  of  wives,  although  he  was  one 
of  the  most  intelligent  of  the  Shoshone  Indians.  Washakie  died  about  the 
beginning  of  the  present  century. 


In  addition  to  the  tribes  above  mentioned,  the  Blackfeet,  Arikara,  Assiniboine, 
Gros  \'entre,  Mandan  and  certain  bands  of  the  Siou.x  Indians  either  claimed 
land  within  the  present  limits  of  Wyoming  or  hunted  therein.  These  tribes  joined 
with  the  Cheyenne,  Arapaho,  etc.,  in  making  treaties  with  the  representatives  of 
the  United  States. 

The  Blackfeet  were  originally  allied  with  the  Algonquian  family,  but  left 
that  group  and  wandered  up  the  Missouri  River,  where  they  became  affiliated 
with  the  Siouan  tribes,  especially  the  Teton,  Unkpapa  and  Brule  (or  Bois  Brule) 
bands,  and  in  time  came  to  be  recognized  as  one  of  the  Siouan  tribes.  It  is 
said  that  they  received  the  name  of  Blackfeet  because  when  they  came  up  the 
Missouri  River  their  leggings  were  black  from  marching  over  the  burned  prairie. 
At  one  time  the  Blackfeet  were  estimated  at  forty  thousand.  In  1910  there 
were  2,100  on  the  reservation  in  Montana  and  3,000  in  the  British  Possessions. 

No  Indian  tribe  of  the  Northwest  was  more  uncertain  in  temper  and  con- 
duct than  the  Arikara.  Some  ethnologists  place  these  Indians  as  an  offshoot  of 
the  Fox,  but  they  belonged  to  the  Caddoan  group.  One  of  their  traditions 
states  that  they  lived  in  Western  Missouri  about  1780,  where  they  were  driven 
out  by  hostile  tribes  and  ascended  the  Missouri.  They  were  friendly  to  Lewis 
and  Clark  in  1804  and  1806,  but  were  hostile  to  Ensign  Pryor's  party  in  1807 
when  escorting  the  Alandan  chief  to  his  home  after  visiting  Washington.  They 
traded  with  the  Missouri  Fur  Company  in  181 1;  robbed  two  trading  houses  of 
the  company  near  Great  Bend  in  1820 ;  were  friendly  to  Joshua  Pilcher  in  1822, 
and  the  next  year  attacked  the  trading  house  of  the  Missouri  Fur  Company  in 
the  Sioux  country  and  were  hostile  to  W.  H.  Ashley's  first  expedition  up  the 
Missouri,  after  first  making  a  show  of  friendship. 


When  Cortez  was  commissioned  captain-general  of  New  Spain  in  1529,  he 
was  directed  to  "give  special  attention  to  the  conversion  of  the  Indians ;  to  see 
that  no  Indians  be  given  to  the  Spaniards  as  servants ;  that  they  pay  such 
tribute  to  His  Majesty  as  they  can  easily  afford;  that  there  shall  be  a  good  cor- 


respondence   maintained   between   the   Spaniards   and   the   natives,   and   that   no 
wrong  shall  be  offered  the  latter  either  in  their  goods,  families  or  persons.'' 

Such  were  the  instructions  of  the  Spanish  Government,  but  notwithstanding 
this,  during  the  conquest  of  Mexico  and  Central  America  the  treatment  of  the 
nati\es  was  cruel  in  the  extreme,  many  of  them  being  captured  and  forced  to 
work  in  the  mines.  Don  Sebastian  Ramirez,  bishop  and  acting  governor  after 
Cortez,  tried  to  carry  out  the  humane  orders  of  the  commission.  Antonio  de 
Herrera  says  that  under  his  administration  "the  country  was  much  improved  and 
all  things  carried  on  with  equity,  to  the  general  satisfaction  of  all  good  men." 

The  Spanish  authorities  never  accepted  the  idea  that  the  Indians  owned  all 
the  land,  but  only  that  part  actually  occupied,  or  that  might  be  necessary  to 
supply  their  wants.  All  the  rest  of  the  land  belonged  to  Spain  by  right  of  dis- 
covery, and  the  policy  of  dealing  with  the  natives  was  based  upon  this  theory. 

The  French  had  no  settled  policy  regarding  the  title  to  lands.  In  the  letters 
patent  given  by  Louis  XV  to  the  Western  Company  in  August,  1717,  was  the  fol- 
lowing provision : 

"Section  IV — The  said  company  shall  be  free,  in  the  said  granted  lands  to 
negotiate  and  make  alliance  with  all  the  nations  of  the  land,  except  those  which 
are  dependent  on  the  other  powers  of  Europe;  she  may  agree  with  them  on 
such  conditions  as  she  may  think  fit,  to  settle  among  them,  and  trade  freely 
with  them,  and  in  case  they  insult  her  she  may  declare  war  against  them,  attack 
them  or  defend  herself  by  means  of  arms,  and  negotiate  with  them  for  peace 
or  a  truce." 

In  this  section  it  will  be  noticed  there  is  nothing  said  about  the  acquisition 
of  lands.  As  a  matter  of  fact  the  French  cared  but  little  for  the  lands,  the 
principal  object  being  to  control  the  fur  trade.  The  trading  post  did  not  require 
a  large  tract  of  land,  and  outside  of  the  site  of  the  trading  house  and  a  small 
garden,  the  Indians  were  left  in  full  possession.  Xor  did  the  French  become 
the  absolute  owners  of  the  small  tracts  at  the  trading  posts.  In  case  the  post 
was  abandoned  the  site  reverted  to  its  Indian  owners.  Under  such  a  liberal 
policy  it  is  not  surprising  that  the  French  traders  were  almost  always  on  friendly 
terms  with  the  natives. 

The  English  policy  treated  the  Indian  as  a  barbarian  and  in  making  land 
grants  ignored  any  claim  he  might  make  to  the  soil.  The  so-called  "Great  Patent 
of  New  England,"  which  was  issued  to  the  Plymouth  Company  and  embracing 
the  land  from  40°  to  48°  north  latitude,  made  not  the  slightest  allusion  to  the 
Indian  title.  The  settlers  bought  the  land  from  the  tribal  chiefs,  and  in  numer- 
ous instances  failure  to  quit  the  Indian  title  by  purchase  resulted  in 
disastrous  wars.  In  the  charter  granted  by  Charles  I  to  Lord  Baltimore,  the 
grantee  was  given  the  authority  "to  collect  troops,  wage  war  on  the  'barbarians' 
and  other  enemies  who  may  make  incursions  into  the  settlements,  and  to  pur- 
sue them  even  beyond  the  limits  of  their  province,  and  if  God  shall  grant  it,  to 
vanquish  and  captivate  them ;  and  the  captives  to  put  to  death,  or,  according  to 
their  discretion,  to  save." 

All  the  nations  of  Europe  which  acquired  territory  in  America,  asserted  in 
themselves  and  recognized  in  others  the  exclusive  right  of  the  discoverer  to 
claim    and    appropriate    the    lands    occupied    by    the    Indians.      Parkman    says: 


■'Spanish  civilization  crushed  the   Indian;  Enghsh  civihzation   scorned  and   neg- 
lected him ;  French  civilization  emhraced  and  cherished  him." 


The  early  colonies  in  this  country .  adhered  to  the  policy  of  the  country  to 
which  they  belonged.  By  the  treaty  of  September  3,  1783,  which  ended  the  Rev- 
olutionary war,  all  the  rights  and  powers  of  Great  Britain  descended  to  the 
United  States.  The  Articles  of  Confederation,  the  first  organic  law  adopted  by 
the  American  Republic,  provided  that: 

"The  United  States  in  Congress  assembled  shall  have  the  sole  and  exclusive 
right  and  power  of  regulating  the  trade  and  managing  all  affairs  with  the  Indi- 
ans not  members  of  any  of  the/states,  provided  that  the  legislative  right  of  any 
state  within  its  own  limits  be  not  infringed  or  violated." 

On  March  i,  1793,  President  Washington  approved  an  act  to  regulate  trade 
and  intercourse  with  the  Indian  tribes,  in  which  it  was  expressly  stipulated  "That 
no  purchase  or  grant  of  lands,  or  any  title  or  claim  thereto,  from  any  Indians, 
or  nation  or  tribe  of  Indians,  within  the  bounds  of  the  United  States,  shall  be 
of  any  validity,  in  law  or  equity,  unless  the  same  be  made  by  a  treaty  or  conven- 
tion entered  into  pursuant  to  the  constitution." 

The  penalty  for  each  violation  of  this  act  was  a  fine  of  $1,000  and  impris- 
onment not  exceeding  twelve  months.  With  amendments  this  law  remained  the 
basis  of  all  relations  with  the  Indians  of  the  country  until  the  passage  of  the 
act  of  JNIarch  3,  1871.  Cyrus  Thomas,  of  the  United  States  Bureau  of  Ethnology, 
says:  "By  the  act  of  March  3,  1871,  the  legal  fiction  of  recognizing  the  tribes 
as  independent  nations,  with  which  the  United  States  could  enter  into  solemn 
treaty,  was,  after  it  had  continued  nearly  one  hundred  years,  finally  done  away 
with.  The  effect  of  this  act  was  to  bring  under  the  immediate  control  of  the 
Congress  the  transactions  with  the  Indians  and  reduce  to  simple  agreements  what 
had  before  been  accomplished  by  solemn  treaties." 

The  first  treaties  made  by  the  United  .States  with  the  Indian  tribes  were  mere- 
ly treaties  of  peace  and  friendship.  On  .August  3,  1795,  a  great  council  was  held 
at  Greenville,  Ohio,  at  which  time  the  Miami,  Pottawatomi  and  associated  tribes 
ceded  to  the  United  States  certain  lands  in  Indiana  and  Ohio  for  military  posts 
and  roads.  This  was  the  first  cession  of  lands  made  to  the  United  States  by 
Indians  after  the  adoption  of  the  Federal  Constitution.  A  little  later  the  Del- 
aware Indians  ceded  a  portion  of  their  domain  for  settlement  by  the  white 
people.  From  that  time  treaty  after  treaty  followed,  each  extending  the  white 
man's  territory  farther  to  the  westward  until  aliout  the  middle  of  the  last  century, 
when  his  progress  reached  the  present  State  of  \\'yoming. 


For  about  twenty-fi\e  years  after  the  opening  of  the  Oregon  Trail,  it  was 
used  freely  by  the  fur  traders.  The  Indian  tribes  living  within  reach  of  the 
trail  found  it  easier  to  meet  the  traders  at  some  point  along  its  course  than 
to  go  to  the  trading  posts  on  the  Missouri  River  to  dispose  of  their  furs.  The 
discovery  of  gold  in  California  in   1849  brought  a  different  class  of  white  men 


into  the  Indian  country.  The  gold  seekers  brought  no  goods  to  trade  and  had  no 
desire  for  furs.  Almost  every  day  brought  a  train  of  ox  teams  on  the  way  to 
the  new  gold  fields.  The  emigrants  killed  the  buffaloes  indiscriminately,  and 
what  they  did  not  kill  they  scared  away,  leaving  the  Indians  without  their  cus- 
tomary means  of  subsistence.  This  naturally  drove  the  savages  to  adopt  a  policy 
of  retaliation.  It  was  not  long  'until  hunters  and  outriders  were  killed,  stock 
stampeded  and  emigrant  trains  attacked. 

On  October  13,  1849,  Col.  D.  D.  Mitchell,  superintendent  of  Indian  aft'airs, 
wrote  to  the  department  advising  a  grand  council  at  Fort  Laramie,  which 
should  be  attended  by  a  military  force  sufficient  to  awe  the  Indians  into  making 
a  treaty  of  peace,  and  at  the  same  time  fix  the  boundaries  of  each  tribe.  The 
council  assembled  about  the  first  of  September,  185 1,  and  remained  in  session 
for  twenty-three  days.  Ten  thousand  Sioux,  Cheyenne,  Arapaho,  Assiniboine, 
Crow,  Arikara  and  other  Indians  gathered  at  the  Fort.  The  wagon  train  of  sup- 
plies sent  by  the  Government  was  delayed  and  the  vast  assemblage  was  actually 
in  need  of  provisions.  On  the  17th  Colonel  Mitchell  succeeded  in  concluding 
a  treaty,  thus  giving  the  Indians  an  opportunity  to  go  out  and  hunt  buffalo  for 
food,  but  very  few  of  them  left  the  council.  On  the  20th  the  provision  train 
arrived,  when  the  whites  and  Indians  joined  in  a  grand  feast.  By  the  terms 
of  the  treaty  the  United  States  agreed  to  pay  the  several  tribes  the  sum  of 
$50,000  annually  for  ten  years  for  the  right  of  way  for  the  trail  through  their 
lands,  and  each  tribe  accepted  certain  boundaries,  beyond  which  they  were  not 
to  stray  without  the  consent  of  the  Government. 

The  bounds  of  the  Sioux  nation  were  set  forth  in  the  treaty  as  follows: 
"Commencing  at  the  mouth  of  the  White  Earth  River,  on  the  Missouri  River; 
thence  in  a  southwesterly  direction  to  the  forks  of  the  Platte  River;  thence  up 
the  north  fork  of  the  Platte  River  to  a  point  known  as  Red  Bute,  or  where  the 
road  leaves  the  river;  thence  along  the  range  of  mountains  known  as  the  Black 
Hills  to  the  headwaters  of  the  Heart  River;  thence  down  the  Heart  River  to  its 
mouth ;  thence  down  the  ]\Iissouri  River  to  the  place  of  beginning." 

This  tract  included  only  a  part  of  what  was  afterward  recognized  as  Sioux 
territory.  The  domain  included  in  the  above  described  boundaries  lay  chiefly 
in  South  Dakota  and  Nebraska,  but  some  years  later  the  Sioux  became  joint 
claimants  with  the  Northern  Arapaho  and  Cheyenne  to  that  portion  of  Wyoming 
lying  north  of  the  Platte  and  east  of  the  Powder  River  and  Rattlesnake  Moun- 

The  Arikara,  Gros  \'entre  and  ]Mandan  tribes  were  assigned  a  tract  with 
the  following  boundaries :  "Commencing  at  the  mouth  of  the  Heart  River ; 
thence  up  the  Missouri  River  to  the  mouth  of  the  Yellowstone  River;  thence  up 
the  Yellowstone  to  the  mouth  of  the  Powder  River;  thence  in  a  southeasterly 
direction  to  the  headwaters  of  the  Little  Missouri  River;  thence  along  the 
Black  Hills  to  the  head  of  the  Heart  Ri\er ;  and  thence  down  the  Heart  River  to 
the  place  of  beginning." 

Only  a  small  portion  of  this  territory  ( between  the  Little  Powder  and 
Little  Missouri  rivers)  lies  in  Wyoming.  These  tribes  afterward  claimed  to 
own  a  large  tract  of  country  on  the  north  side  of  the  Missouri  River,  which  was 
ceded  to  the  United  States  by  the  treaty  of  July  27,  1866.  but  the  treaty  was 
never  ratified.     Relations  between  them  and  the  Government  remained  unsettled 


until  the  executive  order  of  April  12,  1870,  when  a  reservation  was  assigned 
them  on  land  recognized  by  the  treaty  of  Fort  Laramie,  the  remainder  of  said 
territory  becoming  the  property  of  the  United  States. 

The  Assiniboine  country,  as  fixed  by  the  treaty,  is  all  within  the  present 
State  of  Montana,  the  boundaries  being  described  as  follows :  "Commencing  at 
the  mouth  of  the  Yellowstone  Ri\er;  thence  up  the  Missouri  Ri\'er  to  the  mouth 
of  the  Musselshell  Ri\-er ;  thence  from  the  mouth  of  the  Musselshell  River  in 
a  southeasterly  direction  to  the  headwaters  of  Big  Dry  Creek ;  thence  down  that 
creek  to  where  it  empties  into  the  Yellowstone  River,  nearly  opposite  the  mouth 
of  the  Powder  River;  and  thence  down  the  Yellowstone  River  to  the  place  of 

The  blackfoot  country  boundaries  began  "at  the  mouth  of  the  Musselshell 
River;  thence  up  the  ^Missouri  River  to  its  source:  thence  along  the  main  range 
of  the  Rocky  Mountains  in  a  southerly  direction  to  the  headwaters  of  the  north- 
ern source  of  the  Yellowstone  River;  thence  down  the  Yellowstone  River  to  the 
mouth  of  Twenty-five  Yard  Creek ;  thence  across  to  the  headwaters  of  the  Mus- 
selshell River;  and  thence  down  the  Musselshell  River  to  the  place  of  beginning." 

This  tract  is  all  in  ^lontana  except  a  small  triangular  piece  of  land  in  Yel- 
lowstone National  Park,  extending  southeastward  into  Lincoln  County,  Wyo- 
ming. By  the  treaty  of  October  17.  1855,  which  was  concluded  on  the  Upper 
Missouri,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Judith  River,  the  Blackfoot  domain  was  made 
a  common  hunting  ground  for  that  tribe,  the  Flathead  and  the  Nez  Perce  In- 
dians. ' 

In  the  treaty  the  boundaries  of  the  Crow  country  were  described  as  "Com- 
mencing at  the  mouth  of  the  Powder  River,  on  the  Yellowstone ;  thence  up  the 
Powder  River  to  its  source ;  thence  along  the  main  range  of  the  Black  Hills 
and  the  ^\'ind  River  ^Mountains  to  the  headwaters  of  the  Yellowstone  River; 
thence  down  the  Yellowstone  River  to  the  mouth  of  Twenty-five  Yard  Creek ; 
thence  to  the  headwaters  of  the  Musselshell  River;  thence  down  the  ^Musselshell 
River  to  its  mouth ;  thence  to  the  headwaters  of  Big  Dry  Creek ;  and  thence 
to  its  mouth." 

More  than  half  of  this  tract  is  situated  within  the  limits  of  the  present  State 
of  Wyoming.  It  concludes  all  that  part  of  the  state  lying  between  the  Powder 
and  Yellowstone  rivers  and  extending  sou.thward  to  the  \\'ind  River  and  Rattle- 
snake Mountains.  The  counties  of  Bighorn,  Washakie,  Park  and  Hot  Springs, 
and  the  greater  part  of  Sheridan,  Johnson  and  Natrona,  the  northern  part  of 
Fremont  and  the  eastern  part  of  Yellowstone  National  Park  are  all  situated  in 
what  was  once  Crow  territory.  A  portion  of  the  tract  was  ceded  to  the  United 
States  by  the  treaty  of  Fort  Laramie  (May  7,  1868),  and  a  reser\ation  for  the 
tribe  was  established  in  Montana. 

The  boundaries  of  the  territory  assigned  to  the  Southern  Arapaho  and  Chey- 
enne were  established  and  described  as  follows :  "Commencing  at  the  Red  Butte, 
or  the  place  where  the  road  leaves  the  north  fork  of  the  Platte  River ;  thence 
up  the  said  north  fork  of  the  Platte  River  to  its  source ;  thence  along  the  main 
range  of  the  Rocky  ^fountains  to  the  headwaters  of  the  Arkansas  River ;  thence 
down  the  Arkansas  River  to  the  crossing  of  the  Santa  Fe  Trail;  thence  in  a 
northwesterly  direction  to  the  forks  of  the  Platte  River;  and  thence  up  the 
Platte  River  to  the  place  of  beginning." 


All  that  part  of  Wyoming  situated  south  and  east  of  the  North  Platte  River, 
Southwestern  Nebraska,  a  strip  about  forty  miles  wide  across  the  western  part 
of  Kansas  to  the  Arkansas  River,  and  about  one-third  of  the  present  State  of 
Colorado  were  included  in  the  domain  of  the  Arapaho  and  Cheyenne.  In  Wyo- 
ming the  counties  of  Albany  and  Laramie,  all  that  portion  of  Carbon  east  of  the 
Platte  River,  the  southeast  corner  of  Natrona,  the  southwest  corner  of  Con- 
verse, the  southern  half  of  Goshen  and  nearly  all  of  Platte  have  been  erected 
out  of  this  territory,  which  was  ceded  to  the  United  States  by  the  treaty  of 
Fort  Wise,  Kansas,  which  was  concluded  on  February  i8,  1861. 

The  Northern  Arapaho  and  Cheyenne  were  allotted  the  country  between  the 
Platte  and  Powder  rivers,  in  what  is  now  Northeastern  Wyoming.  Their 
domain  included  the  present  counties  of  Crook,  Campbell,  Weston,  Niobrara,  the 
northern  half  of  Goshen,  the  northeast  comer  of  Platte,  nearly  all  of  Converse, 
and  a  narrow  strip  along  the  eastern  border  of  Sheridan  and  Johnson — that 
part  of  those  counties  east  of  the  Powder  River.  A  portion  of  Natrona  County 
was  also  embraced  in  the  domain  of  the  Cheyenne  and  Arapaho.  Some  time 
after  the  treaty  of  Fort  Laramie,  the  Sioux  were  permitted  by  the  Cheyenne  and 
Arapaho  to  hunt  in  their  country,  and  that  tribe  united  with  the  other  two  in 
the  cession  of  the  region  to  the  United  States  by  agreement  on  September  26,  1876. 

Gen.  William  S.  Harney  called  Colonel  Mitchell's  agreement  with  the  Indi- 
ans a  "bread  and  molasses"  treaty,  as  it  promised  a  great  deal  to  the  Indians  and 
received  practically  nothing  in  return.  The  tribes  failed  to  keep  within  their 
respective  jurisdictions,  nor  did  they  refrain  from  making  attacks  upon  emi- 
grant trains  and  stealing  their  horses  and  cattle.  Hence  it  was  not  long  until 
other  treaties  became  necessary,  especially  as  a  few  white  people  had  already 
settled  in  the  West  soon  after  the  close  of  the  Civil  war  and  others  were  looking 
with  longing  eyes  at  the  broad  prairies  of  that  section,  where  they  were  anxious 
to  obtain  homes. 


During  the  Civil  war  the  Sioux  Indians  gave  the  United  States  authorities 
considerable  trouble  by  their  uprising  in  ^linnesota,  and  after  the  war  was  over 
they  showed  signs  of  dissatisfaction  and  at  times  threatened  to  break  into  open 
hostilities.  In  the  spring  of  1868  Gen.  W.  T.  Sherman,  Gen.  William  S.  Hamey, 
Gen.  Alfred  H.  Terry,  Gen.  C.  C.  Augur,  John  B.  Sanborn,  Samuel  F.  Tappan, 
Nathaniel  G.  Taylor  and  J.  B.  Henderson  were  appointed  commissioners  to 
hold  a  council  and  negotiate  a  treaty  that  would  insure  peace  on  the  part  of  the 

The  council  was  held  at  Fort  Laramie  and  on  April  29.  1868,  the  treaty 
was  concluded,  ceding  to  the  United  States  all  the  Sioux  lands  within  the  present 
limits  of  South  Dakota  that  had  been  allotted  to  them  by  the  treaty  of  Sep- 
tember 17,  1 85 1,  and  a  reservation  was  set  apart  for  the  tribe  in  South  Dakota. 
The  country  north  of  the  Platte  and  east  of  the  summit  of  the  Big  Horn  Moun- 
tains was  considered  to  be  unceded  and  was  retained  by  the  Indians  as  part  of 
their  hunting  grounds.  The  treaty  was  signed  by  the  chiefs  Red  Cloud,  Medicine 
Eagle,  Black  Tiger,  Man  Afraid  of  his  Horses,  and  a  number  of  minor  chiefs. 



On  May  7,  1868,  Generals  Sherman,  Harney,  Terry  and  Augur  concluded  a 
treaty  with  the  chiefs  and  head  men  of  the  Crow  tribe  at  Fort  Laramie,  by  which 
these  Indians  ceded  the  greater  part  of  their  lands  in  Wyoming,  allotted  to  them 
by  the  treaty  of  September  17,  1851,  and  accepted  a  reservation  in  :Montana, 
lying  between  the  northern  boundary  line  of  Wyoming  and  the  Yellowstone 
River.  The  remainder  of  the  Crow  territory  in  ^^'yoming  was  ceded  to  the 
United  States  by  the  agreement  of  June   12,   1880. 


Three  days  after  the  above  treaty  with  the  Crow  Indians  was  concluded, 
the  same  commissioners  met  the  chiefs  of  the  Xorthern  Cheyenne  and  Xorthern 
Arapaho  and  concluded  a  treaty  by  which  those  tribes  relinquished  all  claims 
to  their  lands  in  \\'yoming  and  agreed  to  accept  a  home  either  with  the  Southern 
Arapaho  and  Cheyenne,  on  their  reservation  in  Colorado,  or  on  the  Big  Sioux 
reservation  in  Dakota.  They  were  established  on  the  latter.  In  1875  the 
Arapaho,  with  the  consent  of  the  Shoshone,  were  given  a  home  on  the  Wind 
River  reservation.  That  portion  of  Wyoming  included  in  the  cession  made  by 
this  treaty,  embraces  the  district  between  the  Platte  and  Powder  rivers,  extend- 
ing southwest  to  the  Rattlesnake  ]\Iountains.  After  the  Cheyenne  and  Arapaho 
were  quartered  on  the  Sioux  reservation  they  learned  that  the  territory  had  been 
reserved  by  that  tribe  as  hunting  ground  in  the  treaty  of  April  29,  1868.  Some  of 
the  Cheyenne  and  Arapaho  then  tried  to  renew  their  claims,  and  the  tract  was 
finally  ceded  to  the  United  States  by  all  the  tribes  through  the  agreement  of 
September  26,  1876. 


After  negotiating  the  treaties  with  the  Crow,  Cheyenne  and  Arapaho  at  Fort 
Laramie  in  May,  1868,  Generals  Sherman,  Terry,  Augur  and  Harney  went  to 
Fort  Eridger  and  called  a  council  of  the  Shoshone  and  Bannock  chiefs.  On 
July  3,  1868,  the  chiefs  of  the  eastern  bands  of  those  tribes  entered  into  a 
treaty,  in  which  they  agreed  to  relinquish  all  claims  to  their  lands  in  Wyoming 
and  accept  a  reservation  bounded  as  follows:  "Commencing  at  the  mouth  of 
Owl  Creek  and  running  due  south  to  the  crest  of  the  divide  between  the  Sweet- 
water and  Popo-Agie  rivers;  thence  in  a  westerly  direction  along  the  crest  of 
said  divide  and  the  summit  of  the  Wind  River  Mountains  to  a  point  due  south  of 
the  mouth  of  the  north  fork  of  the  Wind  River;  thence  due  north  to  the  mouth 
of  said  north  fork  and  up  its  channel  to  a  point  twenty  miles  above  its  mouth ; 
thence  in  a  straight  line  to  the  headwaters  of  Owl  Creek,  and  along  the  middle 
channel  of  Owl  Creek  to  the  place  of  beginning." 

The  reservation  thus  established  is  known  as  the  "Wind  River  Reservation." 
The  territory  ceded  included  all  that  part  of  Wyoming  west  of  the  North  Platte 
River  and  south  of  the  Wind  River  Mountains,  extending  northward  to  the 
old  Blackfoot  boundary  in  Yellowstone  National  Park.  This  cession  now  em- 
braces  the   counties   of   Uinta   and    Sweetwater,   all    of   Lincoln    except    a    little 


of  the  northeast  corner,  that  part  of  Carbon  west  of  the  North  Platte  River,  the 
southern  part  of  Fremont  and  a  Httle  of  the  southwest  corner  of  Natrona. 

The  treaty  was  ratified  on  February  i6,  1869,  and  on  the  loth  of  the 
following  December,  Governor  Campbell  approved  a  memorial  adopted  by  the 
first  Territorial  Legislature  of  Wyoming,  setting  forth  that  "the  reservation  had 
been  occupied  by  citizens  of  the  United  States  for  mining  and  agricultural  pur- 
poses ;  that  the  mining  community  known  as  Hamilton  City  or  'Miners'  Delight,' 
and  numerous  other  gold  producing  creeks  and  gulches  are  within  the  limits  of 
said  reservation;  that  while  the  occupants  were  bona  fide  settlers  for  a  year 
before  the  conclusion  of  the  treaty  their  interests  had  not  been  consulted  in  es- 
tablishing the  reservation;  that  the  Shoshone  and  Bannock  Indians  cannot  live 
in  peace  there,  owing  to  the  proximity  of  their  hereditary  enemies,  the  Sioux; 
that  no  game  can  be  found  on  or  in  the  immediate  vicinity  of  the  reservation," 
etc.  The  memorial  asked  Congress  to  abrogate  that  provision  of  the  treaty  and 
establish  a  reservation  elsewhere,  to  the  end  that  the  lands  might  be  reopened  for 
preemption  and  settlement. 

Congress  declined  to  grant  the  request  and  the  Indians  remained  in  possession 
of  the  reservation.  On  March  3,  1871,  President  Grant  approved  the  act  which 
did  away  with  the  custom  of  making  treaties  with  the  Indians,  and  on  Septem- 
ber 26,  1872,  an  agreement  was  made  with  the  Shoshone  by  which  they  ceded  to 
the  United  States  that  part  of  their  reservation  "south  of  a  line  beginning  at  a 
point  on  the  eastern  boundary  of  the  reservation  due  east  of  the  mouth  of  the 
Little  Popo-Agie  at  its  junction  with  the  Popo-Agie  and  running  from  said 
point  west  to  the  mouth  of  the  Little  Popo-Agie ;  thence  up  the  Popo-Agie  to  the 
north  fork  and  up  the  north  fork  to  the  mouth  of  the  canyon;  thence  west  to 
the  western  boundary  of  the  reservation." 

The  Bannock  Indians  had  no  part  in  this  agreement,  having  previously 
quarreled  with  the  Shoshone  and  been  removed  to  the  Fort  Hall  reservation  in 
Idaho.  Subsequent  agreements  have  reduced  the  Wind  River  reservation  to  the 
territory  bounded  by  the  \Mnd  River  on  the  north ;  the  lines  established  by  the 
agreement  of  September  26,  1872,  on  the  south,  and  the  original  western  bound- 
ary between  those  two  lines  on  the  west.  On  May  21.  1887,  President  Cleve- 
land set  apart  a  tract  of  1,405  acres  "more  or  less"  at  the  forks  of  the  Little 
Wind  River,  in  tlie  Wind  River  reservation,  as  a  military  reserve  for  Fort 

The  treaty  of  Fort  Bridger  was  the  last  important  treaty  made  with  the 
Indians  of  Wyoming.  Several  agreements  were  made  after  that  time  to  perfect 
the  title  of  the  whites  to  the  land  ceded,  but  possession  came  with  the  treaty 
of  July  3,  1868.  During  the  half  century  since  that  treaty  was  concluded  a 
dififerent  Wyoming  has  come  upon  the  map  of  the  nation.  Railroads  have  taken 
the  places  of  Indian  trails ;  the  school  house  has  supplanted  the  council  wigwam 
of  the  savage;  the  howl  of  the  wolf  and  the  war-whoop  are  no  longer  heard,  but 
in  their  stead  have  come  the  herds  of  the  husbandman  and  the  hum  of  peaceful 
industry.  And  all  these  changes  have  been  made  within  the  memory  of  persons 
yet  living.  To  tell  the  story  of  this  development  is  the  province  of  the  subsequent 
chapters  of  this  history. 





The  first  civilized  nation  to  lay  claim  to  the  territory  now  comprising  the 
State  of  Wyoming  was  Spain.  In  1493,  the  year  following  the  first  voyage  of 
Columbus  to  the  Western  Hemisphere,  the  pope  granted  to  the  King  and  Queen 
of  Spain  "all  countries  inhabited  by  infidels."  As  the  x\merican  aborigines 
were  not  Christians  in  the  accepted  meaning  of  the  term,  they  were  regarded  as 
infidels  and  the  country  was  made  subject  to  exploitation  by  the  Spanish  mon- 
archs.  At  that  time  the  extent  of  the  continent  discovered  by  Columbus  was 
not  known,  but  in  a  vague  way  this  papal  grant  included  the  present  State  of 


The  uncertain  grant  of  the  pope  to  "infidel  countries"  was  strengthened  in 
1541-42  by  the  expedition  of  Hernando  de  Soto  into  the  interior  of  what  is 
now  the  United  States.  De  Soto  was  born  in  Spain  about  four  years  after 
Columbus  made  his  first  voyage  of  discovery  and  had  been  connected  with 
some  of  the  early  expeditions  to  Peru,  in  which  service  he  demonstrated  his 
qualifications  to  command  and  won  the  favor  of  his  royal  master.  In  the  spring 
of  1538  Charles  I,  then  King  of  Spain,  appointed  him  governor  of  Florida  and 
Cuba.  Acting  under  orders  from  King  Charles,  he  left  Cuba  on  May  12.  1339. 
with  about  one  thousand  men,  for  the  purpose  of  exploring  the  interior  of 
Florida,  the  extent  of  which  was  at  that  time  very  indefinite. 

Early  in  June  he  left  the  coast  and  marched  in  a  northwesterly  direction.  At 
a  place  called  Tascaluza  by  the  survivors  of  the  ill-fated  expedition,  he  met  a 
large  body  of  hostile  Indians  and  gave  them  battle.  The  fight  lasted  for  several 
hours,  when  the  savages  fled,  leaving  a  large  number  of  their  warriors  dead 
upon  the  field.  The  Spanish  loss  was  seventy  killed  and  a  number  wounded, 
De  Soto  himself  being  among  the  latter.  Uike  nearly  all  the  early  Spanish 
explorers,  De  Soto's  chief  object  was  to  discover  rich  mines  of  the  precious 
metals.  After  wandering  about  in  the  wilderness  for  several  months  he  came 
to  the  Mississippi  River  in  the  spring  of  1541,  not  far  from  the  present  City 
of  Memphis,  Tennessee.     He  then  made  an  effort  to  reach  the  Spanish  settle- 


ments  in  Mexico,  but  was  stricken  with  fever,  died  near  the  mouth  of  the  Arkan- 
sas River,  and  was  buried  in  the  great  stream  he  had  discovered.  The  remnant 
of  the  expedition,  after  many  hardships,  succeeded  in  reaching  the  Gulf  coast 
and  made  a  report  of  their  adventures.  Upon  this  report  Spain  claimed  "all  the 
territory  bordering  on  the  Grande  River  and  the  Gulf  of  Alexico." 


As  early  as  1611  Jesuit  missionaries  from  the  French  settlements  in  Canada 
were  among  the  Indians  living  along  the  shores  of  Lake  Michigan  and  Lake 
Superior.  A  few  years  later  the  King  of  France  granted  a  charter  of  the 
"Company  of  One  Hundred"  to  engage  in  the  fur  trade.  In  1634  the  company 
sent  Jean  Nicollet  as  an  agent  to  open  up  a  trade  with  the  Indians.  He  explored 
the  country  about  the  Green  Bay,  and  went  as  far  west  as  the  Fox  River,  in 
what  is  now  the  State  of  Wisconsin.  Nicollet  is  said  to  have  been  the  first 
man  to  make  a  report  upon  the  region  west  of  the  Great  Lakes; 

In  the  fall  of  1665  Claude  Allouez,  one  of  the  most  zealous  of  the  Jesuit 
fathers,  held  a  council  with  representatives  of  several  of  the  western  tribes  of  In- 
dians at  the  Chippewa  Village  on  the  southern  shore  of  Lake  Superior.  Allouez 
promised  the  chiefs  of  the  Chippewa,  Sioux,  Sac,  Fox,  Pottawatomi  and  Illini — the 
tribes  represented  at  the  council — the  protection  of  the  great  French  father  and 
opened  the  way  for  a  profitable  trade.  At  this  council  some  of  the  Illini  and 
Sioux  chiefs  told  the  missionary  of  a  great  river  farther  to  the  westward,  "called 
by  them  the  Me-sa-sip-pi,  which  they  said  no  white  man  had  yet  seen  (these 
Indians  knew  nothing  of  De  Soto's  expedition  of  more  than  a  century  before), 
and  along  which  fur-bearing  animals  abounded."  This  was  the  first  definite 
information  the  French  received  regarding  the  great  Father  of  Waters. 

In  1668  Father  Allouez  and  Father  Claude  Dablon  founded  the  mission  of 
St.  Mary's,  the  oldest  white  settlement  within  the  limits  of  the  present  State 
of  Michigan.  The  French  authorities  in  Canada,  influenced  by  the  reports 
Nicollet  and  the  missionaries,  sent  Nicholas  Perrot  as  the  accredited  agent  of 
the  French  Government  to  arrange  for  a  grand  council  with  the  Indians.  The 
council  was  held  at  St.  Mary's  in  May,  1671,  and  friendly  relations  with  the 
tribes  inhabiting  the  country  about  the  Strait  of  Mackinac  were  thus  established. 
Before  the  close  of  that  year  Jacques  ]\Iarquette,  another  Jesuit  missionary, 
founded  the  mission  at  Point  St.  Ignace  for  the  benefit  of  the  Huron  Indians. 
For  many  years  this  mission  was  regarded  as  the  key  to  the  great  unexplored 
West.  Thus  little  by  little  the  French  pushed  their  way  westward  toward  the 
great  ^^lississippi  \'alley. 


Father  Marquette  had  heard  the  reports  of  the  great  river  to  the  westward, 
soon  after  the  council  at  the  Chippewa  \'illage  in  1665.  and  was  filled  with  a 
desire  to  discover  it,  but  was  deterred  from  the  undertaking  until  after  Perrot's 
council  in  I\Iay,  1671.  Although  that  council  resulted  in  the  establishment  of 
friendly  relations  with  the  Indians,  which  would  have  made  an  expedition  to 
the  river  possible,  other  circumstances  intervened  to  delay  him  for  almost  two 


vears.  In  the  spring  of  1673,  having  received  the  necessary  authority  from  the 
Canadian  otificials,  he  began  his  preparations  at  Michilimackinac  for  the  voyage. 
It  is  related  that  the  friendly  Indians  there  tried  to  dissuade  him  from  the 
project  by  telling  him  that  the  tribes  living  along  the  river  were  cruel  and  blood- 
thirsty, and  that  the  stream  was  the  abode  of  terrible  monsters  that  could  easily 
swallow  a  canoe  loaded  with  men. 

These  stories  had  no  effect  upon  the  intrepid  priest,  unless  it  was  to  make 
him  more  determined,  and  on  May  13,  1673,  accompanied  by  Louis  Joliet,  an 
explorer  and  trader,  with  five  voyageurs  or  boatmen  and  two  large  canoes,  the 
little  expedition  left  Michilimackinac.  Passing  up  the  Green  Bay  to  the  mouth 
of  the  Fox  River,  they  ascended  that  stream  to  the  portage,  crossed  over  to  the 
Wisconsin  River,  down  which  they  floated  until  June  17,  1673,  when  their  canoes 
shot  out  upon  the  broad  bosom  of  the  Mississippi.  Turning  their  canoes  south- 
ward, they  descended  the  Mississippi,  carefully  noting  the  landmarks  as  they 
went  along,  until  they  reached  the  mouth  of  the  Arkansas.  There  they  met 
with  a  tribe  of  Indians  whose  language  they  could  not  understand  and  decided 
to  proceed  no  further.  Retracing  their  steps,  they  arrived  at  the  French  settle- 
ments about  Michilimackinac  after  an  absence  of  four  months,  during  which 
time  they  had  traveled  about  two  thousand  five  hundred  miles. 

Joliet  was  a  good  topographer  and  he  prepared  a  map  of  the  region  through 
which  he  and  Marquette  had  passed.  The  map  and  the  reports  of  the  voyage,  when 
presented  to  the  Canadian  authorities,  convinced  them  that  the  Mississippi  River 
was  not  a  myth,  and  it  was  not  long  until  steps  were  taken  to  claim  the  country 
drained  by  it  for  France, 

LA   S.KLLE's   expeditions 

The  year  following  the  voyage  of  Marquette  and  Joliet,  Robert  Cavelier,  Sieur 
de  La  Salle,  was  granted  the  seigneury  of  Fort  Frontenac,  where  the  City  of 
Kingston,  Canada,  is  now  situated,  and  on  May  12,  1678,  he  received  from 
Louis  XIV,  then  King  of  France,  a  permit  to  continue  the  explorations  of 
Marquette  and  Joliet,  "find  a  port  for  the  king's  ships  in  the  Gulf  of  Mexico, 
discover  the  western  parts  of  New  France,  and  find  a  way  to  penetrate  Mexico." 

Late  in  the  year  1678  La  Salle  made  his  first  attempt  to  reach  and  descend 
the  Mississippi,  but  it  ended  in  failure,  mainly  for  the  reason  that  his  prepara- 
tions had  not  been  made  with  sufficient  care.  Affairs  at  his  seigneury  then 
claimed  his  attention  for  about  three  years,  though  he  did  not  relinquish  the  idea 
of  finding  and  exploring  the  great  river.  In  December,  1681,  he  started  upon 
his  second,  and  what  proved  to  be  his  successful  expedition.  This  time  he  was 
accompanied  by  his  lieutenant,  Henri  de  Tonti ;  Jacques  de  la  Metarie,  a  notary : 
Jean  Michel,  surgeon  of  the  expedition ;  Father  Zenobe  Membre,  a  Recollet  mis- 
sionary; and  "a  number  of  Frenchmen  bearing  arms." 

It  is  not  necessary  to  follow  this  little  band  of  explorers  through  all  its 
vicissitudes  and  hardships  in  the  dead  of  winter  and  a  wild,  unexplored  coun- 
try. Suffice  it  to  say  that  the  river  was  reached,  and  was  descended  to  its  mouth. 
On  April  8,  1682,  La  Salle  and  Tonti  passed  through  two  of  the  channels  at 
the  mouth  of  the  Mississippi  leading  to  the  Gulf  of  Mexico.  The  next  day  they 
came  together  again  and  La  Salle  formally  took  possession  of  "all  the  countn,' 


drained  by  the  great  river  and  its  tributaries,  in  the  name  of  France,  and  con- 
ferred upon  the  territory  thus  claimed  the  name  of  Louisiana,  in  honor  of  the 
French  King." 

To  the  casual  reader  it  may  seem  that  the  early  French  explorations  have 
little  or  nothing  to  do  with  the  present  State  of  Wyoming.  But  it  should  be 
borne  in  mind  that  the  voyage  of  Marquette  and  Joliet  opened  the  way  for 
the  later  voyage  of  La  Salle  and  his  claim  to  the  country  'drained  by  the  Missis- 
sippi, under  which  all  that  portion  of  Wyoming  whose  waters  reach  the  Mis- 
sissippi became  a  dependency  of  France.  Spain  had  made  no  effort  to  enforce 
her  claim,  based  upon  the  discovery  of  the  river  by  De  Soto,  and  the  European 
powers  recognized  the  claim  of  France,  based  upon  the  work  of  La  Salle.  In 
1762  France  ceded  the  Province  of  Louisiana  to  Spain,  which  nation  retained 
possession  until  1800,  when  it  was  ceded  back  to  France,  and  in  1803  it  was  sold 
by  France  to  the  United  States,  an  account  of  which  is  given  in  the  next  chapter. 
By  this  sale  the  greater  part  of  Wyoming  became  territory  of  the  United  States 
and  the  way  was  opened  for  its  present  status. 


Alexico  once  owned  the  territory  comprising  the  present  states  of  California, 
Nevada,  Utah,  New  Mexico,  Arizona,  the  western  part  of  Colorado  and  the 
southwest  corner  of  Wyoming.  When  James  K.  Polk  was  inaugurated  President 
on  March  4,  1845,  it  soon  became  the  dream  of  his  administration  to  acquire 
California,  though  the  means  by  which  the  dream  was  to  be  realized  were  vincer- 
tain.  The  territory  might  be  acquired  by  conquest ;  it  might  be  secured  by  filling 
it  with  emigrants  from  the  United  States,  who  would  bring  it  into  the  Union 
as  Texas  had  been  annexed ;  or  it  might  be  possible  to  win  the  good  will  of  the 
citizens,  who  were  already  chafing  under  jMexican  rule.  Early  in  1846  John 
C.  Fremont's  expedition  entered  the  Sacramento  Valley  and  introduced  a  fourth 
plan  for  the  acquisition  of  the  country.  Fremont  established  an  independent 
government,  known  as  the  "Bear  Flag  Republic,"  under  the  control  of  the  Ameri- 
can settlers  in  the  valley.  When  war  was  declared  against  Mexico  by  Congress 
on  May  13,  1846,  the  "Bear  Flag"  was  replaced  by  the  Stars  and  Stripes. 

The  Town  of  Santa  Fe  was  captured  by  Col.  Stephen  W.  Kearney,  and  New 
Mexico  was  acquired  almost  without  loss  of  life.  By  the  end  of  1846  prac- 
tically all  the  territory  desired  by  the  administration  was  held  by  the  United 
States  military  forces,  though  Mexico  still  remained  unconquered.  In  the  spring 
of  1847  President  Polk  sent  Nicholas  P.  Trist,  a  Mrginian  and  chief  clerk  in 
the  department  of  state,  to  Gen.  Winfield  Scott's  headquarters  for  the  purpose 
of  entering  into  negotiations  with  the  Alexican  Government  for  the  restoration 
of  peace.  He  was  instructed,  among  other  things,  to  demand  the  cession  of  Cali- 
fornia and  New  Mexico  and  the  recognition  of  the  Rio  Grande  as  the  interna- 
tional boundary.  On  February  2,  1848,  Trist  succeeded  in  negotiating  the  Treaty 
of  Guadalupe  Hidalgo  (a  small  place  on  the  outskirts  of  the  City  of  ]\Iexico), 
which  embodied  these  features.  All  the  territory  held  by  Mexico  north  of  the 
Rio  Grande  was  ceded  to  the  United  States,  Mexico  receiving  therefor  the 
sum  of  $15,000,000,  and  the  United  States  further  agreed  to  assume  the  pay- 


ment  of  claims  held  by  her  citizens  against  the  IMexican  Government,  provided 
the  total  amount  of  such  claims  did  not  exceed  $3,250,000. 

That  part  of  Wyoming  ceded  to  the  United  States  by  the  Treaty  of  Guadalupe 
Hidalgo  lies  south  of  the  forty-second  parallel  of  north  latitude  and  west  of  the 
line  of  107°  30'  west  longitude.  It  embraces  all  of  Sweetwater  County  except 
a  strip  about  eighteen  miles  wide  across  the  northern  part ;  the  southwest  corner 
of  Carbon  County  (that  part  lying  west  of  107°  30')  ;  aU  of  Uinta  County,  and 
a  tract  thirty-six  miles  wide  across  the  south  end  of  Lincoln  County. 


The  greater  part  of  Texas  was  originally  included  in  the  Province  of  Louisi- 
ana. In  1819  Spain  ceded  Florida  to  the  United  States  and  received  in  return 
all  that  part  of  the  Louisiana  Purchase  included  within  the  limits  of  Texas, 
which  then  extended  northward  to  the  forty-second  parallel.  Two  years  later 
Moses  Austin  obtained  from  the  Spanish  authorities  the  privilege  of  establishing 
an  American  colony  in  Texas.  Mexico,  by  the  revolution  which  separated  her 
from  Spain,  became  independent  and  succeeded  to  all  the  rights  of  the  mother 
country  over  Texas.  On  October  4,  1824,  the  people  of  Mexico  adopted  a 
Federal  Constitution,  under  which  the  Mexican  Republic  was  formed,  composed 
of  separate  states.  Texas  and  Coahuila  were  united  as  one  of  those  states  and 
adopted  a  constitution,  after  the  manner  of  the  states  of  the  American  Union. 

In  1835  'I  military  revolution  broke  out  in  the  City  of  Mexico,  which  was 
powerful  enough  to  subvert  the  federal  and  state  constitutions  of  the  republic 
and  establish  Gen.  ]\Iiguel  Barragan  as  military  dictator.  At  his  order  the 
Mexican  Congress  issued  a  decree  converting  the  states  into  mere  departments 
of  a  central  government  The  Austin  colony  soon  became  a  "thorn  in  the  side'' 
of  the  military  dictator.  Texas  revolted,  and  on  ]\  larch  2,  1836,  issued  a  declara- 
tion of  independence,  to  the  efifect  that  all  political  connection  with  Mexico  was 
forever  ended,  and  that  "the  people  of  Texas  do  now  constitute  a  free,  sovereign 
and  independent  republic."  General  Santa  Anna,  who  had  succeeded  to  the 
dictatorship,  collected  a  force  and  marched  into  Texas  for  the  purpose  of  forcing 
the  people  back  to  their  allegiance.  He  was  defeated  at  the  battle  of  San  Jacinto, 
April  21,  1836,  and  in  May,  while  held  as  a  prisoner  by  the  Texans,  was  forced 
to  enter  into  a  treaty  acknowledging  the  independence  of  the  Texas  Republic, 
with  the  Rio  Grande  as  the  western  boundary. 

Previous  to  this  time  the  United  States  had  made  repeated  offers  to  purchase 
the  territory  forming  the  Republic  of  Texas,  but  they  had  all  been  rejected. 
The  Constitution  of  Texas  was  ratified  by  the  people  in  September.  1836.  and 
Gen.  Sam  Houston  was  chosen  as  president.  In  the  last  days  of  President 
Tyler's  administration  the  people  of  Texas  made  overtures  for  annexation  to 
the  United  States  and  Congress  passed  an  act  giving  the  assent  of  the  Government 
to  the  annexation,  under  certain  conditions.  On  March  10,  1845,  the  people  of 
Texas  voted  to  accept  the  provisions  of  the  act  and  Texas  became  a  part  of  the 
United  States.    It  was  admitted  into  the  Union  as  a  state  on  December  20,  1845. 

By  the  annexation  of  Texas,  all  that  part  of  Carbon  County,  Wyoming,  lying 
east  of  107°  30'  west  longitude  and  south  of  the  forty-second  parallel  of  north 
latitude,  and  that  part  of  Albany  County  south  of  the  forty-second  parallel  and 


west  of  105°  30'  west  longitude,  were  annexed  to  the  territory  of  the  United 
States.  Originally  the  dividing  line  between  the  territory  of  Texas  and  the 
Louisiana  Purchase  was  supposed  to  be  the  summit  of  the  Laramie  Alountains, 
but  in  the  cession  to  Spain,  by  the  treaty  of  1819,  it  was  fixed  at  the  line  of. 
105°  30'  west  longitude,  with  which  boundary  it  came  back  into  the  United 
States  in  1845. 

The  British  flag  was  first  carried  to  the  coast  of  Oregon  in  1579,  by  Sir 
Francis  Drake.  Captain  Cook,  another  English  adventurer  and  explorer,  landed 
at  and  named  Nootka  Sound  (Vancouver  Island)  in  1778.  Upon  the  voyages 
of  Drake  and  Cook,  Great  Britain  claimed  the  country  along  the  coast.  This 
claim  was  disputed  by  the  Spaniards  in  1789,  on  the  grounds  of  previous  dis- 
covery, but  in  the  end  Spain  was  compelled  to  yield.  In  1793  another  expedition 
under  Vancouver  explored  the  coast  on  behalf  of  England,  adding  further 
strength  to  her  claim. 

The  American  claim  to  the  region  began  in  the  winter  of  1788-89,  when 
Capt.  Robert  Gray  and  a  man  named  Kendrick  passed  the  winter  on  the  Nootka 
Sound.  They  had  been  sent  out  by  some  merchants  of  Boston  to  investigate 
the  possibilities  of  the  fur  trade  in  the  Northwest.  Captain  Gray  made  a  second 
trip  to  the  Pacific  coast  in  1792,  when  he  ascended  the  Columbia  River  for 
several  miles.  Based  upon  the  discoveries  of  Gray  and  Kendrick  and  the  Louisi- 
ana Purchase  (the  old  Spanish  claim),  the  United  States  laid  claim  to  the 
country.  After  the  expedition  of  Lewis  and  Clark  in  1804-06,  this  claim  was 
extended  to  "all  the  country  drained  by  the  Columbia  River  and  its  branches." 
In  181 1  the  claim  of  the  United  States  received  substantial  support  by  the  estab- 
lishment of  Astoria,  at  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia,  by  the  Pacific  Fur  Company. 

In  1818  a  convention  of  commissioners  appointed  by  the  United  States  and 
Great  Britain  to  fix  the  international  boundary,  reported  in  favor  of  the  forty- 
ninth  parallel  of  latitude  from  the  Lake  of  the  Woods  to  the  summit  of  the 
Rocky  Mountains,  thence  southward  along vthe  crest  of  the  divide  to  the  old 
Mexican  boundary',  and  along  that  boundary  to  the^'coast.  It  was  also  agreed 
that  the  territory  west  of  the  Rocky  ^fountains  should  be  open  to  both  the 
United  States  and  Canada  for  ten  years,  "without  prejudice  to  the  claims  of 
either."  At  the  end  of  the  ten  years  this  privilege  of  joint  occupation  was 
extended  indefinitely  by  agreement,  by  a  convention  held  in  London  on  August 
6,  1827.  Either  government  was  given  the  power  to  abrogate  the  agreement 
by  giving  the  other  twelve  months  notice. 

In  the  meantime,  by  the  treaty  of  1819,  Spain  quitclaimed  her  title  to  all  land 
north  of  the  forty-second  parallel  to  the  United  States.  In  the  negotiations  with 
Russia  in  1824-25,  that  nation  agreed  to  establish  no  settlements  on  the  Pacific 
coast  south  of  the  line  of  54°  40'  north  latitude.  During  President  Tyler's 
administration  the  controversy  over  the  boundary  was  reopened  when  citizens 
of  the  LTnited  States  began  moving  into  the  disputed  territory  and  establishing 
homesteads.  John  C.  Calhoun,  then  secretary  of  state,  proposed  that  the  forty- 
ninth  parallel  should  be  the  boundary  line  all  the  way  to  the  Pacific  coast,  but  to 
this  the  English  minister  (Pakenham)   would  not  consent.     The  latter  suggested 


the  forty-ninth  parallel  to  the  Columbia  River,  and  then  that  river  to  the  coast. 
The  agreement  with  Russia  had  created  the  impression  in  the  minds  of  many 
of  the  people  of  the  United  States  that  the  line  of  54"  40'  should  be  the  inter- 
national boundary,  and  in  the  political  campaign  of  1S44  th*?  democratic  party 
adopted  as  its  slogan  "Fifty-four  forty  or  fight." 

In  April,  1846,  Congress  authorized  the  President,  "at  his  discretion,"  to 
give  England  notice  of  the  abrogation  of  the  agreement  for  joint  occupation. 
This  was  done  and  it  led  to  another  convention  for  the  purpose  of  establishing 
an  international  boundary.  On  August  5,  1846,  President  Polk  sent  a  special 
message  to  Congress,  in  which  he  said:  "Herewith  I  submit  a  copy  of  a  conven- 
tion for  the  settlement  and  adjustment  of  the  Oregon  cjuestion,  which  was  con- 
cluded in  this  city  (Washington)  on  the  15th  of  June  last  between  the  United 
States  and  Her  Britannic  Majesty.  This  convention  has  since  been  duly  ratified 
by  the  respective  parties  and  the  ratifications  were  exchanged  at  London  on  the 
17th  day  of  July,  1846." 

By  this  convention  the  boundary  line  between  the  United  States  and  the 
British  possessions  was  established  as  follows:  "The  forty-ninth  parallel  from 
the  Lake  of  the  Woods  to  the  middle  of  the  channel  which  separates  A'ancouver 
Island  from  the  continent,  and  thence  southerly  through  the  said  channel  and 
the  Straits  of  Juan  de  Fuca  to  the  Pacific  Ocean,  both  nations  to  have  at  all  times 
free  navigation  of  the  said  channel  and  Straits  of  Juan  de  Fuca." 

Thus  a  controversy  of  long  standing  was  finally  settled  and  the  United  States 
came  into  the  undisputed  possession  of  a  large  tract  of  country  west  of  the  Con- 
tinental Di\ide  and  north  of  the  old  Mexican  boundary.  Included  in  this  tract 
is  that  part  of  Wyoming  constituting  more  than  three-fourths  of  the  northern 
part  of  Lincoln  county;  the  southwestern  part  of  Fremont  County  (all  west  of 
the  divide)  :  that  portion  of  Sweetwater  County  lying  north  of  the  forty-second 
parallel  and  west  of  the  divide ;  and  the  southwestern  part  of  the  Yellowstone 
National  Park. 


On  May  30,  1854,  that  historic  piece  of  legislation  known  as  the  "Kansas- 
Nebraska  Bill,"  creating  the  territories  of  Kansas  and  Nebraska,  was  signed 
by  President  Franklin  Pierce.  In  section  i  of  the  bill  the  boundaries  of  Ne- 
braska are  thus  described:  "Beginning  at  a  point  on  the  Missouri  River  where 
the  fortieth  parallel  of  north  latitude  crosses  the  same;  thence  west  on  said 
parallel  to  the  east  boundary  of  Utah,  on  the  summit  of  the  Rocky  Mountains ; 
thence  on  said  summit  northward  to  the  forty-ninth  parallel  of  north  latitude ; 
thence  east  on  said  parallel  to  the  western  boundary  of  the  Territory  of  Minne- 
sota ;  thence  southward  on  said  boundary  to  the  Missouri  River ;  thence  down 
the  main  channel  of  said  river  to  the  place  of  beginning." 

These  boundaries  included  all  that  part  of  Wyoming  acquired  by  the  Louisi- 
ana Purchase,  while  that  portion  west  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  remained  attached 
to  the  territories  of  Utah  and  Oregon.  No  further  changes  in  boundary  lines 
or  conditions  affecting  the  territory  occurred  until  1861,  when  Congress  estab- 
lished the 



When  first  created,  this  territory  extended  from  the  forty-ninth  parallel — the 
international  boundary — on  the  north  to  the  Missouri  and  Running  Water  rivers 
on  the  south,  and  from  the  western  boundary  of  the  states  of  Iowa  and  Minne- 
sota on  the  east  to  the  summit  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  on  the  west.  It  embraced 
all  the  present  states  of  North  and  South  Dakota,  nearly  all  of  Montana,  and 
all  that  part  of  Wyoming  east  of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  except  a  small  tract  in 
the  southeast  corner,  which  still  belonged  to  Nebraska.  In  the  country  west  of 
the  Rocky  Mountains  no  change  was  made.  This  arrangement  lasted  but  two 
years,  however,  when  another  redistricting  of  the  United  States  domain  in  the 
Northwest  was  made  by  Congress. 

On  March  3,  1863,  President  Abraham  Lincoln  approved  an  act  establishing 
the  Territory  of  Idaho.  As  originally  erected,  the  Territory  of  Idaho  was 
bounded  on  the  north  by  the  forty-sixth  parallel  of  north  latitude;  on  the  east 
by  the  twenty-seventh  meridian  of  longitude  west  from  Washington  (the  present 
eastern  boundary  of  the  State  of  Wyoming)  ;  on  the  south  by  the  forty-second 
parallel  of  north  latitude ;  and  on  the  west  by  the  Territory  of  Oregon.  It  there- 
fore included  all  that  portion  of  Wyoming  lying  north  of  the  old  Mexican  and 
Texas  boundary.  South  of  that  line  a  tract  about  seventy  miles  wide  and  one 
hundred  and  eighty-five  miles  long  still  belonged  to  Utah,  and  the  southeast 
corner  (the  present  County  of  Laramie  and  the  greater  part  of  the  counties 
of  Albany.  Carbon,  Goshen  and  Platte)  was  attached  to  the  Territory  of  Dakota. 
Five  years  later  another  change  was  made.  The  Territory  of  Wyoming  was 
established  by  the  act  of  July  25,  1868,  with  its  present  boundaries,  and  in  1890 
it  was  admitted  into  the  Union  with  all  the  rights  of  statehood.  (See  chapters 
XI  and  XII.) 


The  territory  now  consituting  the  State  of  Wyoming  was  first  claimed  by 
Spain  under  the  grant  of  the  pope  in  1493,  as  part  of  the  "countries  inhabited 
by  infidels."  That  claim  was  given  greater  force  by  the  discovery  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi River  by  De  Soto  in  1541,  but  the  wisest  of  Spain's  statesmen  and  geog- 
raphers knew  iiot  the  vast  extent  of  the  Mississippi  Valley.  Hence,  while 
nominally  included  in  the  Spanish  possessions  in  America,  Wyoming  remained 
untenanted,  save  for  the  wild  beast  and  the  roving  Indian.  The  Spanish  claim 
to  the  country  east  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  was  superseded  in  April,  1682,  by 
that  of  France,  based  on  the  expedition  of  La  Salle,  who  gave  the  territory  the 
name  of  Louisiana.  This  province  was  ceded  by  France  to  Spain  in  1762; 
ceded  back  to  France  in  1800;  and  sold  to  the  United  States  in  1803.  The 
greater  portion  of  Albany  and  Carbon  counties  came  to  the  United  States  through 
the  annexation  of  Texas  in  1845.  The  triangular  shaped  tract  west  of  the 
Continental  Divide  and  north  of  the  line  of  forty-two  degrees  north  latitude  was 
acquired  by  the  settlement  of  the  Oregon  question  in  1846,  and  the  southwestern 


part  of  the  state  was  ceded  to  the  United  States  by  Mexico  at  the  close  of  the 
Mexican  war  in  1848.  During  the  next  twenty  years  Wyoming  was,  in  whole 
or  in  part,  under  the  jurisdiction  of  Nebraska,  Utah,  Oregon,  Dakota  and  Idaho. 
In  1868  it  was  made  an  organized  territory  of  the  United  States,  and  in  1890 
a  new  star  was  added  to  the  national  constellation  representing  the  sovereign 
State  of  Wyoming. 

Of  all  the  states  of  the  American  Union,  none  presents  as  varied  a  history 
in  the  matter  of  jurisdiction  as  Wyoming.  It  is  the  only  state  composed  of  terri- 
tory acquired  from  all  four  of  the  principal  western  annexations.  Portions  of  the 
state  were  claimed  at  times  by  Spain,  France  and  Great  Britain,  and  from  the 
earliest  record  the  land  has  been  one  of  adventure.  The  mountain  ranges  afforded 
fruitful  fields  for  the  hunter,  trapper  and  Indian  trader  and  invited  such  men  as 
Kit  Carson,  Jim  Bridger,  Ashley,  Campbell,  Sublette,  Jim  Baker  and  others, 
whose  names  are  almost  as  familiar  to  the  student  of  pioneer  history  as  the  names 
of  Daniel  Boone,  Davy  Crockett  and  Gen.  Sam  Houston. 







In  the  preceding  chapter  has  been  given  some  account  of  W'voming  under 
different  jurisdictions,  and  the  reader  may  want  to  understand  more  fully  how 
the  territory  now  comprising  the  state  came  to  be  the  property  of  the  United 
States.  To  make  this  plain,  it  is  necessary  to  give  an  account  of  one  of  the 
greatest  diplomatic  transactions  in  modern  history.  It  will  be  remembered  that 
under  the  claim  of  La  Salle,  in  1682,  all  the  region  drained  by  the  Mississippi 
River  and  its  numerous  tributaries,  which  included  practically  all  of  Wyoming, 
became  a  French  possession  and  remained  so  for  eighty  years.  At  the  close 
of  the  French  and  Indian  war  in  1762'  France  lost  every  foot  of  land  she  pos- 
sessed in  the  New  World,  Canada  and  that  part  of  Louisiana  lying  east  of  the 
Mississippi  passing  into  the  hands  of  England,  and  all  her  territory  west  of 
the  Mississippi  going  to  Spain.  ^ 

By  the  Treaty  of  September  3,  1783,  which  ended  the  Revolutionary  war,  the 
western  boundary  of  the  United  States  was  fixed  at  the  ^Mississippi  River,  though 
the  mouth  of  that  great  stream  was  wholly  within  Spanish  territory.  It  was 
not  long  until  the  new  American  Republic  became  involved  in  a  controversy  with 
the  Spanish  officials  of  Louisiana  over  the  right  to  free  navigation  of  the  Mis- 
sissippi. The  final  settlement  of  this  question  wnelded  an  unmistakable  influence 
upon  the  present  State  of  Wyoming.  The  river  constituted  the  natural  outlet 
for  the  products  of  a  large  part  of  the  United  States — a  section  which  was  rapidly 
increasing  in  wealth,  population  and  political  importance — but  the  Spanish  author- 
ities established  posts  along  the  river  and  every  boat  descending  the  stream  was 
compelled  to  land  at  these  posts  and  submit  to  arbitrary  revenue  duties.  This 
policy  was  kept  up  for  several  years,  to  the  humiliation  of  the  United  States 
trader  and  a  diminution  of  his  profits.  Through  the  influence  of  Don  :Manuel 
Godoy,  one  of  the  wisest  of  the  Spanish  statesmen  of  that  day.  the  Treaty  of 
Madrid  was  concluded  on  October  27,  1795,  one  article  of  which  stipulated 
"That  the  Mississippi  River,  from  its  source  to  the  gulf,  for  its  entire  width, 
shall  be  free  to  American  trade  and  commerce,  and  the  people  of  the  United 


States  shall  be  permitted,  for  three  years,  to  use  the  Port  of  Xew  Orleans  as  a 
port  of  deposit,  without  payment  of  duty." 

About  that  time  the  French  Revolution  brought  into  prominence  two  of  the 
most  noted  characters  in  European  history — Xapoleon  and  Talleyrand.  These  two 
celebrated  French  diplomats  and  statesmen,  feeling  deeply  the  loss  of  their 
country's  possessions  in  America,  began  to  dream  of  rebuilding  a  colonial  empire 
for  France,  one  feature  of  which  was  to  regain  Louisiana.  To  that  end  nego- 
tiations were  opened  with  the  Spanish  Government.  Don  Carlos  I\'  was  then 
king  of  Spain,  but  Channing  says :  "The  actual  rulers  of  Spain  were  Dona  Alaria 
Luisa  de  Parma,  his  queen,  and  Don  Manuel  Godoy,  el  Principe  de  la  Paz.  which 
title  writers  of  English  habitually  translate  "Prince  of  Peace.'  '' 

Godoy  well  knew  he  was  not  liked  by  Napoleon  and  Talleyrand,  and  when 
they  began  their  overtures  for  the  transfer  of  Louisiana  back  to  France  he  re- 
signed from  the  Spanish  ministry,  leaving  the  king  withovit  his  most  efficient 
adviser.  Godoy  and  his  objections  being  thus  removed.  Napoleon  and  Talleyrand 
offered  in  exchange  for  Louisiana  "an  Italian  kingdom  of  at  least  one  million  in- 
habitants for  the  Duke  of  Parma,  jjrince  presumptive,  who  was  at  once  son-in-law 
and  nephew  of  the  ruling  monarchs."  The  offer  was  accepted,  the  State  of 
Tuscany  was  chosen,  and  on  October  i,  1800,  thq  secret  Treaty  of  San  Ildefonso 
was  concluded.  So  well  was  the  secret  guarded  that  the  exchange  was  not  known 
in  the  United  States  until  nearly  eight  months  later. 

The  Treaty  of  San  Ildefonso  was  confirmed  by  the  Treaty  of  3iladrid,  which 
was  concluded  on  March  21,  1801,  and  a  copy  of  which  was  sent  to  President 
Jefferson  by  Rufus  King,  then  the  United  States  minister  to  England.  It  reached 
Air.  Jefferson  on  May  26,  1801.  L^pon  the  receipt  of  the  copy  of  the  treaty,  Presi- 
dent Jeft'erson  wrote  to  James  Alonroe :  "There  is  considerable  reason  to  ap- 
prehend that  Spain  cedes  Louisiana  and  the  Floridas  to  France.  To  my  mind  this 
policy  is  very  unwise  for  both  France  and  Spain,  and  very  ominous  to  us." 

In  August  following  Robert  R.  Livingston  went  to  France  as  the  United 
States  minister  to  that  country.  Immediately  upon  his  arrival  in  Paris  he  asked 
Talleyrand,  then  the  French  prime  minister,  if  the  Province  of  Louisiana  had 
been  retroceded  to  France.  Talleyrand  denied  that  such  was  the  case,  and  in  one 
sense  he  was  justified  in  making  the  denial,  as  the  Treaty  of  Madrid  was  not 
signed  by  the  Spanish  king  until  in  October,  1802. 

For  more  than  twelve  months  after  President  Jefferson  received  the  copy 
of  the  Treaty  of  Aladrid  sent  by  Mr.  King,  his  administration  was  kept  in  a 
state  of  uncertainty  regarding  the  status  of  Louisiana  and  the  navigation  of  the 
Mississippi  River.  On  April  18,  1802,  the  President  wrote  a  long  letter  to  Mr. 
Livingston,  in  Paris,  in  which  he  said  the  American  people  w^ere  anxiously  watch- 
ing France's  movements  with  regard  to  Louisiana,  and  set  forth  the  situation  as 
follows:  I.  The  natural  feeling  of  the  American  people  for  the  French  nation 
was  one  of  friendship.  2.  Whatever  nation  held  New  Orleans  and  controlled  the 
lower  course  of  the  Mississippi  became  the  natural  and  habitual  enemy  of  Ameri- 
can progress,  and  therefore  the  enemy  of  the  American  people.  3.  Spain  had 
shown  that  she  was  well  disposed  toward  the  United  States  and  as  long  as  she 
remained  in  possession  of  those  advantages  the  citizens  of  this  country  would  be 
satisfied  with  conditions.     4.  On  the  other  hand,   France  possessed  an  energy 


and  restlessness  of  character  which  would  be  the  cause  of  constant  friction 
between  that  country  and  the  United  States.    He  closed  his  letter  by  saying : 

"The  day  that  France  takes  possession  of  New  Orleans  fixes  the  sentence 
which  is  to  restrain  her  forever  within  her  low  water  mark.  It  seals  the  union 
of  two  nations  who  in  conjunction  can  maintain  exclusive  possession  of  the 
ocean.  From  that  moment  we  must  marry  oursehes  to  the  British  fleet  and 
nation.  *  *  *  The  first  cannon  which  shall  be  fired  in  Europe  will  be  the 
signal  for  tearing  up  any  settlement  she  may  have  made,  and  for  holding  the 
two  continents  of  America  in  sequestration  for  the  common  purpose  of  the  united 
British  and  American  nations." 

I\Ir.  Jefiferson  did  not  desire  an  alliance  with  England,  but  greatly  feared 
that  the  possession  of  Louisiana  by  France  might  drive  the  United  States  to  adopt 
such  a  course.  In  November,  1S02,  news  reached  Washington  that  the  Spanish 
authorities  at  New  Orleans  had  suddenly  and  unexpectedly  withdrawn  the  right 
of  deposit  at  that  port,  as  originally  conceded  by  the  treaty  of  Madrid.  Imme- 
diately the  country — particularly  the  new  settlements  in  the  Mississippi  and 
Ohio  valleys — was  ablaze  with  indignation.  The  federalists,  Jefferson's  politi- 
cal opponents,  used  all  possible  means  to  force  the  administration  into  a  policy 
that  would  give  them  a  political  advantage,  but  their  ettorts  in  this  direction 
proved  futile.  Says  Channing:  "Never  in  all  his  long  and  varied  career  did 
Jefferson's  foxlike  discretion  stand  him  in  better  stead.  Instead  of  following 
public  clamor,  he  calmly  formulated  a  policy  and  carried  it  through  to  a  most 
successful  termination." 

In  his  message  to  the  Congress  which  assembled  in  December,  1802,  the  Pres- 
ident said  that  the  change  in  the  ownership  of  Louisiana  would  necessarily 
make  a  change  in  our  foreign  relations,  but  did  not  intimate  what  the  nature 
of  the  change  was  to  be.  On  January  13,  1803,  he  wrote  to  Monroe  that  the 
federalists  were  trying  to  force  the  United  States  into  war,  in  order  to  get  into 
power.  About  the  same  time  he  wrote  to  Mr.  Livingston  that  if  France  con- 
sidered Louisiana  indispensable  to  her  interests,  she  might  still  be  willing  to  cede 
to  the  United  States  the  Island  of  Orleans,  upon  which  stands  the  City  of  New 
Orleans,  and  the  Floridas.  Or,  if  unwilling  to  cede  the  island,  she  might  be  in- 
duced to  grant  the  right  of  deposit  at  New  Orleans  and  the  free  navigation  of  the 
Mississippi,  as  it  had  been  under  the  Spanish  regime,  and  instructed  him  to 
open  negotiations  to  that  end. 

A  few  days  later,  believing  that  the  cession  could  probably  be  best  accom- 
pHshed  by  sending  a  man  direct  from  the  United  States  for  that  purpose,  the 
President  selected  James  Monroe  to  act  as  minister  plenipotentiary,  to  co- 
operate with  Mr.  Livingston.  The  Senate  promptly  confirmed  ^h.  Monroe's 
nomination  and  placed  the  sum  of  $2,000,000  at  the  disposal  of  him  and  Mr. 
Livingston  to  pay  for  the  island.  It  may  be  well  to  note,  in  this  connection, 
that  the  success  of  Livingston  and  Monroe  in  their  negotiations  was  doubtless 
aided  in  a  great  measure  by  a  letter  written  by  M.  Pichon,  the  French  minister 
to  the  L'nited  States,  to  Talleyrand.  In  this  letter  Pichon  advised  the  French 
prime  minister  that  the  people  of  the  United  States  were  thoroughly  aroused 
over  the  suspension  of  the  right  of  deposit,  and  that  the  President  might  be 
forced  by  public  opinion  to  yield  to  a  British  alliance. 

W'rt  between  France  and  England  had  just  been  renewed,  and  Napoleon,  re- 


alizing  the  superior  strength  of  the  British  navy,  saw  that  it  would  be  a  diffi- 
cult matter  to  hold  Louisiana  in  the  face  of  an  alliance  between  that  nation 
and  the 'United  States.  A  force  under  General  \'ictor  was  ready  to  start  for 
New  Orleans,  but  when  Xapoleon  learned  that  an  English  fleet  was  lying  in 
wait  for  its  departure  he  countermanded  the  order  for  General  Victor  to  sail. 

In  the  meantime  Mr.  Livingston  had  been  trying  to  hasten  the  negotiations 
that  would  bring  about  the  cession  of  the  Island  of  Orleans  and  West  Florida, 
believing  that  the  Floridas  were  included  in  the  Treaty  of  San  Ildefonso.  On  April 
II,  1803,  Napoleon  placed  the  entire  matter  of  the  cession  of  the  island  in  the 
hands  of  the  [Marquis  de  Marbois,  minister  of  the  French  treasury,  and  the  same 
day  Talleyrand  startled  JMr.  Livingston  by  asking  if  the  United  States  would  not 
like  to  own  the  entire  province  of  Louisiana.  Livingston  replied  in  the  nega- 
tive, but  Talleyrand  explained  that  Louisiana  would  be  worth  nothing  to  France 
without  the  City  and  Island  of  New  Orleans,  and  insisted  that  Livingston 
should  make  an  offer  for  the  entire  province.  Another  conference  was  held  on 
the  morning  of  the  12th,  and  that  afternoon  Monroe  arrived  in  Paris.  That 
evening  a  long  consultation  was  held  by  the  two  American  envoys,  Mr.  Living- 
ston informing  Mr.  Monroe  of  all  that  had  been  done,  and  the  result  was  it  was 
decided  that  Mr.  Livingston  should  conduct  all  further  negotiations. 

Several  days  were  then  spent  in  discussing  terms  for  the  purchase  of  the 
whole  territory  of  Louisiana,  Marbois  at  first  asking  125,000,000  francs  for 
the  province,  though  it  was  afterward  learned  that  Napoleon  had  instructed  him 
to  accept  50,000,000  rather  than  to  permit  the  deal  to  fail.  The  price  finally 
agreed  upon  was  80,000,000  francs,  of  which  60,000,000  were  to  go  directly  to  the 
French  treasury  and  the  remainder  was  to  be  used  in  settling  the  claims  of 
American  citizens  against  the  French  Government.  The  terms  having  been 
agreed  upon,  the  next  step  was  to  embody  them  in  a  formal  treaty.  As  this 
agreement  gave  to  the  United  States  a  territory  of  nearly  nine  hundred  thousand 
square  miles,  in  which  was  included  the  greater  part  of  the  State  of  A\'yoming, 
it  is  here  given  in  full.     It  is  known  as 


"The  President  of  the  United  States  of  America  and  the  First  Consul  of  the 
French  Republic,  in  the  name  of  the  French  people,  desiring  to  remove  all  sources 
of  misunderstanding  relative  to  objects  of  discussion  mentioned  in  the  second 
and  fifth  articles  of  the  convention  of  the  8th  Vendemaire,  an  9  (30  September, 
1800),  relative  to  the  rights  claimed  by  the  United  States,  in  virtue  of  the  treaty 
concluded  at  Madrid,  the  27th  of  October,  1795,  between  his  Catholic  majesty 
and  the  said  United  States,  and  willing  to  strengthen  the  union  and  friendship 
which  at  the  time  of  said  convention  was  happily  reestablished  between  two 
nations,  have  respectfully  named  their  plenipotentiaries,  to  wit :  The  President 
of  the  United  States  of  America,  by  and  with  the  advice  and  consent  of  the  Sen- 
ate of  said  states,  Robert  R.  Livingston,  minister  plenipotentiary  of  the  United 
States,  and  James  Monroe,  minister  plenipotentiary  and  envoy  extraordinary'  of 
the  said  states,  near  the  Government  of  the  French  Republic;  and  the  First 
Consul,  in  the  name  of  the  French  people,  the  French  citizen,  Barbe  Marbois, 


minister  of  the  public  treasury,  who,  after  having  respectfully  exchanged  their 
full  powers,  have  agreed  to  the  following  articles: 

"Article  I — Whereas,  by  the  article  the  third  of  the  treaty  concluded  at  St. 
Ildefonso,  the  9th  Vendemaire  an  9  (October  i,  1800),  between  the  First  Consul 
of  the  French  Republic  and  his  Catholic  majesty,  it  was  agreed  as  follows:  His 
Catholic  majesty  promises  and  engages  on  his  part  to  retrocede  to  the  French 
Republic,  six  months  after  the  full  and  entire  execution  of  the  conditions  and 
stipulations  herein  realtive  to  his  royal  highness,  the  duke  of  Parma,  the  colony 
or  province  of  Louisiana,  with  the  same  extent  that  it  now  has  in  the  hands  of 
Spain,  and  that  it  had  when  France  possessed  it;  and  such  as  it  should  be  after 
the  treaties  subsequently  entered  into  between  Spain  and  other  states,  and 

"\Miereas,  in  pursuance  of  the  treaty,  particularly  of  the  third  article,  the 
French  Republic  has  an  incontestible  title  to  the  domain  and  possession  of  said 
territory;  the  First  Consul  of  the  French  Republic,  desiring  to  give  to  the  United 
States  a  strong  proof  of  his  friendship,  doth  hereby  cede  to  the  United  States, 
in  the  name  of  the  French  Republic,  forever,  in  full  sovereignty,  the  said  terri- 
tory, with  all  its  rights  and  appurtenances,  as  fully  and  in  the  same  manner  as 
they  have  been  acquired  by  the  French  Republic  in  virtue  of  the  above  mentioned 
treaty,  concluded  with  his  Catholic  majesty. 

"Article  H — In  the  cession  made  by  the  preceding  article,  are  included  the 
adjacent  islands  belonging  to  Louisiana,  all  public  lots  and  squares,  vacant  lands, 
and  all  public  buildings,  fortifications,  barracks,  and  other  edifices  which  are  not 
private  property.  The  archives,  papers  and  documents  relative  to  the  domain 
and  sovereignty  of  Louisiana  and  its  dependencies  will  be  left  in  the  possession 
of  the  commissioners  of  the  United  States,  and  copies  will  be  afterward  given 
in  due  form  to  the  magistrates  and  municipal  officers  of  such  of  said  papers 
and  documents  as  may  be  necessary  to  them. 

"Article  III — The  inhabitants  of  the  ceded  territory  shall  be  incorporated  in 
the  Union  of  the  United  States  and  admitted  as  soon  as  possible,  according  to  the 
principles  of  the  Federal  Constitution,  to  the  enjoyment  of  all  the  rights,  ad- 
vantages and  immunities  of  citizens  of  the  United  States ;  and  in  the  meantime 
they  shall  be  maintained  and  protected  in  the  free  enjoyment  of  their  liberty, 
property  and  the  religion  which  they  profess. 

"Article  IV — There  shall  be  sent  by  the  Government  of  France  a  commissary 
to  Louisiana,  to  the  end  that  he  do  every  act  necessary,  as  well  to  receive  from 
the  officers  of  his  Catholic  majesty  the  said  country  and  its  dependencies  in  the 
name  of  the  French  Republic,  if  it  has  not  already  been  done,  as  to  transmit  it  in 
the  name  of  the  French  Republic  to  the  commissary  or  agent  of  the  United  States. 
"Article  ^' — Immediately  after  the  ratification  of  the  present  treaty  by  the 
President  of  the  United  States,  and  in  the  case  that  of  the  First  Consul  shall 
have  been  previously  obtained,  the  commissary  of  the  French  Republic  shall 
remit  all  the  military  posts  of  New  Orleans  and  other  posts  of  the  ceded  territory, 
to  the  commissar}'  or  commissaries  named  by  the  President  of  the  United  States 
to  take  possession :  the  troops,  whether  of  France  or  Spain,  who  may  be  there, 
shall  cease  to  occupy  any  military  posts  from  the  time  of  taking  possession,  and 
shall  be  embarked  as  soon  as  possible,  in  the  course  of  three  months  after  the 
ratification  of  this  treaty. 

"Article  VI — The  United  States  promises  to  execute  such  treaties  and  articles 


as  may  have  been  agreed  between  Spain  and  the  tribes  and  nations  of  Indians, 
until  Jjy  mutual  consent  of  the  United  States  and  the  said  tribes  or  nations,  other 
suitable  articles  shall  have  been  agreed  upon. 

"Article  VII — As  it  is  reciprocally  advantageous  to  the  commerce  of  France 
and  the  United  States  to  encourage  the  communication  of  both  nations,  for  a 
limited  tin>e,  in  the  country  ceded  by  the  present  treaty,  until  general  arrangements 
relative  to  the  commerce  of  both  nations  may  be  agreed  upon,  it  has  been  agreed 
between  the  contracting  parties,  that  the  French  ships  coming  directly  from 
France  or  any  of  her  colonies,  loaded  only  with  the  produce  of  France  or  her  said 
colonies,  and  the  ships  of  Spain  coming  directly  from  Spain  or  any  of  her  colonies, 
loaded  only  with  the  produce  or  manufactures  of  Spain  or  her  colonies,  shall  be 
admitted  during  the  space  of  twelve  years,  in  the  ports  of  New  Orleans,  and  all 
other  ports  of  entry  within  the  ceded  territory,  in  the  same  manner  as  the  ships 
of  the  United  States  coming  directly  from  France  or  Spain,  or  any  of  their  colonies, 
without  being  subject  to  any  other  or  greater  duty  on  merchandise,  or  other  or 
greater  tonnage  than  those  paid  by  the  citizens  of  the  United  States. 

"During  the  space  of  time  above  mentioned,  no  other  nation  shall  have  a 
right  to  the  same  privileges  in  the  ports  of  the  ceded  territory ;  the  twelve  years 
shall  commence  three  months  after  the  exchange  of  ratifications,  if  it  shall  take 
place  in  France,  or  three  months  after  it  shall  have  been  notified  at  Paris  to  the 
French  Government,  if  it  shall  take  place  in  the  United  States ;  it  is,  however, 
well  understood,  that  the  object  of  this  article  is  to  favor  the  manufacturers,  com- 
merce, freight  and  navigation  of  France  and  Spain,  so  far  as  relates  to  the 
importations  that  the  French  and  Spanish  shall  make  into  the  ports  of  the  United 
States,  without  in  any  sort  affecting  the  regulations  that  the  United  States  may 
make  concerning  the  exportation  of  the  produce  and  merchandise  of  the  United 
States,  or  any  right  they  may  have  to  make  such  regulations. 

"Article  A'lII — In  future,  and  forever  after  the  expiration  of  the  twelve 
years,  the  ships  of  France  shall  be  treated  upon  the  footing  of  the  most  favored 
nations  in  the  ports  above  mentioned. 

"Article  IX — The  particular  convention  signed  this  day  by  the  respective 
ministers,  having  for  its  objects  to  provide  for  the  payment  of  debts  due  to  the 
citizens  of  the  United  States  by  the  French  Republic  prior  to  the  30th  day  of 
September,  1800  (8th  Vendemaire  9).  is  approved  and  to  have  its  execution  in  the 
same  manner  as  if  it  had  been  inserted  in  the  present  treaty,  and  it  shall  be 
ratified  in  the  same  form  and  at  the  same  time,  so  that  the  one  shall  not  be  ratified 
distinct  from  the  other. 

"Another  particular  convention  signed  at  the  same  date  as  the  present  treaty, 
relative  to  a  definite  rule  between  the  contracting  parties,  is  in  like  manner  ap- 
proved and  will  be  ratified  in  the  same  form  and  at  the  same  time,  and  jointly. 

"Article  X — The  present  treaty  shall  be  ratified  in  good  and  due  form,  and  the 
ratification  shall  be  exchanged  in  the  space  of  six  months  after  the  date  of  the 
signatures  of  the  ministers  plenipotentiary,  or  sooner  if  possible.  In  faith  whereof, 
the  respective  plenipotentiaries  have  signed  these  articles  in  the  French  and 
Engli-h  languages,  declaring  nevertheless  that  the  present  treaty  was  originally 
agreed  to  in  the  French  language ;  and  have  thereunto  set  their  seals. 


"Done  at  Paris,  the  tenth  day  of  Floreal,  in  the  eleventh  year  of  the  French 
Repubhc,  and  the  30th  April,   1803. 

"Robert  R.  Li\'ingston  (L.S.) 
"James  Monroe  (L.S.) 
"Barre   Marp.ois    (L.S.)" 

The  "particular  conventions''  referred  to  in  the  ninth  article  of  the  treaty 
related  to  the  manner  in  which  the  debts  due  the  citizens  of  this  country  should 
be  discharged,  and  the  creation  of  a  stock  by  the  United  States  Government  of 
i?i  1,250,000,  bearing  interest  at  the  rate  of  6  per  cent  per  annum,  payable  semi- 
annually in  I'aris,  London  or  Amsterdam.  The  original  cost  of  the  entire  territory 
ceded  by  the  treaty  was  about  three  cents  an  acre,  but  McMaster  says:  "L'p 
to  June  20,  1880,  the  total  cost  of  Louisiana  was  $27,267,621." 

Livingston  and  Monroe's  original  instructions  were  to  obtain  by  purchase  or 
otiierwise  the  Island  of  Orleans  and  the  free  navigation  of  the  Mississippi.  In 
concluding  a  treaty  involving  the  purchase  of  the  entire  province,  there  is  no 
question  that  they  exceeded  their  authority,  and  for  a  time  President  Jei¥erson 
took  the  view  that  an  amendment  to  the  Federal  Constitution  (an  "act  of  in- 
demnity'' he  called  it )  would  be  necessary  in  order  to  legalize  the  transaction,  but 
when  he  saw  the  acquiescence  of  the  American  people  was  so  nearly  universal 
he  abandoned  the  idea.  On  October  17,  1803,  he  sent  to  Congress  a  message  re- 
lating to  the  purchase,  in  which  he  said : 

"The  enlightened  Government  of  France  saw,  with  just  discernment,  the  im- 
portance to  both  nations  of  such  liberal  arrangement  as  might  best  and  permanently 
promote  the  peace,  interests  and  friendship  of  both ;  and  the  property  and 
sovereignty  of  all  Louisiana,  which  had  been  restored  to  them,  have,  on  certain 
conditions,  been  transferred  to  the  United  States  by  instruments  bearing  date  the 
5Cth  of  April  last.  "VMien  these  shall  have  received  the  constitutional  sanction  of 
the  Senate,  they  will  be  communicated  to  the  representatives  for  the  exercise  of 
their  functions,  as  to  those  conditions  which  are  within  the  powers  vested  by  the 
Constitution  in  Congress." 

Congress  lost  no  time  in  ratifying  the  treaty.  On  October  20th,  three  days 
after  the  President's  message  on  the  subject  was  delivered,  the  Senate  gave  its 
sanction  to  the  treaty,  with  all  the  conditions  it  imposed,  and  five  days  later  it  was 
ratified  by  the  House.  On  the  last  day  of  the  month  the  President  approved 
measures  providing  for  the  creation  of  the  stock  of  $11,250,000  for  the  payment  of 
the  province,  and  authorizing  him  to  "take  possession  of  Louisiana  and  form 
a  temporary  government  therein."  In  accordance  with  the  latter  act  and  Article 
I\^  of  the  treaty,  President  Jefferson  appointed  Gen.  James  Wilkinson  and 
William  C.  C.  Claiborne,  governor  of  Mississippi,  commissioners  to  receive  the 
transfer  of  Louisiana  from  Pierre  Laussat,  the  French  commissary.  The  formal 
transfer  of  the  province  from  Spain  to  France  and  from  France  to  the  L^nited 
States  was  made  at  New  Orleans  on  December  20,  1803,  when  the  Stars  and 
Stripes  were  raised  for  the  first  time  in  token  of  sovereignty  over  the  territory 
west  of  the  Mississippi  River.  Thus  the  domain  of  the  United  States  was  ex- 
tended westward  to  the  summit  of  the  Rocky  Mountains  and  the  eastern  three- 
fourths  of  W'yoming  became  a  part  of  the  territory  of  the  American  Republic. 
Out  of  the  province  acquired  by  the  Treaty  of  Paris  have  been  erected  the  fol- 


lowing  states :  Louisiana,  Arkansas,  Missouri,  Oklahoma,  Kansas,  Nebraska, 
Minnesota,  North  and  South  Dakota,  nearly  all  of  Montana,  about  one-third  of 
Colorado,  and  three-fourths  of  Wyoming. 


Although  the  transfer  of  Louisiana  to  the  United  States  was  made  on  De- 
cember 20,  1803,  the  actual  government  of  the  upper  or  northern  part  of  the 
province,  which  included  Wyoming,  did  not  begin  until  March  10,  1804.  On  that 
day  ^laj.  Amos  Stoddard  of  the  United  States  army  assumed  the  duties  of 
governor  of  Upper  Louisiana  at  St.  Louis.  In  his  "Historical  Sketches  of  Louisi- 
ana," JMajor  Stoddard  says : 

"The  ceremony  of  the  transfer  (from  Spain  to  France)  occurred  between  the 
hours  of  II  A.  M.  and  12  M.,  March  9,  1804.  The  Spanish  flag  was  lowered 
and  the  standard  of  France  was  run  up  in  its  place.  The  people,  although 
conscious  that  the  sovereignty  of  France  was  being  resumed  but  for  a  moment  and 
simply  as  a  necessary  formality  in  the  final  transfer,  nevertheless  could  not 
restrain  their  joy  at  seeing  float  over  them  once  more  the  standard  which  even 
forty  years  of  the  mild  sway  of  Spain  had  not  estranged  from  their  memory.  So 
deep  was  the  feeling  that,  when  the  customary  hour  came  for  lowering  the  flag, 
the  people  besought  me  to  let  it  remain  up  all  night.  The  request  was  granted 
and  the  flag  of  France  floated  until  the  next  morning  over  the  city  from  which  it 
was  about  to  be  withdrawn  forever.  At  the  appointed  time  on  the  next  day, 
"March  10,  1804,  the  ceremony  of  transfer  from  France  to  the  L'nited  States  was 
enacted.  The  flag  of  the  French  Republic  was  withdrawn  and  the  Stars  and 
Stripes  waved  for  the  first  time  in  the  future  metropolis  of  the  \'alley  of  the 
^li^sissippi.  Thus  St.  Louis  became  perhaps  the  only  city  in  history  which  has 
seen  the  flags  of  three  nations  float  over  it  in  token  of  sovereignty  within  the 
space  of  twenty-four  hours." 


On  March  26.  1804.  President  Jefiferson  approved  an  act  of  Congress  dividing 
Louisiana  into  two  parts,  viz :  The  Territory  of  Louisiana  and  the  District  of 
I-ouisiana.  The  former  embraced  what  is  now  the  State  of  Louisiana  and  the  latter 
included  all  the  remainder  of  the  purchase.  Under  the  provisions  of  the  act  the 
District  of  Louisiana  was  made  subject  to  the  territorial  government  of  Indiana 
of  which  Gen.  William  H.  Harrison  was  then  governor.  Some  historians  state 
that  by  this  act  all  of  Copper  Louisiana  (which  included  Wyoming)  was  made 
a  part  of  the  Territory  of  Indiana.  This  is  a  mistake.  The  act  merely  regarded 
the  District  of  Louisiana  as  unorganized  territory  and  attached  it  to  Indiana  for 
judicial  purposes,  etc. 

About  a  year  later  a  new  arrangement  was  made.  By  the  act  of  Alarch  3. 
1805.  the  name  of  the  District  of  Louisiana  was  changed  to  the  Territory  of 
Louisiana,  and  the  President  was  authorized  to  appoint  a  governor,  secretary 
and  two  judges  therefor.  Pursuant  to  this  act  President  Jefl^'erson  appointed  Gen. 
James  A\'ilkinson  as  governor;  Frederick  Bates,  secretary;  Return  J.  Meigs  and 
John  B.  C.  Lucas,  judges.     St.  Louis  was  named  as  the  seat  of  government.     No 


Legislature  was  provided  for  in  the  act,  but  the  above  named  officials  were  em- 
powered to  make  such  laws  as  they  might  deem  necessary  for  the  government  of 
the  territory.  In  the  performance  of  this  duty  their  task  was  not  an  arduous  one, 
as  outside  of  the  City  of  St.  Louis  and  its  immediate  vicinity  there  were  no  white 
inhabitants  for  whom  legislation  was  necessary,  consequently  but  few  laws  were 
made  and  those  were  of  the  simplest  character. 

On  [une  4,  181 2,  President  Madison  approved  the  act  creating  the  Territory 
of  ^Missouri,  which  was  cut  out  of  the  old  District  of  Louisiana.  By  the  act  of 
March  2,  1819,  the  Territory  of  Arkansas  was  cut  off.  One  by  one  other  terri- 
tories were  erected,  and  these  were  afterward  admitted  as  states,  until  the  original 
purchase  now  embraces  twelve  of  the  largest  states  in  the  Union.  In  any  one  of 
these  states  the  assessed  valuation  of  property  far  exceeds  the  sum  paid  for  the 
Province  of  Louisiana. 








ROCKY    MOUNTAIN    FUR    COMPANY SMITH.    JAC  KSi 'X     ,V     sri;|j/ni; — >KIH  lUCS 



When  the  continent  of  North  America  was  first  discovered  by  Europeans,  that 
portion  of  it  lying  above  the  thirty-sixth  parallel  of  north  latitude  was  the  richest 
and  inost  extensive  field  in  the  world  for  collecting  fine  furs.  The  Indians  used 
the  skins  of  some  of  the  fur-bearing  animals  for  clothing,  or  in  the  construction 
of  their  wigwams,  unaware  of  the  fact  that  such  skins  were  of  almost  fabulous 
value  in  the  European  capitals.  When  the  white  man  came  he  brought  new 
^\ar.t^  to  the  savage — wants  that  could  be  more  easily  satisfied  by  exchanging  furs 
for  the  white  man's  goods  than  in  any  other  way.  The  fur  trade  therefore  became 
an  inportant  factor  in  the  conquest  and  settlement  of  Canada  and  the  great  North- 
west. Lahontan,  a  French  writer,  in  his  "New  \'oyages,"  published  in  1703,  says; 
"Canada  subsists  only  upon  the  trade  in  skins,  three-fourths  of  which  come  from 
the  people  around  the  Great  Lakes." 

The  French  were  the  pioneers  in  the  fur  trade.  Long  before  the  above  wa^ 
vv-ritten  by  Lahontan,  they  were  trading  with  the  Indians  in  the  X'alley  of  the 
St.  Lawrence  River,  with  Montreal  as  the  principal  market  for  their  peltries. 
From  the  St.  Lawrence  country  they  gradually  worked  their  way  westward, 
forming  treaties  of  friendship  with  the  new  Indian  tribes  they  met,  crossed  the 
low  portages  to  the  Alississippi  \'alley  and  from  there  by  way  of  the  Missouri 
River  to  the  Rocky  Mountains.  The  first  white  men  in  Wyoming  were  the  fur 
traders  and  trappers.  In  the  development  of  the  traffic  three  plans  were  pursued. 
First,  and  most  popular,  was  the  plan  of  trading  with  the  Indians,  giving  goods 
for  furs ;  second,  by  organizing  companies  which  sent  hunters  and  trappers  into 
the  districts  where  fur-bearing  animals  were  plentiful ;  and,  third,  by  free  hunters 
and  trappers  who  worked  on  their  own  account  and  sold  their  furs  in  the  most 
profitable  market.  The  first  plan  was  the  most  profitable,  because  the  Indians 
knew  little  or  nothing  of  the  actual  value  of  their  furs,  or  the  goods  which  they 
received  in  exchange,  and  unscrupulous  traders  were  not  slow  to  take  advantage 
of  their  ignorance.  The  plan  adopted  b)-  the  fur  companies  was  more  in  the 


nature  of  a  permanent  business,  but  yielded  less  profits  in  proportion  to  the 
amount  of  capital  invested. 

The  language  of  the  free  traders  and  trappers  was  a  strange  medley  of 
English,  French,  Spanish  and  Indian  dialect.  Their  costume  was  fashioned  after 
that  of  the  Indian — buckskin  hunting  shirt  and  leggings — as  being  better  adapted 
to  the  rough  ways  of  the  wilderness  and  therefore  more  serviceable  than  clothing 
brought  from  the  "States."  The  trapper's  outfit  consisted  of  a  number  of  traps, 
a  short-handled  ax,  a  hunting  knife,  a  horse  and  saddle,  a  few  simple  cooking 
utensils,  a  small  stock  of  provisions  (often  only  a  sack  of  flour  and  a  little  salt) 
and  the  inevitable  rifle.  If  he  followed  the  streams,  a  canoe  took  the  place  of  the 
horse.  His  dwelling  was  a  rude  hut  on  the  bank  of  some  creek  or  river,  but  he 
often  slept  at  night  in  the  open,  with  a  bufifalo  robe  for  a  bed,  a  pack  of  peltries  for 
a  pillow,  and  the  canopy  of  heaven  as  his  only  shelter. 

The  free  trader  was  a  similar  character,  except  in  the  nature  of  his  outfit, 
which  consisted  of  a  small  stock  of  trinkets,  bright  colored  cloth,  etc.,  which  he 
exchanged  with  the  Indians  for  their  furs.  They  went  where  they  pleased,  were 
generally  well  received  by  the  Indians,  and  traded  with  all  whom  they  met  until 
their  stock  of  goods  was  exhausted.  Sometimes  the  free  trapper  and  trader 
carried  their  furs  to  St.  Louis,  which  city  was  for  many  years  the  center  of  the  fur 
trade,  or  they  were  sold  to  the  agent  of  one  of  the  great  fur  companies  at  some 
trading  post.  In  the  latter  case  they  realized  less  profit,  but  they  saved  the  time 
and  labor  of  going  all  the  way  to  St.  Louis. 

Scarcely  had  the  United  States  come  into  the  possession  of  Louisiana,  when 
a  desire  arose  on  the  part  of  many  of  the  citizens  to  know  more  of  the  new  acqui- 
sition. Hardy,  adventurous  spirits  began  to  penetrate  the  remote  interior,  im- 
patient to  learn  more  of  its  resources  and  possibilities.  The  greatest  attraction, 
and  for  many  years  the  only  one.  it  offered  in  a  commercial  way  was  its  wealth 
in  furs.  Hence  the  roving  trapper  and  trader  were  the  first  to  venture  into  the 
great,  unexplored  West,  where  the  foot  of  the  white  man  had  never  before  pressed 
the  soil,  bringing  back  with  him  the  products  of  his  traps  or  the  profits  of  his 
traffic  with  the  natives.  In  fact,  these  trappers  and  traders  were  operating  in 
Louisiana  while  it  was  still  a  Spanish  possession.  As  early  as  1795  a  Scotchman 
named  McKay  had  a  trading  post  known  as  Fort  Charles  on  the  west  bank  of  the 
Missouri  River,  a  few  miles  above  the  present  city  of  Omaha,  Nebraska.  In 
1804  Lewis  and  Clark  met  trappers  returning  from  the  Kansas  A'alley  with  a 
raft  loaded  with  furs,  and  on  their  return  in  September,  1806,  they  met  several 
small  parties  wending  their  way  into  the  heart  of  the  wilderness  the  explorers  had 
just  left.    Says  Chittenden  : 

'Tt  was  the  trader  and  trapper  who  first  explored  and  established  the  routes 
of  travel  which  are  now,  and  always  will  be,  the  avenues  of  commerce.  They 
were  the  'pathfinders'  of  the  \\'est  and  not  those  later  official  explorers  whom  pos- 
terity so  recognizes.  No  feature  of  western  geography  was  ever  'discovered' 
by  Government  explorers  after  1840.  Everything  was  already  known  and  had 
been  known  for  a  decade.  It  is  true  that  many  features,  like  the  Yellowstone 
wonderland,  with  which  these  restless  rovers  were  familiar,  were  afterward  for- 
gotten and  were  rediscovered  in  later  years ;  but  there  has  never  been  a  time  until 
very  recently  when  the  geography  of  the  West  was  so  thoroughly  understood  as 
it  was  by  the  trader  and  trapper  from  1830  to  1840." 


Brigham  Young's  selection  of  the  Salt  Lake  \'alley  as  a  home  for  the  Mormons 
was  largely  due  to  the  information  lie  received  from  trappers  and  traders  who  had 
visited  that  region.  Emigration  to  the  Pacific  coast  passed  over  trails  that  were 
first  tra\ersed  by  the  trappers  and  traders.  They  acted  as  guides  to  Government 
expeditions,  and  the  influence  of  the  Santa  Fe  Trail  and  trade  made  an  easy  con- 
quest of  the  Southwest  at  the  time  of  the  [Mexican  war.  True,  they  carried 
corrupting  vices  and  certain  infectious  diseases  to  the  Indian,  but  they  also  carried 
to  him  his  first  lessons  in  the  life  he  was  to  lead  in  his  contact  with  the  white  man. 
;\Iany  of  the  trappers  married  Indian  women,  learned  the  Indian  language,  lived 
according  to  Indian  customs,  and  treated  the  red  man  as  a  brother  except  when 
business  rivalry  compelled  them  to  adopt  a  different  course.  Says  A.  F.  Chamber- 
lain, of  Clark  University :  "The  method  of  the  great  fur  companies,  which  had  no 
dreams  of  empire  over  a  solid  white  population,  rather  favored  amalgamation  with 
the  Indians  as  the  best  means  of  exploiting  the  country  in  a  material  way.  Mani- 
toba. Minnesota  and  Wisconsin  owe  much  of  their  early  development  to  the 
trader  and  the  mixed-blood." 

\\'hat  is  true  of  ^lanitoba,  Minnesota  and  Wisconsin  is  also  true  to  a  greater 
or  less  degree  of  every  northwestern  state.  The  fur  trade  as  carried  on  by  the 
French  was  conducted  by  individuals  or  firms,  some  of  whom  were  operating  in 
the  country  about  the  Great  Lakes  as  early  as  the  middle  of  the  Seventeenth 
Century.  The  English  were  not  far  behind  the  French,  and  they  were  the  first 
to  organize  and  equip  one  of  the  great  fur  companies  mentioned  by  Professor 

XHii  Hudson's  u.w  cgmp.anv 

On  Alay  2,  1670,  this  company  was  granted  a  charter  by  the  English  authorities 
and  it  was  the  first  of  the  great  trading  associations.  It  was  given  absolute 
proprietorship  over  a  region  of  indefinite  extent,  with  greater  privileges  than  any 
English  corporation  had  ever  received  up  to  that  time.  Its  agents  or  factors  were 
mostly  English  and  Scotch,  though  a  few  Frenchmen  entered  its  employ.  As  the 
name  of  the  company  indicates,  its  principal  field  of  operation  was  in  the  country 
about  Hudson's  Bay,  though  it  gradually  extended  its  trade  farther  to  the  westward 
and  for  many  years  it  was  the  leading  power  in  the  trade  with  the  Indians.  This 
great  monopoly  was  opposed  by  the  French  traders  and  the  Canadian  authorities, 
who  claimed  much  of  the  territory  included  in  the  company's  charter.  There 
is  no  positive  proof  that  the  agents  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  ever  traded 
in  what  is  now  the  State  of  \^^•oming,  though  some  writers  state  that  its  trappers 
were  at  one  time  operating  in  the  valley  about  the  Great  Salt  Lake. 


The  Treaty  of  Paris  in  1763,  which  ended  the  French  and  Indian  war,  left  the 
English  in  undisputed  possession  of  North  America,  except  that  portion  west  of 
the  Mississippi  River  and  extending  to  the  Pacific  coast.  During  that  war  the 
French  fur  trade  suffered  greatly  and  at  the  close  of  the  war  the  greater  portion 
of  the  trade  in  the  country  about  Lake  Superior  and  farther  to  the  west  was  con- 
trolled by  some  Scotch  merchants  of  ^Montreal.     These  merchants  took  steps  to 


revive  the  trade  and  by  1780  it  had  reached  a  considerable  volume.  In  their 
competition  with  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  they  had  learned  the  advantages  of 
cooperation,  which  induced  them  to  organize  the  Xorth-West  Company  in  the 
winter  of  1783-84.  Alexander  McKenzie,  one  of  the  leading  members  of  the 
company,  made  extensive  explorations  west  of  the  Mississippi  and  in  1793  reached 
the  Columbia  \'alley  on  the  Pacific  slope. 

In  1801  this  McKenzie,  Simon  McTavish  and  a  few  others  seceded  from  the 
company  and  organized  the  new  North-West  Company  (widely  known  as  the 
"XY  Company"),  which  in  a  short  time  became  a  formidable  rival  of  the  Hud- 
son's Bay  Company.  This  rivalry  was  made  still  more  formidable  in  1804,  when 
McTavish  died  and  a  coalition  was  formed  between  the  old  and  new  North-West 
companies.  In  October,  1814,  the  company  bought  the  trading  posts  of  the 
American  Fur  Company  at  Astoria.  About  this  time  the  relations  between  the 
Xorth-West  and  Hudson's  Bay  companies  grew  more  strained  than  ever  before, 
owing  to  the  fact  that  in  181 1  the  former  had  granted  to  the  Earl  of  Selkirk 
a  large  tract  of  land  in  the  Red  River  Valley,  between  the  United  States  boundary 
and  Lake  Winnipeg,  one  of  the  most  profitable  trapping  fields  of  the  Xorth-^^'est 
Company.  In  181 6  actual  war  broke  out  between  the  trappers  and  the  Selkirk 
colonists,  in  v/hich  li\-es  were  lost  on  both  sides,  though  the  latter  were  the 
greatest  sufiferers.  Three  years  of  litigation  then  followed,  in  which  over  half 
a  million  dollars  were  expended,  and  in  1819  the  question  of  the  rights  of  the 
two  companies  came  before  the  British  Parliament.  While  it  was  pending  the 
matter  was  settled  by  the  consolidation  of  the  two  companies,  a  remedy  that 
had  been  proposed  by  Ale.xander  McKenzie  twenty  years  before. 


On  April  6,  1808,  John  Jacob  Astor  was  granted  a  charter  by  the  State  of 
Now  York  under  the  name  of  the  American  Fur  Company,  with  liberal  powers  to 
engage  in  the  fur  trade  with  the  Indians.  Astor  began  business  as  a  fur  dealer  in 
Montreal  in  1784.  After  the  purchase  of  Louisiana  by  the  United  States,  he  was 
quick  to  see  the  advantages  offered  for  engagin'g  in  the  fur  trade  in  the  new 
purchase  and  removed  to  X'ew  York.  The  charter  has  been  called  a  "pleasing 
fiction,"  as  Mr.  Astor  was  in  reality  the  company,  the  charter  merely  giving  him 
the  power  to  conduct  his  business  along  lines  similar  to  those  of  the  other  great 
fur  companies.  It  was  not  long,  however,  until  the  American  Fur  Company  con- 
trolled by  far  the  larger  part  of  the  fur  trade  of  the  Upper  Missouri  Valley  and 
the  Northwest.  When  a  free  trader  could  not  be  driven  from  the  country  by  open 
competition,  Mr.  Astor  would  buy  him  out  and  then  give  him  a  lucrative  position 
as  agent  or  factor.  By  this  method  he  associated  with  him  such  experienced  traders 
as  Ramsay  Crooks,  Robert  McLellan,  Duncan  McDougall,  Alexander  McKay, 
Pierre  Chouteau,  Jr.,  Kenneth  McKenzie,  \Mlliam  Laidlaw,  Alexander  Culbert- 
son,  David  Mitchell,  John  P.  Cabanne,  Daniel  Lamont,  Lucien  Fontenelle,  Andrew 
Drips.  Joseph  Robidoux,  Thomas  L.  and  Peter  A.  Sarpy,  and  a  number  of  others, 
all  of  whom  were  well  known  to  the  Indians  in  the  region  where  the  company 

For  the  Northwest  trade  Mr.  Astor  adopted  the  name  of  the  Pacific  Fur 
Company,  which  Chittenden  says  was  "in  reality  only  the  American  Fur  Company 


with  a  specific  name  applied  to  a  specific  locality."  Articles  of  agreement  for 
this  company  were  entered  into  on  June  2^,  18 10,  though  active  work  was  not 
commenced  until  the  following  spring.  Besides  Mr.  Astor,  the  active  members 
of  the  Pacific  Fur  Company  were :  Wilson  P.  Hunt,  Donald  McKenzie,  Joseph 
A'liller,  David  and  Robert  Stuart,  and  John  Clarke,  all  experienced  in  the  fur 
trade.  Ramsay  Crooks  and  Robert  McLellan  had  been  free  traders  before  becom- 
ing associated  with  the  Astor  interests,  having  established  a  post  on  the  Missouri 
River,  near  the  mouth  of  the  Platte,  as  early  as  1807. 

Next  to  Mr.  Astor  himself,  Ramsay  Crooks  was  the  strongest  man  in  the 
American  Fur  Company.  He  was  born  in  Greenock,  Scotland.  January  2,  1787, 
and  came  to  America  when  about  sixteen  years  of  age.  For  several  years  he  was 
employed  by  Alontreal  fur  traders.  Next  he  was  a  plerk  in  the  trading  house  of 
Robert  Dickson  at  Mackinaw,  and  from  there  he  went  to  St.  Louis,  where  he 
met  Robert  McLellan  and  in  1807  formed  the  partnership  with  him,  which  lasted 
until  both  joined  the  American  Fur  Company.  When  the  company  established  its 
western  department,  with  headquarters  at  St.  Louis,  in  1822.  Mr.  Crooks  was 
the  virtual  head  of  that  department  for  twelve  years.  In  1834  he  purchased  the 
northern  department  and  became  president.  He  continued  in  the  fur  trade  until 
the  profits  grew  so  small  that  there  was  no  inducement  to  remain  in  it  longer. 


In  order  that  the  reader  may  better  understand  the  history  of  the  American 
Fur  Company,  it  is  necessary  to  go  back  a  few  years  and  note  the  conditions  of 
the  fur  trade  about  St.  Louis  and  along  the  Missouri  River.  One  of  the  first 
to  engage  in  the  trade  in  this  section,  after  Louisiana  became  the  property  of 
the  United  States,  was  Manuel  Lisa,  who  was  born  in  Cuba  in  September,  1772, 
but  came  with  his  Spanish  parents  to  New  Orleans  in  his  childhood.  About  1790 
he  went  up  the  Mississippi  River  to  St.  Louis,  where  he  entered  the  employ  of  some 
fur  traders,  learning  the  business  in  all  its  details.  Ten  years  later  he  obtained 
from  the  Spanish  authorities  of  Louisiana  the  exclusive  right  to  trade  with  the 
Osage  Indians  living  along  the  Osage  River.  For  some  twenty  years  this  trade  had 
been  controlled  by  the  Chouteaus.  but  Lisa  understood  the  Indian  character  and 
quickly  won  the  Osage  to  his  side.  In  i8c2  he  organized  a  company  to  trade  in 
competition  with  the  Chouteaus  in  other  sections  of  the  country,  but  the  members 
could  not  agree  and  it  was  soon  disbanded.  Lisa  then  formed  the  firm  of  Lisa, 
Menard  &  Morrison,  composed  of  himself,  Pierre  Menard  and  William  Morrison, 
for  the  purpose  of  trading  with  the  Indians  on  the  Upper  Missouri  River.  In 
1807  he  ascended  the  Missouri  to  the  mouth  of  the  Big  Horn  River,  where  he 
established  a  trading  post.  The  next  year  he  returned  to  St.  Louis  and  was  the 
moving  spirit  in  the  formation  of  the  Missouri  Fur  Company.  He  continued  in 
the  fur  trade  until  a  short  time  before  his  death  on  August  12,  1820. 


In  the  spring  of  1808  Manuel  Lisa  and  th^ other  fur  traders  of  St.  Louis  ^aw 
that  if  they  were  to  compete  successfully  with  the  British  traders  of  the  Hudson's 
Bay  Company,  the  French  and  Scotch  representatives  of  the  North-West  Com- 


pany,  and  the  newly  organized  America  Fur  Company,  some  system  of  cooperation 
was  necessary.  The  resuh  was  the  formation  of  the  St.  Louis  Missouri  Fur 
Company  in  August,  1808,  though  the  "St.  Louis"  part  of  the  name  was  dropped 
soon  after  the  company  commenced  business.  The  original  members  of  the  com- 
pany were  Manuel  Lisa,  Benjamin  Wilkinson,  Pierre  and  Auguste  Chouteau, 
Reuben  Lewis,  William  Clark  and  Sylvester  Labadie,  of  St.  Louis ;  Pierre  Menard 
and  William  Morrison,  of  Kaskaskia ;  Andrew  Henry,  of  Louisiana,  Mo. ;  and 
Dennis  Fitz  Hugh,  of  Louisville,  Ky. 

The  original  capital  stock  of  the  company  was  only  $17,000,  a  sum  entirely 
insufficient  for  successful  competition  with  the  larger  companies,  a  fact  that  the 
projectors  were  to  learn  at  some  cost  a  few  years  later.  The  company  succeeded 
to  the  business  of  Lisa,  Menard  &  Morrison  and  began  trading  with  the  Indians 
of  the  Upper  Missouri  country,  with  Lisa's  post  at  the  mouth  of  the  Big  Horn  as 
the  center  of  operations.  It  did  not  take  Lisa  long  to  ascertain  that  the  trade 
in  this  section  was  not  likely  to  be  as  profitable  as  had  been  anticipated  and  at 
his  suggestion  the  company  withdrew  the  posts  on  the  upper  river  and  concen- 
trated the  trade  at  Fort  Lisa.  This  post  was  established  in  181 1.  It  was  located 
a  few  miles  above  the  present  City  of  Omaha  and  commanded  the  trade  of  the 
Omaha,  Otoe,  Pawnee  and  other  Indian  tribes.  From  the  time  of  its  establishment 
until  about  1823  it  was  the  most  important  trading  post  on  the  Missouri  River. 

On  January  24,  1812,  the  company  was  reorganized  and  the  capital  stock  was 
•increased  to  $40,000.  A  few  weeks  later  another  increase  was  made  in  the  capital 
stock  to  $50,000.  At  that  time  Mr.  Astor  tried  to  purchase  an  interest,  but  was 
denied  the  privilege.  Another  reorganization  was  effected  in  1819,  with  Manuel 
Lisa  as  president  and  the  following  stockholders :  Joshua  Pilcher,  Andrew  Drips, 
Robert  Jones,  John  B.  Zenoni,  Andrew  Woods,  Joseph  Perkins  and  Moses  Carson. 
With  the  exception  of  Lisa  not  one  of  the  original  founders  remained  in  the 
company,  and  Lisa,  Pilcher  and  Drips  were  the  only  ones  who  had  any  experience 
in  the  Indian  trade.  When  Lisa  died  in  1820,  Pilcher  became  the  head  of  the 
company,  which  continued  in  business  until  1830,  when  it  was  disbanded. 

hunt's  expedition 

Immediately  after  the  organization  of  the  Pacific  Fur  Company  in  June,  1810, 
Mr.  Astor  planned  two  expeditions  to  the  Pacific  coast.  One  of  these,  under 
the  leadership  of  David  and  Robert  Stuart,  Alexander  McKay  and  Donald  Mc- 
Kenzie,  was  to  go  on  the  ship  Tonquin  around  Cape  Horn  with  men  and  materials 
for  establishing  a  settlement  at  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia  River.  As  this  expe- 
dition has  nothing  to  do  with  the  history  of  Wyoming,  it  is  not  deemed  necessary 
to  follow  its  movements. 

The  other  expedition,  under  Wilson  Price  Hunt,  was  to  go  by  land  up  the 
Missouri  River,  following  the  route  of  Lewis  and  Clark  over  the  Rocky  Moun- 
tains until  it  reached  the  sources  of  the  Columbia  River.  One  of  the  principal 
objects  of  this  expedition  was  to  select  sites  for  trading  posts.  Hunt  reached 
St.  Louis  on  September  3,  1810,  and  began  his  preparations.  Later  in  the 
autumn  he  left  that  city  with  three  boats,  but  upon  reaching  the  mouth  of  the 
Nodaway  River,  near  the  northwest  corner  of  the  State  of  Missouri,  the  season 
being  far  advanced,  he  decided  to  go  into  winter  quarters.     Here  another  boat 


was  added  during  the  winter  and  early  in  the  spring  of  1811  the  expedition,  con- 
sisting of  sixty  men,  started  up  the  Missouri. 

In  the  meantime  the  Missouri  Fur  Company  was  watching  Hunt's  movements 
and  nineteen  days  after  he  broke  camp  at  the  mouth  of  the  Nodaway,  Manuel 
Lisa  set  out  from  St.  Charles,  ostensibly  to  find  Andrew  Henry  and  bring  back 
the  winter's  collection  of  furs,  but  really  to  keep  an  eye  on  Hunt  and  see  that  he 
established  no  trading  posts  in  the  territory  claimed  by  the  Missouri  Fur  Com- 
pany. Lisa  had  a  long  keel  boat — one  of  the  best  on  the  Missouri  River — twenty- 
six  picked  men,  well  armed,  and  a  swivel  gun  in  the  bow  of  his  boat.  He  gained 
steadily  on  Hunt  and  upon  reaching  Council  Blufi:'s  was  near  enough  to  send  a 
messenger  to  the  latter  asking  him  to  wait,  as  it  would  be  safer  for  the  two  expe- 
ditions to  pass  through  the  Indian  country  together.  Hunt  sent  back  word  that 
he  would  wait,  but  instead  of  doing  so  pushed  forward  with  all  possible  speed. 
Lisa  also  redoubled  his  efforts  and  overtook  Hunt  on  June  2,  181 1,  a  short  distance 
above  the  mouth  of  the  Niobrara  River.  In  this  race  Lisa  broke  all  previous 
records  for  keel  boat  navigation  on  the  Missouri  River,  having  averaged  over 
eighteen  miles  a  day  for  sixty  days.  After  overtaking  Hunt,  the  two  traveled  to- 
gether through  the  Sioux  country,  arriving  at  the  Ankara  villages,  not  far  from 
the  present  City  of  Pierre,  S.  D.,  on  the  12th  of  June,  where  they  parted  company. 

Hunt's  original  plan  was  to  ascend  the  Yellowstone  River,  but  upon  leaving 
the  Arikara  villages  on  June  18,  181 1,  he  altered  his  course  to  avoid  the  Blackfeet 
Indians  and  traveled  in  a  southwesterly  direction.  About  the  first  of  August 
he  struck  the  Little  Powder  River  and  crossed  the  northern  boundary  of  the 
present  State  of  Wyoming.  From  this  point  it  is  difficult  to  trace  his  course,  but 
from  the  best  authorities  available  it  is  believed  he  moved  westward  through 
what  are  now  Campbell  and  Johnson  counties  and  arrived  at  the  Big  Horn 
Mountains  almost  due  west  of  the  City  of  Buffalo.  Here  he  turned  southward, 
seeking  a  pass  through  the  mountains,  until  he  reached  the  middle  fork  of  the 
Powder  River.  Ascending  this  stream  to  its  source,  he  found  a  way  through  the 
range  and  struck  the  headwaters  of  the  No  Wood  Creek.  Following  this  creek 
to  its  junction  with  the  Big  Horn  River,  he  ascended  the  latter  until  he  came  to 
the  Wind  River,  near  the  present  Village  of  Riverton  in  Fremont  County. 

Considerable  speculation  has  been  indulged  in  regarding  the  movements  of  the 
expedition.  It  is  reasonable  to  believe,  however,  that  Hunt  knew  the  general 
direction  he  wanted  to  pursue  to  reach  the  sources  of  the  Columbia  River,  and, 
finding  the  Wind  River  coming  from  the  northwest,  decided  to  ascend  that 
stream.  There  are  abundant  evidences  that  the  party  encamped  for  a  short  time 
near  the  present  Village  of  Dubois,  in  the  northwestern  part  of  Fremont  County. 
Then  passing  through  the  Wind  River  Range  he  struck  the  upper  reaches  of  the 
Green  River,  where  he  halted  for  several  days  to  take  advantage  of  the  excellent 
pasturage  for  his  horses  and  procure  a  supply  of  dried  buffalo  meat.  Crossing 
over  to  the  Snake  River  he  followed  down  that  stream  for  some  distance,  then 
turned  northward  and  finally  reached  the  post  known  as  Fort  Henry,  which  had 
been  established  by  Andrew  Henry,  on  Henry's  Fork  of  the  Snake  River  the  year 
before.  At  this  point  Hunt  made  the  mistake  of  abandoning  his  horses  and  under- 
taking the  remainder  of  his  journey  in  canoes.  After  struggling  with  the  difficul- 
ties of  mountain  river  navigation,  dodging  rocks  and  shooting  rapids,  for  a 
distance  of  340  miles,  the  canoes  were  discarded  and  the  journey  was  continued  on 


foot.  Un  the  last  day  of  January,  1812,  the  party  arrived  at  the  Falls  of  the 
Columbia  and  on  the  15th  of  February  reached  Astoria,  having  spent  six  months 
in  a  wilderness  never  before  explored  by  white  men. 


On  June  29,  1812,  a  party  of  about  sixty  men  left  Astoria  for  the  purpose  of 
establishing  trading  posts  in  the  Indian  country.  On  the  28th  of  July  Robert 
Stuart,  Ramsay  Crooks,  Robert  McLellan,  Benjamin  Jones,  Andri  Vallar  and 
Francis  Le  Clerc  separated  from  the  main  party  in  the  Walla  Walla  Valley  and 
set  out  for  St.  Louis,  from  which  place  they  intended  to  go  to  New  York.  They 
followed  in  the  main  the  course  of  Hunt's  expedition.  While  passing  up  the 
Snake  River  they  met  John  Hoback,  Joseph  Miller,  Jacob  Rezner  and  a  man  named 
Robinson,  who  had  been  dropped  from  Hunt's  party  the  year  before  and  had  been 
engaged  in  trapping  along  the  Beaver  River.  These  four  men  reported  that  they 
had  taken  a  large  quantity  of  furs,  but  that  they  had  been  robbed  only  a  short 
time  before  by  a  party  of  Arapaho  Indians,  losing  not  only  the  furs  they  had 
accumulated,  but  also  their  stock  of  provisions.  They  were  provided  with  food 
and  a  new  outfit  and  remained  in  the  wilderness,  where  they  passed  the  remainder 
of  their  lives.  Whether  they  were  killed  by  Indians  or  died  natural  deaths  is  not 
known,  but  they  were  never  again  seen  by  white  men. 

On  the  first  of  October,  Stuart  and  his  party  arrived  at  the  tlrand  Tetons, 
which  they  called  the  "Pilot  Knobs,"  this  name  having  been  given  to  them  by  Hunt 
the  preceding  year.  Here  Robert  McLellan  left  the  others  and  went  on  alone. 
On  October  nth  the  party  came  upon  his  trail  and  the  next  day  found  him  on  a 
tributary  of  the  Green  River,  sick,  exhausted  and  without  food.  About  this 
time  Ramsay  Crooks  also  fell  ill.  The  condition  of  McLellan  and  Crooks  necessi- 
tated a  delay  of  several  days,  during  which  time  the  supply  of  provisions  ran 
out.  Le  Clerc  suggested  that  they  cast  lots  to  see  which  one  should  be 
killed  to  provide  food  for  the  others,  but  Robert  Stuart  threatened  "to  blow  his 
brains  out"  if  he  persisted  in  advocating  such  a  course.  Not  long  after  this  one 
of  the  men  killed  a  buffalo  and  the  starving  men  had  a  feast.  A  few  days  later 
they  came  upon  a  camp  of  friendly  Snake  Indians,  who  furnished  them  with  a 
supply  of  provisions  sufficient  for  five  days,  and  also  sold  them  an  old  horse  to 
carry  their  food  and  camp  outfit. 

From  the  Snake  Indians  Stuart  learned  something  of  the  direction  he  was  to 
pursue  and  on  the  26th  the  party  reached  the  Sweetwater  River.  Here  Ben  Jones 
was  fortunate  enough  to  trap  a  beaver  and  kill  two  Inifl'alo  bulls,  which  provided 
an  addition  to  their  food  supplv.  Passing  on  down  the  Sweetwater,  three  more 
buffaloes  were  killed,  and  on  the  30th  they  came  to  the  North  Platte  River,  but 
as  the  streatn  at  this  point  flows  in  a  northeasterly  direction  they  failed  to  recognize 
it.  They  thought  it  was  the  Cheyenne,  the  Niobrara,  or  some  other  stream,  and 
after  following  it  for  a  day  or  two  decided  they  had  lost  their  way.  This  un- 
certainty as  to  their  whereabouts,  and  the  fact  that  winter  was  approaching, 
decided  them  to  go  into  winter  quarters.  On  November  2,  18 1 2,  they  began  the 
construction  of  a  cabin  "upon  a  fine  bend  of  the  river  with  a  beautiful  wooded 
bottom,  which  afforded  protection  against  storms,  with  abundant  promise  of 


This  cabin,  which  stood  opposite  the  mouth  of  Poison  Spider  Creek,  about 
twelve  miles  above  the  City  of  Casper,  is  believed  to  have  been  the  tirst  house 
built  by  white  men  in  the  present  State  of  Wyoming.  As  soon  as  it  was  finished 
the  men  turned  their  attention  to  providing  a  supply  of  meat  to  last  them  through 
the  winter,  and  within  a  few  days  over  thirty  but^aloes  were  killed.  About  a 
month  later  a  party  of  Arapaho  Indians  on  a  war  expedition  against  the  Crow 
tribe  visited  the  cabin.  They  made  no  hostile  demonstrations,  but  lingered  in  the 
neighborhood  for  two  days,  during  which  time  they  managed  to  get  the  greater 
portion  of  the  buffalo  meat.  As  soon  as  they  were  gone,  Ramsay  and  Crooks 
advised  moving  on  to  some  place  farther  away  from  the  Arapaho  country.  The 
advice  was  accepted  and  on  December  13th  the  partv  left  the  cabin  and  proceeded 
on  down  the  Platte. 

Two  weeks  later,  after  having  traveled  a  distance  they  estimated  at  over 
three  hundred  miles,  they  encountered  a  severe  snow  storm  which  made  walking 
laborious.  They  were  now  out  of  the  timber  and  knew  they  were  on  the  Platte 
River,  but  the  season  was  too  far  advanced  for  them  to  reach  St.  Louis.  They 
therefore  retraced  their  steps  for  about  seventy-five  miles  and  established  a  second 
winter  camp.  This  cam])  was  not  far  from  the  present  Town  of  Haig,  Xeb. 
While  located  here  they  occu])ied  their  time  in  hunting  and  making  canoes,  in- 
tending to  continue  their  journey  by  water  as  soon  as  the  ice  was  out  of  the 

On  March  <S,  1813,  they  launched  their  canoes,  but  had  not  gone  many  miles 
until  they  found  the  sandbars  in  the  Platte  River  too  numerous  for  safe  and  easy 
navigation  and  the  canoes  were  abandoned.  When  they  reached  Grand  Island 
they  were  entertained  for  a  few  days  at  an  Otoe  Indian  village,  where  they  met  two 
traders — Dornin  and  Roi — from  St.  Louis,  from  whom  they  learned  that  the 
United  States  was  at  war  with  England.  Dornin  provided  the  Astorians  with  a 
large  boat  made  of  elk  skin  stretched  on  a  pole  frame,  with  which  they  were 
able  to  navigate  the  Platte,  and  without  further  mishap  or  adventure  they  arrived 
at  St.  Louis  on  the  last  day  of  April,  1813. 


The  Rocky  Mountain  Fur  Company  began  with  the  following  advertisement, 
which  appeared  in  the  Missouri  Republican  of  St.  Louis  on  March  20,  1822: 

"To  ExTERPRisiNG  YouNc.  Men  : — The  subscriber  wishes  to  engage  one 
hundred  young  men  to  ascend  the  Missouri  River  to  its  source,  there  to  be  em- 
ployed for  one,  two  or  three  years.  For  particulars  enquire  of  Major  Andrew 
Henry,  near  the  lead  mines  in  the  County  of  Washington,  who  will  ascend  with 
and  command  the  party,  or  of  the  subscriber,  near  St.  Louis. 

"WiLLi.xM  H.  .Ashley." 

\\'illiam  Henry  .Ashley,  the  founder  of  the  company,  was  born  in  Powhatan 
County,  Virginia,  in  1778.  He  came  to  St.  Louis  in  1802,  but  his  early  career  in 
that  city  is  not  well  known,  further  than  that  he  was  engaged  for  some  time  in 
the  real  e.state  business  and  about  the  time  of  the  War  of  1812  was  a  manufacturer 
of  gunpowder.  He  was  next  interested  in  mining  operations,  where  he  formed 
the  acquaintance  of  Andrew  Henry,  with  whom  he  afterward  was  associated 
in  the  fur  trade.     Mr.  .Ashley  was  active  in  the  organization  and  development  of 


the  Missouri  militia.  In  1813  he  was  commissioned  a  captain;  was  promoted  to 
colonel  in  1819,  and  in  1822  was  made  major-general.  He  was  the  first  lieutenant- 
governor  of  Missouri,  when  the  state  was  admitted  into  the  Union  in  1820,  and  in 
1824  was  defeated  for  governor.  In  183 1  he  was  elected  to  Congress  to  fill  the 
unexpired  term  of  Spencer  Pettis,  who  was  killed  in  a  duel  on  August  27,  1831, 
with  Thomas  Biddle,  and  was  afterward  twice  reelected.  General  Ashley  died 
at  St.  Louis  on  March  26,  1838. 

Andrew  Henry,  the  other  active  organizer  of  the  Rocky  Mountain  Fur  Com- 
pany, was  a  native  of  Fayette  County,  Pennsylvania,  and  was  about  three  years 
older  than  General  Ashley.  He  went  west  before  the  United  States  purchased 
the  Province  of  Louisiana  and  in  1808  he  was  one  of  the  organizers  of  the  Missouri 
Fur  Company.  Two  years  later  he  was  engaged  in  a  fight  with  the  Black  feet 
Indians  at  the  Three  Forks  of  the  Missouri.  He  then  crossed  the  divide  and 
built  Fort  Henry  on  the  stream  that  is  still  known  as  the  Henry  Fork  of  the 
Snake  River.  It  is  quite  probable  that  his  account  of  his  adventures  as  a  fur 
trader  influenced  General  Ashley  to  engage  in  the  trade.  Major  Henry  died  on 
January  10,  1832. 

Ashley  and  Henry  both  received  license  on  April  11,  1822,  to  trade  on  the 
Upper  Missouri.  By  that  time  the  one  hundred  young  men  advertised  for  some 
three  weeks  before  had  been  engaged,  and  on  the  15th  the  "Rocky  Mountain  Fur 
Company,"'  which  was  the  name  adopted  by  Ashley,  sent  its  first  expedition  up  the 
Missouri  River.  It  was  accompanied  by  General  Ashley  as  far  as  the  mouth  of  the 
Yellowstone,  where  a  trading  post  was  established.  The  next  year  he  accompanied 
another  expedition  up  the  river  to  the  Arikara  villages,  and  that  summer  a  post 
was  established  at  the  mouth  of  the  Big  Horn. 

In  1824  Ashley  led  a  company  to  the  Green  River  Valley  and  the  next  spring  he 
made  the  first  attempt  ever  made  by  a  white  man  to  navigate  that  stream.  From 
the  beginning  the  Rocky  Mountain  Fur  Company  was  prosperous  and  in  five 
years  its  founders  accumulated  a  fortune.  By  1824  the  "Ashley  Beaver"  became 
widely  known  among  fur  dealers  as  the  finest  skins  in  the  market.  During  the 
summer  of  1825  Ashley  explored  a  large  part  of  the  states  of  Colorado  and  LItah 
and  established  a  trading  post  on  LItah  Lake.  By  that  time  the  company  had  almost 
abandoned  the  Upper  Missouri  trade  and  was  operating  chiefly  in  what  are  now  the 
states  of  Wyoming,  Utah  and  Colorado. 


On  July  18,  1826,  Ashley  and  Henry  sold  out  to  Jedediah  S.  Smith,  David  E. 
Jackson  and  William  L.  Sublette,  who  had  been  associated  with  the  Rocky 
Mountain  Fur  Company  from  the  beginning,  and  who  continued  the  business 
under  the  old  name.  Although  Jedediah  S.  Smith  was  really^ the  promoter  of 
the  new  firm,  William  L.  Sublette  soon  became  the  controlling  spirit.  He 
was  one  of  four  brothers — Andrew,  Solomon  P.,  Milton  G.  and  William  L. — of 
Kentucky  stock  and  all  engaged  in  the  fur  trade.  Andrew,  William  L.  and  Mil- 
ton G.  answered  Ashley's  advertisement  in  the  spring  of  1822  and  became  asso- 
ciated with  the  Rocky  Mountain  Fur  Company  from  the  time  of  its  organization 
Andrew  was  killed  by  the  Black  feet  Indians  in  1828,  Milton  died  at  Fort  Laramie 
on  December  19,  1836,  after  two  amputations  of  his  leg  on  account  of  an  injury. 


and  William  L.  died  at  Pittsburgh  on  July  21,,  1845,  while  on  his  way  to  Wash- 
ington, after  having  accumulated  a  fortune  in  the  fur  trade. 

On  August  22,  1826,  "Jed"  Smith,  as  he  was  commonly  called,  set  out  with 
his  rifle  and  Bible  to  explore  Southwestern  Utah  and  Colorado,  going  from  there 
to  California.  Sublette  and  Jackson  divided  their  employees  into  several  small 
companies,  led  by  Robert  Campbell,  Thomas  Fitzpatrick,  Moses  Harris,  James 
Bridger  and  James  Beckwourth.  Three  of  these  men — Campbell,  Bridger  and 
Beck\!i'Ourth — are  deserving  of  more  than  pasing  mention,  on  account  of  the 
prominent  part  each  took  in  the  work  of  the  fur  companies  and  the  development 
of  the  Great  West. 

Robert  Campbell  was  born  in  County  Tyrone,  Ireland,  in  1804  and  came  to  St. 
Louis  when  he  was  not  quite  twenty  years  of  age.  In  1825  he  experienced  some 
trouble  with  his  lungs  and  decided  to  go  to  the  mountains.  He  therefore  joined 
Ashley's  men  and  within  twelve  months  had  completely  regained  his  health.  Major 
Henry  once  remarked  that  "Bob  Campbell  takes  to  the  Indian  trade  lika  a  young 
duck  takes  to  the  water,"  which  must  have  been  true,  as  he  became  one  of  the 
lieutenants  of  the  Rocky  Mountain  Fur  Company  before  he  had  been  with  it  two 
years.  After  returning  to  St.  Louis  he  became  one  of  the  city's  leading  busi- 
ness men  ;  was  president  of  the  old  State  Bank,  which  was  afterward  reorganized 
as  the  Merchants  National  Bank,  of  which  he  was  also  president  for  several 
years ;  was  United  States  commissioner  to  negotiate  several  treaties  with  the 
Indians,  and  was  influential  in  many  ways  in  promoting  the  industrial  interests  of 
St.  Louis.    He  died  in  that  city  on  October  16,  1879,  aged  seventy-five  years. 

James  Bridger,  who  has  been  called  the  "Daniel  Boone  of  the  West,"  was 
born  in  Richmond,  Virginia,  March  17,  1804,  and  went  to  St.  Louis  when  he 
was  eight  years  old.  At  the  age  of  thirteen  he  was  apprenticed  to  a  blacksmith, 
which  occupation  he  followed  until  he  joined  General  Ashley's  trappers  in 
1822.  He  quickly  developed  into  a  skilful  trapper,  learned  the  Indian  customs 
just  as  quickly,  was  a  dead  shot  with  the  rifle,  paid  more  attention  to  the 
geography  of  the  country  than  did  most  of  the  others,  all  of  which  had  a  tendency 
to  increase  General  Ashley's  confidence  in  him,  and  the  two  men  became  firm 

Bridger  had  very  little  book  learning,  but  he  completed  the  course  of  study 
in  the  broader  school  of  Nature.  Army  ofiicers  and  Government  explorers  always 
found  him  reliable  as  a  guide  and  he  probably  knew  more  of  the  West  in  his 
day  than  any  other  living  man.  For  several  years  after  the  firm  of  Smith. 
Jackson  &  Sublette  was  dissolved  he  was  associated  with  Benito  Vasquez  in 
trapping  for  the  American  Fur  Company.  In  1843  he  built  Fort  Bridger,  in 
what  is  now  LTinta  County,  Wyoming,  and  continued  trapping  for  several  years. 
In  1856  he  bought  a  farm  near  Kansas  City,  Mo.,  and  expressed  his  inten- 
tion to  settle  down  and  pass  the  remainder  of  his  life  in  quiet  pursuits.  But 
the  "call  of  the  wild"  was  too  strong,  and,  although  more  than  fifty  years  of 
age.  he  was  soon  back  at  Fort  Laramie.  He  was  then  employed  by  the  United 
States  Government  as  guide,  which  occupation  he  continued  to  follow  until  he 
grew  too  old  to  stand  the  hardships  of  plains  life,  when  he  retired  to  his  farm 
and  died  there  on  July  17,   188 1. 

James  Beckwourth,  one  of  Ashley's  first  company,  came  to  the  mountains  in 
1822.     He  was  born  in   Fredericksburg,  Va.,   in  April,    1798.     He   was  always 


fond  of  boasting  that  his  father  had  been  a  major  in  the  Revolutionary  war, 
but  of  his  mother  he  said  little,  because  she  was  a  negro  slave.  When  Ashley 
sold  out  to  Smith,  Jackson  &  Sublette,  Beckwourth  went  with  the  new  company. 
Thomas  Fitzpatrick  sent  him  to  open  up  a  trade  with  the  Blackfoot  Indians,  which 
up  to  that  time  had  not  been  a  success,  but  Beckwourth  married  a  daughter  of 
the  chief  and  for  some  time  did  a  thriving  business  with  the  tribe  in  consequence. 
He  then  joined  the  Crow  nation  and  was  made  a  chief.  Some  of  tlie  trappers 
charged  him  with  instigating  the  Indians  to  steal  the  traps,  furs  and  horses  of 
the  fur  companies,  but  he  always  claimed  that  he  was  innocent  of  the  charge. 

While  living  with  the  Crow  Indians  he  had  about  a  dozen  wives.  When 
Fremont  passed  through  the  Platte  Valley  in  1842,  he  found  at  Chabonard's 
ranch  a  Spanish  woman  who  claimed  to  be  the  wife  of  Jim  Beckwourth.  After 
several  years  with  the  Crow  nation,  Beckwourth  went  to  California,  where  he 
opened  a  hotel.  His  house  was  suspected  of  being  the  headquarters  of  a  band 
of  horse  thieves  and  he  was  compelled  to  leave  California  to  save  his  life.  Return- 
ing to  Wyoming,  he  remained  there  a  short  time  and  then  went  to  Denver,  where 
he  engaged  in  the  mercantile  business,  built  a  good  house  and  married  the 
daughter  of  a  negro  washerwoman.  He  never  took  the  trouble  to  contradict 
the  report  of  his  numerous  marriages.  About  1867  he  visited  the  Crow  tribe, 
where  he  was  given  a  cordial  reception  and  a  great  feast.  When  the  Indians 
learned  that  it  was  his  intention  to  go  back  to  Denver,  they  poisoned  him  rather 
than  have  him  again  desert  them.  Beckwourth  was  given  to  magnifying  his 
exploits,  and  one  of  his  biographers  speaks  of  him  as  the  "Baron  Alunchausen 
of  the  Plains."  Notwithstanding  this  and  other  faults,  he  was  a  brave  man.  a 
successful  trapper,  knew  the  country  well  and  was  a  reliable  guide,  in  which 
capacity  he  was  frequently  employed. 

In  1827  the  firm  of  Smith,  Jackson  &  Sublette,  or  the  Rocky  Mountain  Fur 
Company,  had  about  four  hundred  men  engaged  in  trapping  in  Wyoming,  North- 
em  Colorado  and  Utah.  This  year  the  rendezvous  was  at  the  mouth  of  Horse 
Creek,  near  the  line  between  Lincoln  and  Fremont  counties,  in  Wyoming.  Jed 
Smith  returned  to  the  Pacific  coast,  Sublette  remained  in  the  country  until  fall, 
when  he  went  to  St.  Louis  to  dispose  of  the  season's  furs  and  obtain  a  new 
supply  of  goods,  and  Jackson  spent  the  winter  in  the  valley  south  of  Yellow- 
stone National  Park.  When  Sublette  found  him  there  in  the  spring  of  1828, 
he  named  the  valley  "Jackson's  Hole,"  and  the  lake  there  he  called  "Jackson's 
Lake,"  in  honor  of  his  partner.     These  names  still  apply  to  the  locality. 

The  rendezvous  of  1829  was  near  the  mouth  of  the  Popo-Agie  River.  This 
year  the  supplies  for  the  trappers  and  goods  for  the  Indian  trade  were  brought 
to  the  rendezvous  in  wagons  drawn  by  mules.  These  were  the  first  wagons 
ever  brought  to  Wyoming.  They  came  up  the  Platte  and  Sweetwater  valleys, 
and  returned  to  St.  Louis  loaded  with  furs. 

On  .August  4,  1830,  Smith.  Jackson  &  Sublette  sold  out  to  a  new  company 
composed  of  Milton  G.  Sublette,  Thomas  Fitzpatrick,  Henry  Fraeb.  Jean  Bap- 
tiste  Gervais  and  James  Bridger,  who  continued  the  business  under  the  old  name 
of  Rocky  Mountain  Fur  Company.  The  old  partners  then  engaged  in  the  Santa 
Fe  trade  until  Jed  Smith  was  killed  by  the  Indians  in  Southwestern  Kansas  in 
1831.  Jackson  then  formed  a  partnership  with  David  E.  Waldo  and  went  to 
California,  and  William  L.  Sublette  went  to  St.  Louis,  where  for  some  time  he 



furnished  the  suppHes  to  the  Rocky  Mountain  Fur  Company  and  marketed 
their  furs. 

The  Rocky  Mountain  Fur  Company  came  to  an  end  in  1834.  The  next  year 
Thomas  Fitzpatrick,  Milton  G.  Sublette  and  James  Bridger  formed  a  partner- 
ship, bought  the  post  that  had  been  built  by  Sublette  &  Campbell  on  the  Laramie 
River,  and  entered  the  service  of  the  American  Fur  Company.  This  firm  was 
dissolved  by  the  death  of  Milton  G.  Sublette  in  1836.  Bridger,  Fitzpatrick,  Henry 
Fraeb  and  Benito  \'asquez  then  associated  themselves  in  the  fur  trade  and  con- 
tinued in  business  together  for  several  years.  Associated  with  them  as  an 
employee  was  the  well  known  scout,  trapper  and  guide,  James  Baker. 

Jim  Baker,  as  he  was  familiarly  called,  was  born  at  Belleville,  111.,  Decem- 
ber 18,  1818.  When  he  was  about  twenty  years  of  age  he  joined  a  company 
of  ninety  recruits  for  the  American  Fur  Company  and  came  to  Wyoming.  The 
rendezvous  that  year  (1838)  was  at  the  mouth  of  the  Popo-Agie  River.  Baker's 
first  trip  as  a  trapper  was  up  the  Big  Wind  River  to  Jackson's  Hole.  After  nine 
years  with  the  American  Fur  Company  he  entered  the  employ  of  Bridger,  Fitz- 
patrick, Vasquez  &  Fraeb,  with  whom  he  remained  until  the  firm  wound  up 
its  affairs.  He  was  in  Wyoming  during  the  cold  winter  of  1845-46,  when  many 
of  the  wild  animals  froze  to  death.  In  1857  he  was  guide  to  Colonel  Johnston's 
Utah  expedition,  and  later  was  chief  of  scouts  under  Gen.  William  S.  Harney. 
In  1859  he  built  a  home  on  Clear  Creek,  near  Denver,  where  he  lived  until  1873, 
when  he  removed  to  a  farm  near  Dixon,  Wyo.,  in  the  southwestern  part 
of  Carbon  County.  His  death  occurred  there  in  the  spring  of  1898,  he  having 
passed  sixty  years  upon  the  western  frontier. 

By  the  act  of  February  13,  1917,  the  Wyoming  Legislature  appropriated  the 
sum  of  $750  to  remove  the  "Jim  Baker  cabin"  from  section  13,  township  12, 
range  90,  in  Carbon  County,  to  a  suitable  site  at  or  near  Cheyenne,  where  it 
might  be  preserved  as  "a  relic  of  public  interest."  Later  in  the  same  year  the 
cabin  was  taken  down,  the  logs  carefully  numbered  and  moved  to  Cheyenne, 
where  the  cabin  was  rebuilt  exactly  in  its  original  form  in  the  grounds  of 
Frontier  Park,  near  the  main  entrance,  where  it  stands  as  an  interesting  monu- 
ment to  the  memory  of  the  brave  old  frontiersman. 


When  the  Hudson's  Bay  and  North-West  companies  were  consolidated  in 
182 1,  a  number  of  employees  were  dropped  from  each  force.  One  of  these 
was  Joseph  Renville,  an  experienced  trader,  who  invited  a  number  of  the  best 
men  thus  discharged  to  join  him  in  forming  a  new  company.  Among  those 
who  accepted  the  invitation  were  Kenneth  McKenzie  and  Williarn  Laidlaw.  The 
result  was  the  organization  of  the  Columbia  Fur  Company,  with  Kenneth  Mc- 
Kenzie as  president.  This  company  established  its  headquarters  on  Lake 
Traverse,  in  what  is  now  the  State  of  Minnesota,  and  in  a  short  time  became  a 
strong  competitor  of  the  older  companies.  Under  the  act  of  Congress,  approved 
on  April  29.  1816,  foreigners  were  not  permitted  to  engage  in  the  fur  trade 
within  the  limits  of  the  United  States,  chiefly  for  the  reason  that  they  were 
accustomed  to  sell  liquor  to  the  Indians  in  exchange  for  furs.  The  Columbia 
Company,  which  was  composed  chiefly  of   foreigners,  evaded  this  law  by  per- 


suading  Daniel  Lamont  and  other  citizens  of  the  United  States  to  become  stock- 
holders. These  citizens  acted  as  a  subsidiary  company  under  the  name  of  "Tilton 
&  Company.''  Their  agents  visited  the  upper  Missouri  and  Yellowstone  valleys, 
and  possibly  operated  to  some  extent  in  Wyoming.  In  July,  1827,  the  Columbia 
Company  was  merged  with  the  American  Fur  Company,  Laidlaw,  McKenzie 
and  others  going  with  the  latter. 


This  company  was  organized  early  in  the  Nineteenth  Century  by  Fraser, 
Dickson,  Cameron  and  Roulette,  for  the  purpose  of  trading  with  the  Indians 
about  the  Great  Lakes.  Gradually  it  extended  its  field  of  operations  westward, 
and  at  the  time  the  Hudson's  Bay  and  North- West  companies  were  united  it 
was  firmly  established  in  the  country  west  of  the  Great  Lakes  as  far  as  the 
Mississippi  River.  Not  long  after  that  Astor  and  certain  former  members  of 
the  North-West  Company  purchased  the  interests  of  the  Mackinaw  Company 
and  changed  the  name  to  the  Southwest  Fur  Company.  The  object  in  changing 
the  name  was  to  make  it  correspond  with  the  section  to  which  it  was  intended 
to  extend  the  trade,  but  when  an  effort  was  made  to  engage  in  the  trade  in 
Wyoming,  Colorado  and  LTtah.  Ashley  and  others  were  found  to  be  so  firmly 
entrenched  that  the  project  was  given  up  and  the  Southwest  Company  was 


One  of  the  earliest  (perhaps  the  first)  trading  establishments  within  the  limits 
of  the  present  State  of  Wyoming  was  located  near  the  junction  of  the  north  and 
south  forks  of  the  Powder  River,  in  the  southern  part  of  Johnson  County. 
Capt.  W.  F.  Raynolds,  who  explored  this  part  of  the  country  in  1859-60,  with 
Jim  Bridger  as  guide,  gives  the  following  account  of  this  post  in  his  report : 
"On  September  26,  1859,  after  a  ride  of  about  fifteen  miles,  we  came  to  the 
ruins  of  some  old  trading  posts  known  as  the  'Portuguese  Houses,'  from  the 
fact  that  many  years  ago  they  were  erected  by  a  Portuguese  trader  named 
Antonio  Mateo.  They  are  now  badly  dilapidated  and  only  one  side  of  the  pickets 
remains  standing.  These,  however,  are  of  hewn  logs,  and  from  their  character 
it  is  evident  that  the  structures  were  originally  very  strongly  built.  Bridger 
recounted  a  tradition  that  at  one  time  this  post  was  besieged  by  the  Sioux  for 
forty  days,  resisting  successfully  to  the  last,  alike,  the  strength  and  the  ingenuity 
of  their  assaults,  and  the  appearance  of  the  ruins  renders  the  story  not  only 
credible,  but  also  probable." 

Fort  William,  so  named  for  ^Villiam  L.  Sublette,  was  built  at  the  confluence 
of  the  Platte  and  Laramie  rivers  by  the  firm  of  Smith,  Jackson  &  Sublette  in 
1834.  The  following  year  it  was  sold  to  Fitzpatrick,  Sublette  &  Bridger,  and 
after  the  death  of  Milton  G.  Sublette  became  a  post  of  the  American  Fur  Com- 
pany. This  was  the  first  trading  post  in  Wyoming  built  by  a  citizen  of  the  United 

Fraeb's  Post,  established  about  1837  or  1838,  was  built  by  Henry  Fraeb  and 
James  Bridger  on  St.  Vrain's  fork  of  the  Elkhead  River,  a  short  distance  west 


of  the  ^ledicine  Bow  Mountains.  Fraeb  was  killed  by  Sioux  Indians  in  August, 
1841,  and  the  post  was  soon  afterward  abandoned.  At  the  time  Fraeb  was 
killed  the  post  was  attacked  by  a  large  war  party  of  Sioux.  In  the  action  the 
Indians  lost  ten  killed  and  a  number  wounded,  and  the  whites  lost  five.  The  post 
stood  almost  on  the  line  between  Wyoming  and  Colorado. 

Fort  John,  a  post  of  the  American  Fur  Company,  was  built  not  far  from  Fort 
William  in  1839  and  was  named  for  John  B.  Sarpy,  an  agent  of  the  company. 
The  name  was  subsequently  changed  to  Fort  Laramie.  The  post  was  abandoned 
and  the  buildings  demolished  about  1846. 

Fort  Platte,  situated  on  the  right  bank  of  the  Platte  River,  on  the  tongue 
of  land  between  that  stream  and  the  Laramie  River,  was  built  about  1840.  Two 
years  later,  when  Fremont  passed  through  Wyoming  on  his  way  to  the  Rocky 
Mountains,  he  mentioned  this  fort  in  his  report  as  a  post  of  Sabille.  .\dams  & 
Company.  A  year  later  it  passed  into  the  hands  of  Pratt,  Cabanne  &  Company 
and  a  few  years  later  was  torn  down. 

Fort  Bridger,  one  of  the  best  known  and  most  enduring  of  the  early  posts, 
was  built  by  James  Bridger  and  Benito  Vasquez  in  the  fall  of  1843.  On  Decem- 
ber 10,  1843,  Bridger  wrote  to  Pierre  Chouteau,  Jr.,  at  St.  Louis,  ordering 
certain  goods  for  the  Indian  and  emigrant  trade,  and  in  the  letter  said : 

"I  have  established  a  small  fort  with  a  blacksmith  shop  and  a  supply  of 
iron  in  the  road  of  the  emigrants,  on  Black's  Fork  of  the  Green  River,  which 
promises  fairl}'.  They,  in  coming  out,  are  generally  well  supplied  with  money, 
but  by  the  time  they  get  here  are  in  want  of  all  kinds  of  suppHes.  Horses,  pro- 
visions, smith  work,  etc.,  bring  ready  cash  from  them,  and  should  I  receive  the 
goods  hereby  ordered  I  will  do  a  considerable  business  in  that  way  with  them. 
The  same  establishment  trades  with  the  Indians  in  the  neighborhood,  who  have 
mostly  a  good  number  of  beaver  among  them." 

Bridger  evidently  received  the  goods,  as  he  remained  at  the  fort  for  several 
years  after  that  time,  and  the  post  became  a  landmark  to  guide  emigrants  on 
their  way  westward.  The  fort  afterward  became  a  military  post  of  the  L'nited 

Fort  Davy  Crockett  and  Fort  LTintah,  just  across  the  line  in  Colorado,  were 
posts  that  commanded  a  goodly  share  of  the  Wyoming  fur  trade,  and  Fort 
Bonneville,  near  the  headwaters  of  the  Green  River,  was  another  early  post, 
but  it  was  abandoned  almost  as  soon  as  it  was  completed.  x\n  account  of  it 
will  be  found  in  the  chapter  on  Explorers  and  Explorations. 








In  an  earlier  chapter  of  this  work  reference  is  made  to  the  early  European 
explorations  in  America,  and  the  conflicting  claims  to  territory  that  arose,  based 
upon  the  discoveries  made  by  these  explorers.  Most  of  these  early  Europeans 
confined  their  efforts  to  the  lands  along  the  Atlantic  coast,  though  at  least  two 
Spanish  expeditions  penetrated  far  into  the  interior  about  the  middle  of  the  Six- 
teenth Century.  One  of  these  was  the  expedition  of  Hernando  de  Soto,  who 
discovered  the  Mississippi  River  in  the  spring  of  1541,  an  account  of  which  is 
given  in  the  previous  chapter  mentioned,  and  almost  contemporary  with  it  was 
an  expedition  from  Mexico,  led  by  Francisco  \'asquez  de  Coronado.  Neither 
of  these  expeditions  touched  what  is  now  the  State  of  Wyoming,  but  they  exerted 
an  influence  upon  subsequent  events,  in  that  they  gave  the  first  information  con- 
cerning the  interior  of  the  American  continent. 


The  leader  of  this  expedition,  a  native  of  Salamanca,  Spain,  was  appointed 
governor  of  New  Gallicia.  one  of  the  northern  provinces  of  Mexico,  about  I533 
or  1534.  He  has  been  described  as  "cold  and  cruel,  ambitious,  and  always  look- 
ing for  an  opportunity  to  distinguish  himself  and  win  favor  with  his  royal 
master."  .Such  an  opportunity  came  to  him  shortly  after  he  had  been  appointed 
governor,  when  four  men  reached  the  City  of  Mexico,  after  having  spent  some 
time  in  wandering  among  the  Sierra  Madre  Mountains  and  the  sandy  plains 
farther  to  the  northward.  One  of  these  four,  called  Estevan  or  "Stephen  the 
Moor."  gave  a  circumstantial  account  of  an  expedition  of  some  four  hundred 
men  which  left  Florida  eight  years  before,  but  had  been  reduced  by  hardships, 
toil  and  captivity  among  the  natives  to  the  four  men  who  had  at  last  escaped 
and  found  their  way  to  the  Spanish  settlements  in  ^Mexico.  This  Estevan  also 
told  of  opulent  cities,  known  as  the  "Seven  cities  of  Cibola."'  of  which  he  had 
heard  frequent  mention  while  among  the  Indians,  but  which  he  had  never  seen. 


In  these  reports  Coronado  saw  a  chance  to  win  fame  and  establish  himself 
more  firmly  at  court.  He  sent  out  a  small  expedition  under  Father  Marcos  de 
Niza,  a  Franciscan  friar,  to  reconnoiter  the  seven  cities,  Estevan  actmg  as  guide. 
The  Moor,  with  a  few  men,  went  on  in  advance  and  afterward  claimed  to  have 
reached  the  cities  before  the  friar  and  the  main  body  had  covered  half  the  dis- 
tance. Incited  by  that  avarice  which  was  a  distinguishing  characteristic  of  the 
early  Spanish  explorers  in  America,  Estevan  and  his  companions  proceeded  to 
plunder  the  houses  and  killed  some  of  the  natives  who  refused  to  give  up  their 
property.  The  entire  population  then  took  up  arms  against  the  invaders,  with 
the  result  that  the  Moor  and  his  associates  were  compelled  to  abandon  their  loot 
and  beat  a  hasty  retreat. 

Upon  meeting  Father  de  Niza,  they  told  him  of  what  had  happened  and 
advised  him  to  proceed  no  farther.  From  this  point  accounts  of  the  expedition 
differ.  The  friar,  doubtless  for  the  purpose  of  retaining  the  good  will  of  the 
governor,  reported  that  he  went  on  until  he  came  to  an  eminence,  from  which 
he  could  see  plainly  the  cities  of  Cibola,  the  lofty  houses,  the  abundant  evidences 
of  the  great  wealth  of  the  inhabitants,  etc.,  but  some  of  the  private  soldiers  who 
accompanied  him  reported  that  he  turned  back  in  great  fright.  In  the  light 
of  subsequent  events,  the  latter  report  seems  to  be  the  most  plausible. 

Coronado,  however,  did  not  abandon  the  idea  of  leading  an  expedition  to 
the  fabled  cities  and  appropriating  their  great  wealth.  Accordingly,  in  the 
spring  of  1540,  with  300  Spanish  soldiers  and  800  natives,  he  left  new  Gallicia 
and  took  up  his  march  for  the  seven  cities.  Three  accounts  of  the  expedition 
were  afterward  published — one  by  Coronado  himself,  one  by  his  Heutenant,  Jara- 
millo,  and  the  third  by  a  private  soldier  named  Castaneda.  While  the  reports 
do  not  harmonize  in  many  essential  particulars,  all  agree  that  they  reached  the 
cities  of  which  they  had  heard  so  much  and  found  only  seven  insignificant  native 
villages,  with  no  lofty  buildings,  no  gold  and  silver,  no  jewels.  Some  writers 
have  attempted  to  show  that  the  cities  of  Cibola  were  located  northeast  of  Zuni. 
N.  M.,  and  that  the  Zuni  ruins  are  the  remains  of  the  cities  of  which  Coronado 
was  in  search.  It  is  also  asserted  by  some  that  a  detachment  of  Coronado's 
troops  under  Lopez  de  Cardenas,  discovered  the  grand  canyon  of  the  Colorado 
in  August,  1540. 

Fearing  the  ridicule  of  his  friends  if  he  returned  to  New  Gallicia  empty- 
handed,  Coronado  asked  the  natives  of  the  villages  if  there  were  not  other  cities 
within  reach  that  it  might  be  profitable  to  visit.  Glad  of  the  opportunity  to  rid 
themselves  of  the  Spaniards,  they  told  him  of  a  rich  province  about  one  hundred 
leagues  to  the  eastward.  To  this  province  Coronado  led  his  followers,  only  to 
meet  with  another  disappointment.  True,  he  found  some  Indian  villages,  but  the 
inhabitants  were  no  more  opulent  than  those  he  had  just  left.  In  his  chagrin 
he  made  war  upon  the  natives  of  these  villages  and  practically  annihilated  their 
dwellings.  Castaneda's  account  says  they  spent  the  winter  at  this  place,  which 
he  calls  Cicuye,  and  which  archaeologists  have  located  in  the  Pecos  Valley,  not 
far  from  the  present  Town  of  Puerto  de  Luna. 


While  the  expedition  was  at  Cicuye  an  Indian,  who  claimed  to  be  a  prisoner, 
came  to  Coronado  with  an  air  of  great  mystery  and  gave  a  glowing  account  of 


a  country  called  Quivira,  some  three  hundred  leagues  farther  to  the  northeast, 
in  which  there  was  a  great  river,  nearly  three  leagues  wide,  with  fish  in  it  as 
large  as  horses.  He  said  the  ruler  of  this  country  was  an  old  man  named  Tar- 
tarrax,  quite  wealthy,  who  worshiped  the  image  of  a  woman  and  a  cross  of  gold, 
and  who  prayed  by  means  of  a  string  of  beads.  He  told  his  story  in  an  impres- 
sive manner  and  proposed  to  Coronado  that  if  the  Spaniards  would  connive  his 
escape  he  would  guide  them  to  this  rich  province.  The  offer  was  accepted  and 
on  May  5,  1541,  the  expedition  left  the  Pecos  Valley  for  the  realm  of  Tartarrax. 

The  Spaniards  called  their  Indian  guide  "the  Turk,"  because  of  some  real 
or  fancied  resemblance  to  that  people.  Some  of  the  more  observing  members 
of  the  expedition  noticed  that  when  they  met  some  wandering  party  of  Indians 
on  the  plains,  if  the  guide  was  the  first  to  talk  to  them,  they  confirmed  his  story 
of  Quivira,  but  if  the  white  men  were  the  first  to  question  them  they  knew 
nothing  of  such  a  province.  This  has  led  to  the  theory  that  the  Turk  was  not 
a  prisoner  at  Cicuye,  but  that  his  story  was  concocted  for  the  purpose  of  luring 
the  Spaniards  away  from  that  place,  the  guide  being  a  member  of  the  tribe 
who  was  willing  to  sacrifice  his  life,  if  need  be,  for  the  safety  and  comfort  of 
his  people.  His  life  was  sacrificed,  for  when  Coronado  reached  the  conclusion 
that  the  guide  had  deceived  him  he  ordered  the  Indian  to  be  hanged.  Just  before 
his  death  the  Turk  insisted  that  the  cities  to  which  he  was  guiding  the  expedition 
were  "just  a  little  farther  on." 

A  great  deal  of  speculation  has  been  indulged  in  regarding  the  location  of 
Quivira.  In  his  own  report,  Coronado  says  he  went  as  far  north  as  the  fortieth 
degree  of  north  latitude.  If  he  was  correct  in  his  estimate,  the  northern  limit  of 
his  travels  was  somewhere  near  the  boundary  line  between  Kansas  and  Nebraska. 
Attempts  have  been  made  to  show  that  Quivira  was  somewhere  near  the  head 
of  the  Gulf  of  California,  and  several  places  in  Colorado  claim  the  honor.  Some 
think  that  the  ruins  called  "Gran  Quivira,''  in  New  Mexico,  mark  the  site  of  the 
mythical  province  of  Tartarrax.  Near  Junction  City,  Kan.,  a  monument  has 
been  erected  to  mark  the  northernmost  point  of  Coronado's  wanderings.  The 
engineers  engaged  in  building  the  Union  Pacific  Railroad  found  near  the  mouth 
of  the  Loup  River,  in  Nebraska,  mounds  and  other  evidences  of  once  populous 
villages,  which  support  to  some  extent  the  dying  statement  of  the  Turk,  that 
the  cities  of  which  he  had  spoken  were  "just  a  little  farther  on." 


In  1599  Don  Juan  de  Onate  led  an  expedition  from  New  Mexico  in  search  of 
Quivira.  The  reports  of  his  movements  are  conflicting  and  unreliable.  He  says 
he  reached  the  "City  of  Quivira,  which  is  on  the  north  band  of  a  wide,  shallow 
river."  .Some  historians  think  the  river  mentioned  is  the  Platte,  and  the  location 
described  by  Onate  corresponds  fairly  well  to  the  ruins  found  by  the  Union  Pacific 

Certain  Spanish  writers  tell  of  an  expedition  that  left  Mexico  some  time 
prior  to  1650  and  established  a  settlement  on  a  large  tributary  of  the  Missouri 
River,  where  they  found  gold  mines,  stone-built  houses,  arrastres  for  reducing 
the  ore,  but  the  entire  party  was  killed  by  Indians  about  1650.  The  story  is 
probably  largely  traditional,  as  at  that  time  the  Spaniards  had  all  they  could  do 


to  hold  their  own  in  New  Mexico,  though  in  1865  ruins  were  found  in  the 
Powder  River  Valley — foundations  of  houses  and  what  appeared  to  be  the  remains 
of  an  arrastre — that  give  color  to  the  story. 

Another  Spanish  expedition  into  the  Missouri  \'alley  was  that  of  the  so-called 
"Duke  of  Penalosa"  in  the  spring  of  1662.  Friar  Nicholas  de  Freytas,  who 
accompanied  the  expedition  as  chronicler,  says  that  at  the  end  of  three  months 
they  came  "to  a  wide  and  rapid  river,"  where  they  made  friends  with  a  large 
party  of  Indians,  who  accompanied  the  expedition  to  Ouivira.  After  a  march 
of  several  days  they  reached  another  large  river  and  saw  "a  stream  of  consider- 
able size  entering  it  from  the  north."  Along  this  tributary,  De  Freytas  says, 
could  be  seen  "a  vast  settlement  or  city,  in  the  midst  of  a  spacious  prairie.  It 
contained  thousands  of  houses,  circular  in  shape  for  the  most  part,  some  two, 
three,  and  even  four  stories  in  height,  framed  of  hard  wood  and  skilfully  thatched. 
It  extended  along  both  sides  of  this  second  river  for  more  than  two  leagues." 

Penalosa  encamped  on  the  south  side  of  the  large  river  (which  may  have 
been  the  Platte),  intending  to  cross  over  the  next  morning  and  visit  the  city. 
During  the  night  his  Indian  allies  stole  out  of  the  camp,  crossed  the  river  and 
attacked  the  city.  All  the  inhabitants  who  were  not  killed  fled  in  fright,  hence 
Penalosa  did  not  meet  a  single  occupant  of  that  fabled  province  which  had  so 
long  commanded  the  curiosity  of  the  Spanish  adventurers  of  New  Spain.  This 
13  a  rather  fanciful  story,  but  it  doubtless  served  to  increase  Penalosa's  impor- 
tance with  the  Spanish  authorities,  which  was  probably  the  chief  purpose  for 
which  it  was  invented. 


In  the  early  part  of  the  Eighteenth  Century  a  belief  existed  among  the  Euro- 
peans that  there  was  a  river  which  flowed  to  the  South  Sea,  as  the  Pacific  Ocean 
was  then  called.  This  belief  was  based  upon  reports  given  to  traders  by  Indians, 
who  said  that  near  the  mouth  of  the  river  the  surface  was  so  rough  that  it  was 
dangerous  to  try  to  pass  over  it  in  canoes,  while  farther  up  the  stream  were 
great  falls  and  rapids,  unsafe  for  canoes.  This  description  answers  the  Colum- 
bia, then  unknown  to  white  men.  In  the  spring  of  1 731  Pierre  Gaultier  de 
Varennes.  Sieur  de  la  \'erendrye.  received  authority  from  the  French  officials 
in  Canada  to  discover  the  river.  On  June  S.  1731,  \'erendrye,  with  his  three 
sons,  a  nephew  and  a  number  of  Canadian  voyageurs.  left  Montreal  on  his 
mission.  Not  much  can  be  learned  of  his  first  efl:'ort  to  find  the  fabled  river,  as 
the  expedition  met  with  a  war  party  of  Indians  and  a  fight  ensued  in  which 
A'erendrye's  youngest  son  and  a  number  of  the  voyageurs  were  killed,  and 
the  project  was  for  a  time  given  up. 

In  January,  1739,  after  repeated  failures,  \'erendrye  reached  the  Maiidan 
villages  on  the  Missouri  River,  near  the  present  City  of  Bismarck,  N.  D.  There 
his  interpreter  deserted  him  and  he  was  forced  to  turn  back.  With  his  two  sons, 
two  Canadians  and  an  interpreter,  he  again  visited  the  Mandan  villages,  arriving 
there  some  time  in  the  spring  of  1742.  From  the  Mandan  villages  he  pressed 
on  toward  the  West  until  he  arrived  at  the  P.lack  Hills,  where  his  interpreter 
again  deserted  him.  Trusting  to  luck,  he  went  on.  and  on  January  i,  1743.  the 
party  came  within  sight  of  the  Big  Horn  Mountains,  somewhere  near  the  northern 


boundary'  of  Wyoming.  One  account  says  that  after  his  interpreter  deserted  him 
at  the  Black  Hills  he  found  a  friendly  Indian,  who  acted  as  guide  and  interpreter, 
while  he  explored  the  Assiniboine,  Upper  Missouri,  Yellowstone  and  Big  Horn 
rivers.  He  then  ascended  the  Shoshone  River  and  crossed  over  to  the  Wind 
River.  From  the  Indians  living  in  the  Wind  River  \'alley  he  learned  of  a  river 
farther  west,  which  flowed  in  southerly  direction  (probably  the  Green  River), 
but  the  same  Indians  warned  him  that  a  hostile  tribe  inhabited  the  country  about 
the  pass  through  the  mountains  and  that  it  would  be  dangerous  to  attempt  to 
proceed  farther  in  that  direction.  Verendrye  then  retraced  his  steps  and  in  May, 
1744.  arrived  at  Montreal,  having  spent  thirteen  years  in  seeking  for  a  passage 
by  water  to  the  South  Sea. 

X'erendrye  and  his  associates  were  no  doubt  the  first  white  men  to  set  foot 
upon  the  soil  of  Wyoming.  After  his  last  expedition  no  further  efiforts  were 
made  by  the  French  to  discover  the  river.  A  few  years  later  came  the  French 
and  Indian  war.  at  the  conclusion  of  which  Canada  passed  into  the  hands  of 
the  English,  who  left  the  matter  of  exploration  to  the  fur  traders. 

LEWIS   .\ND   CL.\RK 

After  \'erendrye.  no  exploring  expeditions  were  sent  into  the  Great  Northwest 
for  more  than  half  a  century.  In  the  summer  of  1803  President  Jefferson  began 
making  plans  to  send  an  expedition  up  the  Missouri  River  to  discover  its  sources, 
ascertain  the  character  of  the  country,  and  whether  a  water  route  to  the  Pacific 
coast  was  possible.  The  Treaty  of  Paris,  however,  was  not  ratified  until  the 
fall  of  that  year  and  the  expedition  was  postponed  until  the  spring  of  1804. 
Mr.  Jefferson  selected  as  leaders  of  this  expedition  Capt.  Meriwether  Lewis 
and  Capt.  William  Clark,  officers  of  the  regular  United  States  army. 

Captain  Lewis  was  born  near  Charlottesville.  \'a..  in  1774.  and  was  not  quite 
thirty  years  of  age  when  he  received  his  appointment  as  one  of  the  leaders  of 
the  expedition.  He  entered  the  army  in  1795.  received  his  commission  as  cap- 
tain in  1800.  and  from  1801  to  1803  was  President  Jefferson's  private  secretary. 
In  1807  he  was  appointed  governor  of  Louisiana  Territory,  which  office  he  held 
until  his  death.  He  died  near  Nashville.  Tenn..  in  180Q,  while  on  his  way  to 

Clark  was  also  a  Virginian  and  a  brother  of  Gen.  George  Rogers  Clark,  who 
distinguished  himself  during  the  Revolution  by  the  capture  of  the  British  posts 
in  the  Northwest.  In  1784  he  went  with  his  family  to  Kentucky  and  settled  where 
the  City  of  Louisville  now  stands.  In  1792  he  was  commissioned  lieutenant  and 
served  under  Gen.  Anthony  Wayne  in  the  campaigns  against  the  Indians  of  Ohio 
and  Indiana.  He  resigned  from  the  army  in  1796  on  account  of  his  health,  and 
settled  at  St.  Louis.  Regaining  his  health,  he  again  entered  the  army,  and  in 
1813  was  commissioned  captain.  In  1813  he  was  appointed  governor  of  Mis- 
souri Territory  and  held  the  office  until  the  state  was  admitted  in  1821.  The 
next  year  he  was  appointed  superintendent  of  Indian  affairs  for  the  St.  Louis 
district  and  remained  in  that  position  until  his  death  at  St.  Louis  in  1838.  Ten 
years  before  his  death  he  founded  the  City  of  Paducah,  Kentucky. 

Such,  in  brief,  was  the  character  of  the  men  chosen  to  conduct  the  first 
official  explorations  in  the  new  purchase  of  Louisiana.     The  expedition  consisted 


of  nine  young  Kentuckians,  fourteen  regular  soldiers,  two  French  voyageurs  or 
boatmen,  an  Indian  interpreter,  a  hunter,  and  a  negro  servant  belonging  to  Cap- 
tain Clark.  The  equipment  embraced  a  keel-boat  fifty-five  feet  in  length,  two 
pirogues  and  two  horses,  which  were  to  be  led  along  the  bank,  to  be  used  in 
hunting  game  or  in  towing  the  keel-boat  over  rapids.  The  large  boat  was  fitted 
with  a  swivel  gun  in  the  bow,  a  large  square  sail  to  be  used  when  the  wind  was 
favorable,  and  twenty-two  oars  that  could  propel  the  boat  forward  when  there 
was  no  wind.  It  also  had  a  cabin  in  which  were  stored  the  most  valuable 
articles,  scientific  instruments,  etc. 

On  May  14,  1804,  the  little  company  left  the  mouth  of  the  Missouri  River 
and  started  up  that  stream  on  their  long  journey.  As  they  went  along  they 
named  the  creeks  that  entered  the  river,  the  names  often  being  derived  from 
some  animal  killed  in  the  neighborhood,  such  as  Antelope  Creek,  Bear  Creek,  etc. 
Near  the  northeast  corner  of  Kansas  is  a  stream  which  still  bears  the  name  of 
Independence  Creek,  because  the  expedition  spent  the  Fourth  of  July  near  its 
mouth.  The  three  rivers  that  united  to  form  the  Missouri  they  named  the 
Jefferson,  Madison  and  Gallatin,  after  the  President  and  two  of  the  leading 
statesmen  of  that  period. 

At  the  Mandan  villages,  in  what  is  now  Xorth  Dakota,  Lewis  and  Clark 
employed  Toussaint  Charboneau  and  his  wife  to  accompany  the  expedition  as 
guides  and  interpreters.  Mrs.  Charboneau  was  an  Indian  woman,  a  member 
of  the  Snake  tribe,  who  had  been  captured  a  few  years  before  and  sold  to 
Charboneau,  who  married  her.  Her  Indian  name  was  Sac-a-ja-wea  (the  bird 
woman).  She  proved  an  invaluable  guide,  especially  on  the  return  trip  through 
the  Bozeman  Pass.  On  the  return  from  the  Pacific  coast  the  expedition  divided 
on  the  east  side  of  the  Bitter  Root  Mountains,  one  party  under  Captain  Lewis 
descending  the  Missouri  River  and  the  other,  under  Captain  Clark,  crossing 
over  to  the  Yellowstone  and  descending  that  stream.  They  met  at  the  mouth 
of  the  Yellowstone  and  on  September  23,  1806,  about  noon,  they  arrived  at 
St.  Louis,  having  explored  the  Missouri  River  to  its  source,  crossed  over  the 
divide  and  followed  the  Columbia  River  to  the  Pacific. 

Numerous  accounts  of  the  Lewis  and  Clark  expedition  have  been  published. 
The  explorers  did  not  touch  the  present  State  of  Wyoming,  but  their  report 
acquainted  the  people  of  the  United  States  with  the  nature  of  the  country  pur- 
chased from  France,  encouraged  the  organization  of  the  Missouri  and  Rocky 
Mountain  fur  companies,  and  hastened  the  day  when  white  settlements  were 
extended  west  of  the  Missouri  River. 


Two  Illinois  men  named  Hancock  and  Dixon  were  engaged  in  trapping  beaver 
on  the  Yellowstone  in  1804,  when  the  Lewis  and  Clark  expedition  was  on  its 
way  to  the  coast.  Two  years  later,  as  Clark  passed  down  the  Yellowstone,  his 
party  encountered  the  two  trappers,  who  persuaded  John  Colter,  one  of  the 
private  soldiers  with  Clark,  to  join  them.  Colter  was  granted  his  discharge 
when  the  expedition  was  near  the  Mandan  villages,  and  was  supplied  with  the 
necessary  outfit  for  his  new  venture.  In  the  spring  of  1807  Colter,  and  possibly 
one  or  both  of  his  companions,  passed  through  the  Prv'or  Gap  of  the  Big  Horn 


Mountains  to  Clark's  Fort ;  thence  by  way  of  the  Stinking  Water  Pass  to  the 
Yellowstone;  thence  to  the  headwaters  of  Green  River;  back  to  the  head  of 
the  Wind  River,  which  he  mistook  for  the  Big  Horn,  and  finally  found  his  way 
back  to  the  camp  of  the  previous  winter.  An  account  of  Colter's  wanderings 
is  given  in  the  chapter  on  the  Yellowstone  National  Park. 


On  August  9,  1805,  Lieut.  Zebulon  M.  Pike  left  St.  Louis  for  the  purpose 
of  ascending  the  Mississippi  River  to  its  source  and  holding  councils  with  the 
Indian  tribes  that  dwelt  upon  its  banks.  He  returned  to  St.  Louis  in  April,  1806, 
and  soon  afterward  was  commissioned  to  lead  an  expedition  to  the  Rocky 
Mountain  country  south  of  where  Lewis  and  Clark  crossed  over  to  the  western 

With  twenty  men  he  passed  westward  through  what  is  now  the  states  of 
Kansas  and  Colorado,  and  discovered  the  lofty  peak  near  Colorado  Springs 
that  bears  his  name.  It  was  Pike's  intention  to  descend  the  Arkansas  River,  cross 
over  to  the  Red  River  and  go  down  that  stream  to  the  Mississippi,  but  he  made 
a  mistake,  struck  the  Rio  del  Norte  instead  of  the  Red  River  and  got  into  Spanish 
territory.  He  and  his  men  were  arrested  and  taken  to  Mexico.  His  men  were 
not  disarmed  and  Pike  saved  most  of  his  notes  by  concealing  them  in  the  barrels 
of  the  guns.  When  he  explained  his  error  to  the  Spanish  authorities,  the  expedi- 
tion was  escorted  to  Natchitoches,  on  the  Red  River,  where  all  were  released. 
Pike's  report  of  his  expedition,  although  part  of  his  notes  were  confiscated  by 
the  Spanish,  gave  the  country  the  first  official  information  regarding  the  south- 
western portion  of  the  Louisiana  Purchase. 


As  Lewis  and  Clark  were  returning  to  St.  Louis  in  1806,  they  induced  one 
of  the  Mandan  chiefs  to  accompany  them  to  that  city  and  from  there  to  Wash- 
ington. In  1807  Ezekiel  Williams  was  employed  by  the  Government  to  escort 
the  chief  back  to  his  tribe.  Williams  took  with  him  twenty  men,  and  after  the 
chief  had  been  safely  conducted  to  the  Mandan  villages  on  the  Missouri  River, 
he  went  on  up  the  river  to  the  Blackfoot  country  to  hunt  and  trap.  The  men 
were  divided  into  two  parties  of  ten  men  each.  Near  the  mouth  of  the  Yellow- 
stone one  party  was  attacked  by  the  Blackfeet  and  five  were  killed.  The  five 
survivors  then  joined  the  other  party  and  the  fifteen  turned  southward  to  the 
country  inhabited  by  the  Crow  Indians. 

One  of  the  party,  a  man  named  Rose,  remained  with  the  Crows,  and  Williams 
and  the  others  went  on  toward  the  southwest,  aiming  to  get  to  California  by 
way  of  the  South  Pass.  On  the  headwaters  of  the  North  Platte  they  were 
attacked  by  a  Crow  war  party  and  lost  five  men.  The  remaining  nine  cached 
the  furs  and  went  on  to  the  South  Platte.  One  by  one  they  were  cut  off  by  the 
Comanche  bands  wandering  over  the  plains,  until  only  Williams,  James  Work- 
man and  Samuel  Spencer  were  left.  After  many  difficulties  they  reached  the 
Arkansas  River  and  passed  down  that  stream  into  Kansas.  In  1809  Williams 
returned  with  a  party  to  the  upper  Platte  and  got  the  furs  cached  two  years 


before,  but  tbey  were  in  such  a  condition  that  they  hardly  repaid  the  expenses 
of  the  trip. 

long's  expedition 

On  .May  3,  1819,  the  steamboat  Western  Engineer  left  Pittsburgh,  Pa.,  carry- 
ing Maj.  Stephen  H.  Long  and  his  party  of  topographical  engineers,  for  the 
purpose  of  ascending  the  Missouri  as  far  as  the  mouth  of  the  Yellowstone.  On 
September  15,  1819,  the  Western  Engineer  passed  the  mouth  of  the  Platte  River, 
being  the  first  steamboat  to  ascend  the  Missouri  to  that  point.  Long  tied  up  at 
Fort  Lisa,  a  few  miles  above  the  present  City  of  Omaha,  where  he  spent  the 
winter.  In  the  summer  of  1820  he  explored  the  Platte  River  as  far  as  the 
junction  of  the  North  and  South  forks,  but  did  not  reach  Wyoming.  His  expe- 
dition demonstrated  that  the  Missouri  River  was  navigable  for  boats  of  light 
draft,  a  knowledge  that  had  a  great  influence  upon  the  fur  trade  during  the  next 
few  years  and  upon  the  ultimate  settlement  of  the  \\'est. 


Nathaniel  J.  W'yeth  was  born  at  Cambridge,  Mass.,  January  29,  1802.  His 
father,  Jacob  Wyeth,  was  a  graduate  of  Harvard.  Nathaniel  was  fitted  for  col- 
'ege.  after  which  he  was  engaged  in  various  occupations  until  he  was  about 
thirty  years  old.  After  the  failure  of  Astor's  enterprise  on  the  Columbia,  Hall 
J.  Kelley,  a  Boston  schoolmaster,  wrote  a  number  of  articles  concerning  Oregon. 
Many  of  the  statements  contained  in  these  articles  were  incorrect,  but  they 
caused  young  Wyeth  to  become  interested  in  the  Great  West  and  he  read  every- 
thing on  that  subject  that  he  could  find.  In  the  winter  of  1831-32  he  undertook 
to  organize  an  expedition  of  fifty  men  to  engage  in  the  fur  trade,  and  made  the 
following  announcement : 

"Our  company  is  to  last  for  five  years.  The  profits  are  to  be  divided  in  such 
a  manner  that  if  the  number  concerned  is  fifty,  and  the  whole  net  profits  are 
divided  into  that  number  of  parts,  I  should  have  eight  parts,  the  surgeon  two, 
and  the  remaining  forty  parts  should  be  divided  among  the  forty-eight  persons."' 

L'nder  this  arrangement  Wyeth  was  to  furnish  all  the  necessary  capital.  On 
March  i,  1832,  the  company  of  twenty  men  left  Boston  and  at  St.  Louis  met 
Sublette,  McKenzie  and  other  veterans  of  the  fur  trade.  Says  Chittenden  :  "With 
his  perfect  knowledge  of  conditions  in  the  mountains,  Sublette  saw  that  he  had 
nothing  to  fear  from  this  new  company  and  might  very  likely  draw  all  the  men 
aiid  the  outfit  into  his  own  business  before  he  got  through  with  them.  He  there- 
fore lent  them  a  ready  hand,  set  them  on  their  feet,  and  ofl^ered  them  the  protection 
of  his  own  party  as  far  as  he  should  go.'" 

Under  Sublette's  guidance  the  two  parties  left  Independence  on  ]\Iay  12. 
1832,  and  on  the  8th  of  July  arrived  at  Pierre's  Hole,  the  annual  rendezvous  of 
the  traders.  Here  eleven  of  Wyeth's  men  decided  to  return  east,  and  later 
two  others  withdrew,  reducing  the  number  of  the  party  to  eleven.  With  this 
little  handful  Wyeth  went  on  to  Oregon.  I'pon  reaching  the  coast  he  learned 
that  the  vessel  laden  with  supplies,  which  he  had  sent  from  Boston  around  Cape 
Horn,  had  been  wrecked  on  a  reef  while  coming  northward  in  the  Pacific.     The 


trading  post  of  the  Hudson's  Bay  Company  at  X'ancouver  gave  the  wanderers 
a  cordial  welcome  and  provided  them  with  supplies  for  the  return  journey. 

wyeth's  second  expedition 

In  1833,  while  on  his  way  east,  Wyeth  made  a  contract  with  Mihon  G. 
Sublette  and  his  associates  to  bring  out  to  them  their  supplies  in  1834.  He  then 
went  back  to  Boston,  where  he  organized  the  "Columbia  River  Fishing  and 
Trading  Company."  Early  in  the  year  1834  another  vessel  left  Boston  for  Ore- 
gon, and  on  the  7th  of  March  Wyeth  left  St.  Louis  on  his  second  trip  to  the 
Rocky  Mountain  country.  He  was  accompanied  on  this  expedition  by  the  nat- 
uralist, John  K.  Townsend,  who  afterward  wrote  an  account  of  the  journey 
across  the  plains. 

On  May  18,  1834,  the  expedition  reached  the  Platte  River  and  on  June  ist 
was  at  the  Laramie  Fork.  On  the  19th  Wyeth  encamped  on  the  Green  River 
and  spent  the  balance  of  that  month  in  exploring  the  Green  River  \'alley.  On 
July  4th  he  left  Ham's  Fork  and  crossed  over  to  the  Bear  River,  which  stream 
he  descended  for  four  days,  encamping  on  the  8th  at  a  place  called  the  "White 
Clay  Pits."  On  the  nth  the  expedition  encamped  near  the  Three  Tetons,  and 
on  the  14th  began  the  construction  of  Fort  Hall.  The  old  Fort  Hall,  built  by 
Wyeth,  was  named  for  the  senior  member  of  the  firm  that  furnished  him  the 
money  to  equip  his  second  expedition.  It  was  located  about  forty  miles  south- 
west of  the  Government  post  called  Fort  Hall,  which  was  established  in  1870. 
When  Wyeth  left  Ham's  Fork  he  passed  beyond  the  boundaries  of  the  present 
State  of  Wyoming  and  his  subsequent  movements  have  no  bearing  upon  the 
state's   history. 


Contemporary  with  Wyeth  was  Capt.  Benjamin  L.  E.  Bonneville,  who  spent 
some  time  in  the  Northwest  and  explored  a  large  part  of  the  country  included 
in  what  is  now  the  State  of  Wyoming.  Captain  Bonneville  was  born  in  France 
in  1796.  His  father  was  a  printer,  who,  during  the  American  Revolution,  printed 
and  circulated  a  number  of  pamphlets  that  awakened  sympathy  for  the  colonists 
in  their  struggle  against  British  oppression,  and  he  was  a  member  of  a  republican 
club  in  Paris  organized  by  Thomas  Paine.  After  the  French  Revolution  he 
printed  something  that  was  displeasing  to  Napoleon,  who  ordered  him  to  be 
imprisoned.  His  wife  and  son  were  then  brought  to  this  country  by  Thomas 
Paine,  who  secured  for  the  boy  an  appointment  to  West  Point  as  soon  as  he 
was  old  enough  to  enter  that  institution.  In  the  meantime  the  father  had  been 
released  from  prison,  but  was  forbidden  to  leave  France.  He  managed  to  make 
his  escape,  however,  and  joined  his  family  in  America.  Young  Bonneville  grad- 
uated at  West  Point  in  1819  and  entered  the  army.  When  Lafayette  visited  this 
country  in  1824  he  made  inquiries  about  the  Bonneville  family,  and  Lieutenant 
Bonneville  was  assigned  his  escort.  He  then  returned  with  Lafayette  to  France 
for  a  visit.  Upon  coming  back  to  America  he  was  commissioned  captain  in  the 
Seventh  New  York  Infantry. 

In  1831,  having  become  interested  in  the  West,  he  asked  for  leave  of  absence, 


which  was  granted,  his  leave  to  extend  to  October,  1833,  and  he  was  instructed 
by  Maj.-Gen.  Alexander  Macomb  to  provide  suitable  instruments,  the  best  maps 
of  the  country  he  could  obtain,  and  to  make  report  as  to  the  number  of  Indians 
in  each  tribe  he  visited,  their  manner  of  making  war,  etc. 

Although  Bonneville  s  object  in  asking  for  a  leave  of  absence  was  to  engage 
in  the  fur  trade.  General  Macomb's  order  made  him  more  of  an  explorer  than 
a  fur  trader.  On  May  i,  1832,  with  no  men,  he  left  Fort  Osage  on  the  Mis- 
souri River,  taking  with  him  twenty  wagons  laden  with  provisions,  ammunition 
and  goods  for  the  Indian  trade.  His  destination  was  Pierre's  Hole,  the  rendez- 
vous of  the  fur  traders.  On  the  26th  of  the  same  month  he  encamped  on  the 
Laramie  River.  The  next  six  weeks  were  spent  in  examining  the  country  along 
the  North  Platte  and  Sweetwater  rivers,  and  on  July  20th  he  came  in  sight  of 
the  Wind  River  Mountains.  Here  he  met  Lucien  Fontenelle  with  a  party  of 
American  Fur  Company  trappers  and  went  with  him  through  the  South  Pass 
to  the  Green  River.    His  wagons  were  the  first  to  go  through  the  South  Pass. 

While  on  the  Green  River  an  incident  occurred  that  caused  an  estrangement 
between  Bonneville  and  Fontenelle.  From  the  Osage  Mission  Bonneville  had 
obtained  several  Delaware  Indians  as  hunters.  Fontenelle  saw  that  these  Indians 
were  skilful  in  bringing  in  game  and  lured  them  away  from  their  employer  by 
offering  them  better  wages.  Bonneville  knew  that  Fontenelle  was  waiting  for 
a  party  of  free  trappers  to  join  his  party,  and  intercepted  them.  He  then  opened 
a  keg  of  whisky,  treated  the  trappers  to  a  banquet,  and  persuaded  them  to  join 
his  expedition  instead  of  going  on  to  Fontenelle's  camp. 

About  five  miles  above  the  mouth  of  Horse  Creek,  in  what  is  now  the  eastern 
part  of  Lincoln  County,  Wyoming,  in  the  fall  of  1832,  he  built  Fort  Bonneville. 
Trappers  called  this  fort  "Bonneville's  Folly"  and  "Fort  Nonsense."  W.  A. 
Ferris,  in  his  "Life  in  the  Rocky  Mountains."  gives  the  following  description 
of  the   fort : 

"It  is  situated  in  a  fine  open  plain,  on  a  rising  spot  of  ground,  about  three 
hundred  yards  from  Green  River,  on  the  west  side,  commanding  a  view  of  the 
plains  for  several  miles  up  and  down  that  stream.  On  the  opposite  side  of  the 
fort,  about  two  miles  distant,  there  is  a  fine  willowed  creek,  called  Horse  Creek, 
flowing  parallel  to  Green  River  and  emptying  into  it  about  five  miles  below  the 
fortification.  The  fort  presents  a  square  enclosure,  surrounded  by  posts  or  pickets 
of  a  foot  or  more  in  diameter,  firmly  set  in  the  ground  close  to  each  other,  and 
about  fifteen  feet  in  length.  .\t  two  of  the  corners,  diagonally  opposite  to  each 
other,  blockhouses  of  unhewn  logs  are  so  constructed  and  situated  as  to  defend 
the  square  outside  of  the  pickets  and  hinder  the  approach  of  an  enemy  from 
any  quarter.  The  prairie  in  the  vicinity  of  the  fort  is  covered  with  fine  grass 
and  the  whole  together  seems  well  calculated  for  the  security  of  both  men  and 

It  was  not  long  until  it  became  apparent  that  the  trappers  had  good  grounds 
for  calling  the  place  "Fort  Nonsense."  They  were  *o  doubt  better  acquainted 
with  the  character  of  the  Indians  in  that  section  than  was  Captain  Bonneville. 
The  hostility  of  the  tribes  near  the  fort  compelled,  him  to  evacuate  it  almost  as 
soon  as  it  was  completed,  and  he  went  over  to  the  headwaters  of  the  Salmoij 
River,  where  he  established  his  winter  quarters.  ^ 

Captain  Bonneville  spent  nearly  three  years  in  the  mountains.     Most^of  tha# 


time  he  was  on  the  move,  making  maps  and  notes,  trying  to  carry  out  the  instruc- 
tions given  him  by  General  Macomb.  When  he  went  to  Washington  to  make 
his  report,  he  was  informed  by  General  Macomb  that,  as  he  had  greatly  over- 
staid  his  leave  of  absence,  it  had  been  taken  for  granted  that  he  was  dead  and 
his  name  had  been  dropped  from  the  rolls  of  the  army.  He  then  appealed  to 
President  Andrew  Jackson,  who  ordered  him  to  be  reinstated  with  his  original 
rank  of  captain,  but  the  war  department  refused  to  accept  and  publish  his  report. 
He  then  began  the  work  of  rewriting  his  report,  with  a  view  of  publishing  it 
himself.  While  engaged  in  this  work  he  met  Washington  Irving,  to  whom  he 
submitted  his  manuscript,  and  gave  Mr.  Irving  the  privilege  of  publishing  it  in 
such  manner  as  he  might  deem  most  advisable.  The  result  was  Irving's  volume 
giving  an  account  of  Bonneville's  adventures.  In  February,  1855,  Captain  Bonne- 
ville was  made  colonel  of  the  Third  United  States  Infantry.  He  remained 
in  the  army  until  September  9,  1861,  when  he  was  retired,  and  died  at  FQrt 
Smith,  Ark.,  June  12,  1878. 


Early  in  the  Seventeenth  Century  Jesuit  missionaries  were  among  the  Indian 
tribes  inhabiting  the  country  about  the  Great  Lakes.  As  the  traders  and  settlers 
pushed  their  way  farther  westward  these  missionaries  always  formed  part  of 
the  advance  guard,  far  into  the  Nineteenth  Century.  Pierre  Jean  de  Smet  was 
born  in  Belgium  on  the  last  day  of  January,  1801.  He  came  to  America  in 
boyhood,  joined  the  Jesuit  Society  at  an  early  age,  and  was  sent  as  a  missionary 
to  the  tribes  living  along  the  Missouri  River,  in  what  are  now  the  states  of 
Missouri,  Kansas,  Iowa  and  Nebraska.  His  labors  on  the  frontier  so  impaired 
his  health  that  when  he  was  about  thirty  years  old  he  returned  to  his  native  land. 

In  1837  he  came  back  to  America  and  soon  afterward  was  appointed  as  mis- 
sionary to  the  Flathead  Indians.  On  April  5,  1840,  he  left  St.  Louis  with  an 
American  Fur  Company  party  bound  for  the  Northwest.  This  party  reached 
the  Green  River  on  June  30,  1840,  and  on  the  following  Sunday  (July  5th) 
Father  De  Smet  celebrated  the  first  mass  ever  observed  in  what  is  now  the 
State  of  Wyoming,  his  audience  being  a  motley  crowd  of  trappers  and  Indians 
gathered  at  the  rendezvous,  the  improvised  altar  being  decorated  with  the  wild 
flowers  of  the  prairie.  The  place  where  this  mass  was  celebrated  was  for  a 
long  time  known  as  "The  Prairie  of  the  Mass." 

The  next  day,  with  an  Indian  called  Ignace  as  guide.  Father  De  Smet  set 
out  for  the  Flathead  country.  He  met  the  main  body  of  the  tribe  at  Pierre's 
Hole  and  shook  hands  with  the  Indians,  after  which  Chief  Big  Face  addressed 
the  priest  thus: 

"Black  Robe,  my  heart  was  glad  when  I  heard  that  you  were  coming  among 
us.  Never  has  my  lodge  seen  a  greater  day.  As  soon  as  I  received  the  news  of 
your  coming  I  had  my.big  kettle  filled  to  give  you  a  feast  in  the  midst  of  my 
people.  I  have  had  my  best  three  dogs  killed  for  the  feast.  They  are  very  fat. 
You  are  welcome.'' 

After  some  time  amoiig  the  Flathead  Indians,  Father  De  Smet  went  to  the 
»Blackfeet  and  established  missions  in  what  is  now  Montana.  He  then  visite^d 
the  Crow  tribe,  but  their  chief  was  rather  skeptical  and  determined  to  put  the 


missionary  to  a  test.  Pointing  out  an  old  buffalo  bull  near  the  encampment,  the 
chief  asked  Father  De  Smet  to  go  out  and  put  his  hand  on  the  buffalo's  head. 
Here  was  a  dilemma.  The  priest  realized  the  danger  of  approaching  a  wild 
buffalo,  but  at  the  same  time  he  knew  that  if  he  refused  he  would  be  looked 
upon  by  the  Indians  as  an  impostor.  Slowly  he  approached  the  bull,  who  raised 
his  head  and  gazed  with  astonishment  at  the  intruder.  Upon  his  breast  the  mis- 
sionary wore  a  golden  crucifix,  which  seemed  to  exert  some  sort  of  hypnotic 
power  upon  the  beast,  and  as  his  eyes  were  fixed  upon  the  glittering  emblem, 
Father  De  Smet  came  nearer,  finally  laying  his  hand  upon  the  bull's  head.  He 
then  returned  to  the  Indians,  who  had  been  intently  watching  his  movements. 
The  chief  grasped  him  by  the  hand  and  acknowledged  that  he  had  been  sent 
by  the  Great  Spirit. 

Father  De  Smet  remained  among  the  Indians  of  the  Northwest  for  several 
years.  On  horseback  he  traveled  over  Montana,  Wyoming,  Idaho.  Oregon. 
Washington  and  that  part  of  the  Dakotas  west  of  the  Missouri,  and  it  has  been 
said  he  "knew  every  foot  of  the  country.''  In  1842  he  made  a  trip  to  Europe 
to  solicit  aid  for  his  Indian  missions.  He  came  back  in  1842,  accompanied  by 
one  Belgian  and  two  Italian  priests  and  some  sisters  of  Notre  Dame  as  teachers 
of  the  Indian  children.  A  little  later  he  was  taken  from  his  labors  among  the 
red  men  and  sent  to  St.  Louis,  where  he  wrote  a  number  of  interesting  letters 
regarding  his  travels  and  missionary  work.  In  1868  he  visited  the  mountains 
and  spent  several  days  at  Cheyenne.  He  discovered  and  named  Lake  De  Smet, 
in  the  northern  part  of  Johnson  County,  and  it  is  said  that  he  was  the  first  white 
man  to  find  gold  in  Wyoming. 


John  Charles  Fremont  was  born  in  Savannah,  Ga.,  January  21.  1813. 
In  1818  his  father  died  and  his  mother  removed  to  Virginia,  where  he  was 
educated.  At  the  age  of  thirteen  years  he  began  studying  for  the  ministry,  but 
being  of  a  mathematical  turn  of  mind,  became  a  surveyor  instead.  In  the  spring 
of  1833  he  was  appointed  teacher  of  mathematics  on  the  sloop  of  war  Natchez, 
and  in  July  of  the  same  year  was  commissioned  second  lieutenant  in  the  topo- 
graphical engineers.  In  1837  he  was  employed  on  the  survey  of  a  railroad 
from  Charleston  to  Cincinnati,  and  in  1840  he  was  on  the  geological  survey  of 
the  Northwest.  He  then  went  to  St.  Louis,  where  on  October  19,  1841,  he 
married  Jessie,  daughter  of  Thomas  H.  Benton,  one  of  the  L^nited  States  senators 
from  Missouri. 

Senator  Benton  was  not  altogether  friendly  to  the  marriage  of  his  daughter 
with  a  young  lieutenant,  but  when  in  1842  the  Government  decided  to  send  an 
expedition  to  the  Rocky  Alountains.  he  secured  the  command  of  the  expedition 
for  his  son-in-law  "over  the  heads  of  all  his  superior  officers  of  the  engineer 
corps."  The  principal  object  of  the  expedition  was  to  select  sites  for  a  line  of 
military  posts  from  the  Missouri  River  to  the  mouth  of  the  Columbia,  the  pur- 
pose of  which  was  two-fold :  First,  to  protect  the  fur  traders  from  the  encroach- 
ments of  the  English  fur  companies,  and  second,  to  encourage  immigration  to 
and  settlement  of  the  Pacific  slope  by  protecting  emigrant  trains  from  Indian 


Fremont  organized  his  expedition  at  Chouteau's  trading  post  on  the  Kansas 
River,  six  miles  above  its  mouth.  He  left  there  on  June  lO,  1842,  with  twenty- 
two  men,  and  Kit  Carson  as  guide.  Carson  at  that  time  was  thirty-three  years 
of  age  and  had  lived  the  greater  part  of  his  life  in  the  West.  His  home  was 
then  at  Taos,  N.  M.  He  was  of  slender  build,  but  possessed  greater  physical 
strength  than  many  men  who  were  his  superiors  in  height  and  weight.  His 
courage  was  proverbial  and  he  was  well  acquainted  with  the  country  through 
which  the  expedition  was  to  pass.  Ruxton  calls  him  "the  paragon  of  moun- 

Accompanying  the  expedition  were  Henry  Brant,  a  youth  of  nineteen  years 
and  a  son  of  Col.  J.  B.  Brant  of  St.  Louis,  and  Randolph  Benton,  Fremont's 
twelve-year-old  brother-in-law.  Fremont  first  went  to  St.  \' rain's  Fort  on  the 
South  Platte,  not  far  from  the  present  Town  of  Greeley,  Colorado,  arriving  there 
on  the  afternoon  of  July  loth,  just  a  month  after  leaving  Chouteau's  post  on 
the  Kansas.  From  St.  Wain's  he  followed  the  mountains  in  a  northwesterly 
direction  and  on  the  13th  arrived  at  old  Fort  Laramie.  Two  days  later  the 
expedition  was  at  Fort  Platte,  the  trading  post  of  Sabille,  Adams  &  Company, 
at  the  junction  of  the  Platte  and  Laramie  rivers.  On  the  28th  he  came  to  the 
place  where  the  trail  is  crossed  by  the  Platte  River  and  on  the  30th  he  came  to 
the  Sweetwater.  Moving  up  the  Sweetwater  Valley,  he  passed  Independence 
Rock  and  Devil's  Gate,  and  on  August  8th  reached  the  South  Pass.  On  the  15th 
he  unfurled  the  Stars  and  Stripes  from  the  top  of  the  most  lofty  peak  of  the 
Wind  River  range  (  13,570  feet)  which  mountain  he  christened  "Fremont's  Peak.'' 
Concerning  this  achievement,  Bancroft  says  : 

"Considering  that  the  Government  paid  all  the  costs,  and  that  he  had  an 
experienced  mountain  man.  Kit  Carson,  for  a  guide,  it  must  be  admitted  that 
the  eternal  mountains  might  be  put  to  nobler  use  than  to  perpetuate  such  achieve- 

This  was  the  farthest  point  west  reached  by  the  expedition.  Soon  after  naming 
Fremont's  Peak,  the  explorer  started  upon  the  return  trip.  He  arrived  at  St. 
Louis  on  October  17,  1842,  and  after  a  short  stay  there  went  on  to  Washington, 
where  he  made  a  report  of  his  explorations  and  received  authority  to  conduct 
another  expedition  to  the  mountains  the  following  year. 


Fremont  decided  upon  Kansas  City,  Mo.,  as  the  rendezvous  and  starting 
point  of  his  second  expedition  and  sent  word  to  a  number  of  the  men  who  were 
with  him  in  1842  to  meet  him  there  in  May.  In  making  his  preparations  early 
in  the  year  1843,  he  obtained  from  the  arsenal  at  St.  Louis  a  twelve-pounder 
howitzer  and  a  quantity  of  ammunition.  This  came  very  near  getting  him  into 
trouble.  After  he  had  left  St.  Louis  a  letter  came  from  Washington  sum- 
moning him  to  that  city  to  explain,  as  the  expedition  was  "to  be  scientific  rather 
than  military."  ]\Irs.  Fremont  did  not  forward  the  letter  containing  the  order, 
but  instead  wrote  to  her  husband  to  lose  no  time  in  starting  on  his  expedition. 

On  May  29,  1843,  he  left  Kansas  City  with  thirty-three  men,  several  of 
whom  had  been  with  him  the  preceding  year.  Kit  Carson  was  again  his  guide, 
and  the  naturalist,  John  K.  Townsend,  accompanied  the  expedition.     Following 


the  route  of  1842,  Fremont  reached  St.  Vrain's  Fort  in  time  to  celebrate  the 
Fourth  of  July  there.  Some  three  weeks  were  then  spent  in  Colorado,  exploring 
the  country.  On  the  26th  the  men  were  divided  into  two  companies.  Fremont, 
with  thirteen  men,  moved  directly  to  the  Big  Laramie  River,  and  Thomas  Fitz- 
patrick,  with  the  remainder  of  the  expedition,  was  to  go  by  way  of  Fort  Laramie, 
the  Sweetwater  and  South  Pass  to  Fort  Hall. 

On  August  I,  1843,  Fremont  arrived  at  the  Medicine  Bow  Mountains  and 
encamped  on  the  Medicine  Bow  River.  He  then  moved  toward  the  North  Platte 
River,  up  the  Sweetwater  Valley  to  South  Pass,  where  in  his  report  he  says 
he  met  on  August  4th  "a  war  party  of  Arapaho  and  Cheyenne  Indians,  who  had 
surprised  one  of  the  Shoshone  villages  at  Bridger's  Fort  on  Ham's  fork  on  Green 
River."  From  the  South  Pass  he  followed  "the  emigrant  road  to  Oregon,"  until 
he  struck  Green  River,  where  he  despatched  Kit  Carson  to  Fort  Hall  to  make 
arrangements  for  a  supply  of  provisions.  From  the  Green  River  to  the  Bear 
River  he  followed  the  route  taken  by  Ezekiel  Williams  in  1807  until  he  arrived 
at  Salt  Lake. 

Turning  his  course  northward  again,  he  met  Fitzpatrick's  party  at  Fort  Hall 
on  September  19,  1843,  and  on  the  22d  the  entire  party  left  that  post  for  Oregon. 
They  struck  the  Columbia  River  and  followed  that  stream  almost  to  the  mouth. 
when  they  turned  southward  and  on  March  8,  1844,  arrived  at  Sutter's  fort 
on  the  Sacramento  River.  There  Fremont  obtained  some  much  needed  supplies 
and  after  a  brief  rest  resumed  his  journey.  He  arrived  at  St.  Louis  on  August 
6,  1844,  having  been  gone  for  a  little  more  than  fourteen  months.  Nothing  had 
been  heard  from  him  for  some  time  prior  to  his  return,  and  the  secretary  of  war 
offered  to  send  a  company  of  dragoons  in  search  of  him,  but  Mrs.  Fremont 
declared  it  was  unnecessary,  as.  if  he  could  not  find  his  way  out  the  dragoons 
would  not  be  likely  to  find  their  way  in. 

Fremont  afterward  conducted  two  expeditions  to  the  Pacific  coast,  but  as 
neither  of  them  touched  Wyoming  they  form  no  part  of  the  state's  history. 
Through  his  explorations  he  acquired  the  sobriqttet  of  the  "Pathfinder." 


In  1849  Capt.  Howard  Stansbury  was  commissioned  by  the  L'uited  States  Gov- 
ernment to  explore  the  Great  Salt  Lake  \'alley  and  make  a  report  on  its  topography, 
etc.  After  performing  that  duty  he  was  to  make  a  reconnaissance  for  a  railroad 
route  from  Salt  Lake  City  to  Fort  Bridger,  and  from  Fort  Bridger  eastward  to 
some  point  in  the  Platte  Valley  near  Fort  Laramie.  When  the  Union  Pacific 
Railroad  was  built  some  years  later,  it  followed  in  general  the  route  suggested 
by  Captain  Stansbury,  but  passes  over  the  south  end  of  the  Laramie  Mountains 
instead  of  going  through  Cheyenne  Pass  as  he  recommended. 

At  the  time  of  Captain  Stansbury's  explorations  in  Wyoming  the  California 
gold  fever  was  at  its  height,  and  in  his  report  he  gives  considerable  attention  to 
the  companies  of  gold  hunters  that  he  saw  crossing  the  plains.  The  first  mention 
of  the  Wyoming  coal  beds  may  be  found  in  his  report,  coal  being  the  only  mineral 


warren's  expedition 

Lieut.  G.  K.  Warren  of  the  United  States  topographical  engineers,  afterward 
a  general  in  the  Union  army  in  the  Civil  war,  made  an  exploration  of  Wyoming 
from  Fort  Laramie  to  the  western  slope  of  the  Black  Hills  in  1857.  At  the  Black 
Hills  he  was  stopped  by  the  Sioux  Indians.  His  report  deals  largely  with  the 
geology  of  the  section  through  which  he  passed,  particularly  the  deposits  of 
building  stone.  He  was  probably  the  first  man  to  advance  the  theory  that  the 
valleys  of  Northeastern  Wyoming  could  be  made  profitable  for  farming  purposes 
by  irrigation.  His  report  also  states  that  he  found  gold  in  paying  quantities  in 


In  July,  1859,  under  orders  from  the  war  department,  Capt.  W.  F.  Raynolds 
left  Fort  Pierre  on  the  Missouri  River  to  explore  the  country  in  the  vicinity  of  the 
Black  Hills.  In  the  party  were  the  following  scientists :  Lieut.  H.  E.  May- 
nadier  and  J.  H.  Snowden,  topographers;  J.  D.  Hutton,  topographer  and  artist; 
H.  C.  Fillebrown,  meteorologist  and  astronomer ;  Antoine  Schonbarn,  meteorolo- 
gist and  draftsman ;  F.  V.  Hayden,  geologist ;  Dr.  F.  E.  Hayden,  surgeon ;  M.  C. 
Hines,  assistant  surgeon.    The  escort  was  commanded  by  Capt.  John  Mullan. 

After  exploring  and  making  maps  of  the  Black  Hills  region,  the  party  pushed 
on  westward  and  explored  the  valleys  of  the  Powder  and  Big  Horn  rivers.  The 
winter  was  passed  on  the  Platte  River  and  the  next  spring  Captain  Raynolds 
submitted  his  report,  in  which  he  refers  to  Jim  Bridger  as  guide  and  gives  an 
extended  account  of  the  geology  of  the  country.  He  states  that  gold  was  found 
in  several  places,  but  as  the  escort  was  composed  chiefly  of  adventurers  the  matter 
was  kept  secret  for  fear  they  would  desert.  In  his  report  he  also  gives  the  descrip- 
tion of  the  "Portuguese  Houses"  quoted  in  another  chapter. 

Through  the  reports  of  the  explorers  above  mentioned,  the  people  living  east 
of  the  Mississippi  River  obtained  a  better  idea  of  the  character  of  the  western 
country  than  they  had  before  entertained,  as  the  earliest  maps  designated  prac- 
tically all  the  region  west  of  the  Missouri  as  the  "Great  American  Desert."  The 
success  of  the  Mormons  in  the  Salt  Lake  Valley,  with  the  opinions  of  Warren  and 
others  that  farms  could  be  profitably  cultivated  in  the  valleys  of  the  western 
rivers,  taught  many  that  the  "Great  American  Desert"  was  largely  a  myth  and 
hastened  the  day  of  settlement. 





The  story  of  the  Mormon  emigration  westward  is  intimately  interwo\en  with 
the  history  of  the  State  of  Wyoming.  That  event  is  more  closely  related  to  the 
settlement  of  the  country  than  was  the  emigration  to  Oregon  or  California  for  the 
reason  that  quite  a  number  of  the  Mormons  stopped  at  various  places  on  the 
way  westward  and  became  permanent  settlers.  In  connection  with  the  story  of 
this  emigration,  although  not  an  essential  part  of  Wyoming's  history,  it  may  be  of 
interest  to  the  reader  to  know  something  in  general  of  this  peculiar  sect. 

The  Mormon  Church,  or,  more  properly  speaking,  the  "Church  of  Jesus  Christ 
of  the  Latter  Day  Saints,"'  was  founded  by  Joseph  Smith  in  1830.  Smith  was 
born  at  Sharon,  Vt.,  in  December,  1805.  His  mother  took  a  deep  interest 
in  religious  matters,  though  at  times  she  was  somewhat  visionary.  It  is  said 
that  she  predicted  soon  after  her  marriage  that  a  prophet  would  come  out  of  her 
family.  When  Joseph  was  about  ten  years  of  age  the  family  removed  to  Palmyra. 
N.  Y.,  where  he  acquired  the  merest  rudiments  of  an  education — all  the 
schooling  he  ever  received.  In  the  spring  of  1820  a  series  of  religious  meetings 
were  held  in  Palmyra.  Toward  the  close  of  the  revival,  Joseph,  who  had  inherited 
from  his  mother  a  fondness  for  all  subjects  of  a  supernatural  nature,  announced 
that  he  had  seen  a  vision,  in  which  two  personages  appeared  above  him  in  the  air. 
■'They  told  me,"  said  he,  "to  join  no  denomination,  for  all  their  creeds  are  an 
abomination  in  the  sight  of  the  Lord.'' 

His  second  vision  came  to  him  on  September  21,  1823,  about  three  months 
before  he  was  eighteen  years  old.  In  this  vision,  according  to  his  account,  an 
angel  appeared  to  him  and  revealed  the  hiding  place  of  the  golden  plates  upon 
which  was  recorded  the  history  of  the  ancient  peoples  of  America.  The  next  day, 
guided  by  the  angel,  he  went  to  the  hill  of  Cumorrah,  near  Manchester,  N.  Y., 
and  saw  the  plates,  but  the  angel  would  not  let  him  take  them  away.  Each 
year  thereafter  for  three  years,  on  the  22d  of  September,  he  visited  the  place 
and  saw  the  plates,  but  each  time  the  angel  told  him  that  the  time  for  their  re- 
moval had  not  yet  come.  On  September  22,  1827,  he  paid  his  fourth  visit  to  the 
place  and  again  saw  the  golden  plates.  This  time  the  angel  gave  him  permission 
to  take  them  away,  .^s  they  were  written  in  a  strange  language,  he  was  endowed 


with  the  supernatural  power  of  translating  them  into  English.  More,  than  two 
years  were  spent  in  this  work,  but  in  the  spring  of  1830  the  '"Book  of  Mormon" 
was  published. 


Converts  to  the  new  faith  came  in  considerable  numbers  and  a  colony  was 
founded  at  Kirtland,  Ohio.  Opposition  to  the  Mormons  soon  de\eloped  and 
Smith  had  a  "revelation"  to  go  to  Independence.  Mo.,  and  build  a  temple. 
But  the  Mormons  were  no  more  popular  in  Independence  than  they  had  been  in 
Ohio,  and  in  the  fall  of  1833  they  were  driven  out  of  the  place.  They  then  took 
refuge  in  what  is  now  Caldwell  County,  Missouri,  where  they  founded  the  Town 
of  Far  West  and  again  began  the  erection  of  a  temple.  Once  more  they  be- 
came unpopular  with  the  people  living  in  the  vicinity  and  Governor  Boggs  issued 
a  proclamation  ordering  them  to  leave  the  state.  They  were  expelled  by  force  in 
the  fall  of  1838  and  took  refuge  at  Nauvoo,  111.,  which  city  they  founded. 

Meantime  elders  of  the  church  had  been  sent  to  Europe  for  the  purpose  of 
winning  converts,  and  about  the  time  the  main  body  settled  at  Nauvoo  they  were 
joined  by  eight  shiploads  of  converts  from  beyond  the  sea.  The  political  leaders  of 
Illinois  saw  that  the  Mormons  were  likely  to  become  a  power  in  public  aiifairs 
and  the  Legislature  granted  them  a  charter  for  the  Town  of  Nauvoo  "which  con- 
ferred extravagant  and  dangerous  power  upon  the  municipal  officials."  An  Iowa 
writer  says :  "Under  this  charter  Nauvoo  became  a  breeding  place  for  outlaws, 
and  probably  the  true  story  of  all  the  outrages  committed  by  these  outlaws  will 
never  be  told.  Fugitives  from  justice  sought  refuge  there,  and  if  anyone  should 
be  arrested  witnesses  could  always  be  found  to  prove  an  'alibi.'  " 

Governor  Boggs  of  Missouri  was  shot  and  seriously  wounded  in  1842,  and  the 
attempted  assassination  was  charged  against  the  Mormons  because  of  his  procla- 
mation four  years  before.  An  opposition  was  thus  started,  which  was  continued 
until  in  January,  1845,  when  the  Illinois  Legislature  revoked  the  Nauvoo  charter. 
In  the  meantime  Joseph  Smith  and  his  brother  Hyrum  had  been  arrested  and 
confined  in  the  jail  at  Carthage,  111.,  where  both  were  killed  by  a  mob  on  the 
night  of  June  27,  1844.  The  loss  of  their  prophet  and  the  continued  opposition 
on  the  part  of  the  people  of  Illinois  determined  the  Mormons  to  seek  a  more 
congenial  climate. 

Brigham  Young  was  chosen  as  Smith's  successor.  He  divided  the  "forces  of 
Isreal."  as  the  members  of  the  church  were  called,  into  companies  of  hundreds, 
fifties  and  tens,  and  in  the  spring  of  1846  they  began  their  emigration  westward. 
In  their  march  across  Iowa  they  moved  with  as  perfect  a  precision  as  an  army 
of  well  trained  soldiers.  By  the  middle  of  May.  2,000  wagons  and  15,000  Mormons 
were  on  their  way  to  the  Missouri  River.  It  was  a  wet.  backward  spring,  the 
roads  in  many  places  were  almost  impassable  and  they  made  slow  progress. 
Several  hundred  stopped  at  Garden  Grove  and  Mount  Pisgah,  in  Iowa,  for  the 
purpose  of  raising  a  crop.  On  the  14th  of  June  the  advance  guard,  under  the 
leadership  of  Brigham  Young,  reached  the  Missouri  River  opposite  where  the 
City  of  Omaha  now  stands  and  there  established  a  "camp  of  Israel"  until  a  ferry- 
boat could  be  built. 



The  war  with  Mexico  was  then  in  progress  and  the  United  States  Government 
sent  Capt.  James  Allen  to  the  Mormon  camp  with  instructions  to  raise  a  battalion 
of  five  companies  among  the  emigrants.  The  Mormons  readily  answered  the  call 
and  the  volunteers  were  organized  by  Col.  Thomas  L.  Kane,  a  brother  of  the 
Arctic  explorer.  At  Fort  Leavenworth  each  Alomion  volunteer  received  a  bounty 
of  forty  dollars,  which  was  sent  back  to  his  family.  Colonel  Kane  taking  it  upon 
himself  to  see  that  the  money  reached  its  destination.  The  battalion  was  assigned 
to  the  command  of  Col.  Stephen  W.  Kearney  and  marched  to  Santa  Fe,  thence  to 
California,  where  it  arrived  after  the  war  was  over.  Some  of  the  Mormons  then 
worked  in  the  construction  of  Sutter's  millrace  and  were  there  when  the  first 
gold  was  discovered.  Others  returned  to  their  families  which  had  been  left  in 
the  camp  on  the  Missouri  River. 


After  the  departure  of  the  battalion,  those  who  remained  behind,  feeling 
the  loss  of  so  many  of  their  best  men,  decided  to  establish  suitable  quarters  for 
the  approaching  winter.  The  first  step  was  to  insure  the  friendship  of  the  Potta- 
watomi  and  Omaha  Indians — the  former  tribe  occupying  the  lands  on  the  east 
side  of  the  Missouri  and  the  latter  the  lands  on  the  west  side.  A  council  was  held 
with  the  Omaha,  at  which  Brigham  Young  made  known  the  wants  of  his  people. 
At  the  close  of  his  remarks,  the  chief.  Big  Elk,  replied  as  follows: 

"My  son,  thou  hast  spoken  well.  All  you  have  said  I  have  in  my  heart.  I 
have  much  to  say.  We  are  poor.  When  we  go  to  hunt  game  in  one  place  we  meet 
with  an  enemy,  and  so  in  another  place  our  enemies  kill  us.  We  do  not  kill 
them.  I  hope  we  shall  be  friends.  You  may  stay  on  these  lands  two  years  or  more. 
I  hope  we  shall  be  friends.  Our  young  men  shall  watch  your  cattle.  We  should 
be  glad  to  have  you  trade  with  us.  We  will  warn  you  of  danger  from  other 

Young  applauded  the  old  chief's  speech,  but  he  was  not  willing  to  accept  a  mere 
verbal  promise  for  the  possession  of  the  land.  He  drew  up  a  formal  lease  for  five 
years,  which  was  signed  by  Big  Elk  and  other  leading  Omaha  chiefs.  After  the 
council  was  over  the  Mormons  gave  a  banquet  to  the  Indians.  A  ferry  was 
then  established  across  the  Missouri  and  the  "Winter  Quarters"  were  located 
where  the  Town  of  Florence,  Neb.,  now  stands,  about  six  miles  up  the  river 
from  Omaha.  Here  the  Mormons  built  several  hundred  log  cabins,  nearly  one 
hundred  sod  houses,  and  an  octagon  council  house.  Mills  and  workshops  w^ere 
also  built  and  operated.  In  the  fall  of  1846  it  was  estimated  that  there  were  fifteen 
thousand  Mormons  encamped  in  the  Missouri  Valley  on  the  Omaha  and  Potta- 
watomi  lands.  They  had  raised  a  crop  and,  although  they  divided  the  products  of 
their  gardens  and  fields  with  their  Indian  friends,  their  industrial  activity  de- 
stroyed so  much  timber  and  drove  away  the  game-  that  the  Omaha  chiefs  com- 
plained to  their  agents.  An  investigation  showed  that  the  Indians  had  good 
grounds  for  their  complaints  and  the  Mormons  were  ordered  to  vacate  the  Omaha 



On  January  14,  1847,  Brigham  Young  had  a  revelation  to  seek  a  new  location 
farther  to  the  west.  It  is  possible  that  the  order  of  the  Indian  agent  to  vacate 
the  Omaha  lands  had  something  to  do  with  the  "revelation,''  but  at  any  rate 
Oliver  P.  Gleason,  George  Chatelaine,  Miles  Bragg,  J.  P.  Johnson,  Solomon 
Silver  and  William  Hall  were  appointed  a  committee  by  Brigham  Young  to  go  on 
in  advance  and  select  a  site  for  the  new  settlement.  This  committee  reached 
Fort  Laramie  in  the  spring,  where  they  learned  something  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake 
\^a!ley  and  employed  O.  P.  Wiggins  and  Jim  Beckwourth  to  guide  them  to  the 

Meantime  the  main  body  of  Mormons  did  not  wait  for  the  return  of  the 
committee,  but  hurried  forward  their  preparations  to  obey  the  order  of  the  Indian 
agent.  On  April  14,  1847,  just  three  months  after  Young's  "revelation,"  the 
first  company  of  143  persons,  three  of  whom  were  women,  with  73  wagons  loaded 
with  provisions  and  supplies,  left  the  winter  quarters  for  an  unknown  "Land  of 
Promise."  This  company  was  under  the  leadership  of  Heber  C.  Kimball  and 
was  accompanied  by  Brigham  Young  as  far  as  the  Elkhom  River — a  distance 
of  about  twenty-five  miles.  A  few  days  later  a  company  of  1,553  Persons,  with 
560  wagons  and  a  number  of  domestic  animals  left,  under  the  guidance  of  John 
Taylor  and  Parley  P.  Pratt.  Early  in  May  a  third  company,  numbering  1,229 
people,  with  397  wagons,  under  the  personal  direction  of  Brigham  Young,  followed 
those  who  had  gone  before.  Heber  C.  Kimball  turned  over  the  command  of  the 
first  company  to  Orson  Pratt  and  Erastus  Snow  and  returned  to  lead  another 
company,  which  left  the  winter  quarters  in  July.  It  consisted  of  226  wagons  and 
662  persons.  A  week  or  so  later  Willis  Richards  led  526  persons,  with  169  wagons, 
up  the  Platte  Valley,  and  with  the  departure  of  this  company  the  Omaha  lands 
were  vacated.  Those  who  did  not  go  west  recrossed  the  Missouri  and  settled  on 
the  Pottawatomi  lands  in  Western  Iowa. 

As  the  first  company  went  up  the  north  side  of  the  Platte  River,  guide  posts 
were  set  up  at  intervals  for  the  benefit  of  those  in  the  rear.  On  Bufifalo  skulls 
along  the  route  were  painted  the  dates  when  such  places  were  reached,  and  inside 
the  skulls  were  placed  written  communications  conveying  information  as  to  the 
route  it  was  intended  to  follow.  Aided  by  these  instructions  and  the  guide  posts. 
Young's  company  overtook  the  second  detachment  near  the  present  boundary 
line  between  Nebraska  and  Wyoming,  where  both  encamped  on  May  29,  1847. 
Here  an  incident  occurred  that  demonstrated  Brigham  Young's  qualifications  as  a 
leader.  The  morning  of  the  ,^oth  was  cold  and  damp  and  some  of  the  men  wanted 
to  wait  until  the  weather  conditions  were  improved  before  continuing  the  journey. 
About  half  past  ten  Young,  who  had  assumed  command,  gave  the  order  to  harness 
up.  The  response  was  slow  and  Young  ordered  a  council  to  be  called.  When  all 
were  assembled  he  told  the  delinquents  plainly  that  he  intended  to  be  obeyed, 
and  if  they  were  unwilling  to  accept  his  authority  they  mi^ht  remain  where  they 
were  or  return  east.  This  little  speech  had  the  efTect  of  bringing  the  recalcitrants 
into  line  and  by  hard  travelinsr  Fort  Laramie  was  reached  on  the  ist  of  Jtme. 
James  Bordeau,  the  aeent  of  the  American  Fur  Company,  gave  the  Mormons  a 
cordial  welcome  and  furnished  them  with"  some  much  needed  supplies. 

On  June  12,  1847,  the  caravan  arrived  at  the  Platte  River,  two  miles  above  the 


present  City  of  Casper,  where  it  was  intended  to  cross  the  stream.  Boats  and  rafts 
were  constructed,  but  the  river  was  running  bank  full  and  a  whole  week  was 
spent  in  effecting  a  crossing.  On  the  19th  the  entire  party  was  across  the  river 
and  ready  to  proceed.  The  20th  was  Sunday,  but  so  much  time  had  been  lost 
that  the  emigrants  traveled  all  day.  On  the  26th  they  went  through  the  South 
Pass,  where  they  met  a  party  of  trappers  led  by  Moses  Harris,  who  gave  them  in- 
formation regarding  the  course  they  were  to  pursue.  Two  days  later  they  met  Jim 
Bridger,  from  whom  they  obtained  additional  information.  This  was  the  first 
meeting  of  Bridger  and  Brigham  Young,  and  both  their  parties  encamped  while  the 
leaders  held  a  conference. 

Upon  reaching  Green  River  on  the  last  day  of  June,  the  company  was  met  by 
Elder  Brennan  of  California,  who  urged  Brigham  Young  to  go  to  Yerba  Buena 
(now  San  Francisco)  but  the  committee  sent  out  early  in  the  year  had  reported 
in  favor  of  the  Salt  Lake  X'alley  and  Young  would  not  alter  his  course.  Green 
River  was  crossed  on  the  3d  of  July  and  a  rest  of  two  days  followed.  From  this 
point  five  men  were  sent  back  to  pilot  the  other  trains.  On  the  6th  the  company 
encamped  on  the  site  of  the  present  Town  of  Granger,  Wyo.,  and  on  the  7th 
arrived  at  Fort  Bridger. 

Jim  Bridger  was  exceedingly  skeptical  about  the  Salt  Lake  \'alley  being  a 
place  to  establish  a  farming  community  and  it  is  said  he  offered  Brigham  Young 
$1,000  for  the  first  bushel  of  grain  grown  in  the  valley.  To  this  Young  merely 
replied  "Wait  and  see.'' 

On  Tulv  21,  1847.  the  first  company,  led  by  Orson  Pratt  and  Erastus  Snow, 
saw  from  the  top  of  an  elevation  the  panorama  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake  \"alley 
and  sent  a  messenger  back  with  the  information  that  they  had  reached  the  place 
recommended  by  the  committee  of  investigation.  Young  had  made  such  head- 
way with  his  company  that  he  arrived  on  the  24th,  only  three  days  behind  the 
leaders,  though  the  latter  had  a  start  of  nearly  a  month  from  the  Missouri  River. 
The  day  before  his  arrival  some  of  the  first  company  plowed  the  first  ground  ever 
broken  between  the  Platte  River  and  the  Sierra  Nevada  ^Mountains. 

An  August  16,  1847,  Brigham  Young  started  back  to  the  Missouri  River  to  in- 
form those  left  behind  of  the  character  of  the  country  and  the  prospects  for  the 
future.  A  history  of  the  Mormons  entitled  "Route  from  Liverpool  to  Great  Salt 
Lake  \'alley."  was  published  in  1853,  edited  by  one  James  Linforth.  It  gives 
the  following  account  of  the  emigration  to  Utah : 

"The  next  consecutive  event  of  importance  in  President  Young's  career  after 
his  arrival  at  Kanesville  or  Council  Bluffs,  was  his  starting  in  the  spring  of  1847, 
at  the  head  of  143  picked  men,  embracing  eight  of  the  Twelve  Apostles,  across 
the  unexplored  country  in  search  of  a  new  home  for  the  Saints  beyond  the  Rocky 
Mountains.  (Young  really  accompanied  this  company  only  as  far  as  the  Elkhorn 
River.)  The  pioneer  band  pursued  their  wav  over  sage  and  saleratus  plains, 
across  unbridged  rivers  and  through  mountain  defiles,  until  their  toilsome  and 
weary  journey  was  terminated  by  the  discovery  of  Great  Salt  Lake  \^alley  and 
the  choice  of  it  for  the  gathering  place  of  the  Saints.  They  then  returned  to 
Council  Bluffs,  where  they  arrived  on  the  31st  of  October,  and  an  epistle  was 
issued  on  the  23d  of  December  by  the  Twelve  Apostles,  noticing  the  principal  events 
since  the  expulsion  from  Kauvoo  and  the  discovery  of  the  Great  Salt  Lake  Valley." 

While  the  above  statement  is  correct  in  the  main,  it  is  not  true  that  the  entire 


143  "picked  men"  returned  to  the  Missouri.  Those  who  returned  were  Brigham 
Young  and  the  committee  which  had  been  sent  out  to  select  a  location. 

In  the  march  across  the  plains  every  man  among  the  Mormons  carried  a 
rifle  or  a  musket,  and  such  discipline  was  maintained  that  it  is  said  the  Indians 
would  frequently  allow  a  small  party  of  Mormons  to  pass  unmolested  and  attack 
a  much  larger  body  of  other  emigrants,  who  were  not  so  well  organized  for 
defense.  The  route  the  emigrants  followed  from  the  Mississippi  River  near 
Keokuk,  Iowa,  became  known  as  the  "Mormon  Trail.'  In  after  years  the  Mor- 
mon Trail  westward  from  the  Missouri  River  became  the  route  of  the  great  Union 
Pacific  Railway. 

The  number  of  Mormons  who  passed  up  the  Platte  Valley  and  through  Wyo- 
ming in  1847  was  3,113.  In  1848  Brigham  Young  personally  conducted  1,200 
men,  women  and  children  to  the  new  home  of  the  Saints  and  a  number  of  smaller 
parties  came  in  under  other  leaders,  so  that  in  the  fall  of  that  year  the  Salt  Lake 
Valley  had  a  population  of  about  five  thousand.  During  the  next  five  years  it  is 
estimated  that  one  hundred  thousand  Mormons  crossed  the  plains  on  their  way 
to  Salt  Lake.  They  opened  and  developed  farms,  built  irrigation  systems,  and 
transformed  the  desert  into  a  veritable  garden  spot. 

THE  SC.VRE  OF  1 857-58 

At  the  time  the  first  Mormons  settled  in  the  Salt  Lake  Valley  in  1847,  the  terri- 
tory was  outside  of  the  boundaries  of  the  L'nited  .States.  By  the  Treaty  of  Guad- 
alupe Hidalgo,  in  1848,  which  concluded  the  Mexican  war,  Utah,  with  other  ter- 
ritory in  the  Southwest,  was  ceded  to  the  United  States  by  Mexico.  The  Mor- 
mons then  organized  the  "State  of  Deseret,"  adopted  a  constitution  and  sent  a 
delegate  to  Washington  to  urge  the  admission  of  the  state  into  the  Union.  Con- 
gress refused  to  admit  the  state,  or  to  recognize  the  delegate,  but  in  1850  the 
Territory  of  Utah  was  organized  and  Brigham  Young  was  appointed  governor. 

In  the  latter  '50s  a  number  of  outrages  were  committed  upon  emigrant  trains 
and  some  of  these  outrages  were  attributed  to  the  Mormon  organizations  known 
as  the  "Danites"  and  the  "Avenging  Angels."  In  1857  trouble  arose  between 
Brigham  Young  and  the  other  territorial  officials  appointed  by  President  Buchanan. 
Perhaps  the  officials  may  have  been  incompetent  to  a  certain  degree,  as  claimed 
by  Young,  but  the  Territorial  Legislature  of  Utah  had  already  adopted  the  laws 
of  the  State  of  Deseret  and  it  was  apparent  that  the  Mormon  Church  was  de- 
termined to  rule  the  territory.  Instructions  from  Washington  were  disregarded 
and  in  some  cases  Young  openly  defied  the  United  States  authorities.  It  was 
finally  decided  by  the  administration  to  send  a  military  expedition  to  Utah,  to  pre- 
serve order  in  the  territory  and  prevent  further  depredations  against  peaceful 

When  the  announcement  was  made  public  in  the  fall  of  1857,  that  the  Govern- 
ment was  about  to  send  an  expedition  into  LTtah,  considerable  anxiety  was  felt 
among  the  settlers  of  the  West,  for  fear  that  the  Mormons  would  retaliate  by 
sending  companies  of  the  "Danites"  and  "Angels"  against  the  frontier  settle- 
ments. Gen.  William  S.  Harney  was  first  selected  as  the  leader  of  the  expedition, 
but  he  was  succeeded  by  Col.  Albert  Sidney  Johnston,  who  was  afterward  killed 
at  the  Battle  of  Shiloh.  in  April,  1862.  while  commanding  the  Confederate  forces. 


The  expedition  left  Fort  Leavenworth  in  the  fall  of  1857,  and,  although  there  was 
little  actual  fighting,  the  Mormons  harassed  Johnston's  movements  to  such  an 
extent  by  burning  supply  trains,  etc.,  that  the  troops  did  not  occupy  Salt  Lake 
City  until  in  June,  1858. 

While  the  expedition  was  en  route  the  "scare'  reached  its  greatest  height.  In 
April,  1858,  a  communication  signed  "Fair  Warning''  was  published  in  the  Omaha 
Times,  in  which  the  writer  said :  "When  our  army  shall  enter  the  \'alley  of  the 
Salt  Lake  the  ]\Iormons  en  masse  will  rise  in  hostile  array,  for  they  are  sworn 
to  resist.  At  that  moment  let  the  good  people  west  of  us  look  well  to  their*, 
safety.  We  hesitate  not  to  say  that  those  1,000  Mormons  near  Loup  Fork,  armed 
and  equipped  as  they  are,  can  and  will  sweep  from  existence  every  Gentile  village 
and  soul  west  of  the  Elkhorn.  As  to  Omaha  City,  the  nursling  of  a  government 
hostile  to  ]\Iormon  rule,  the  rival  of  Mormon  towns  and  the  victim  of  sworn 
Mormon  vengeance,  how  shall  she  share  in  this  strife?  In  the  space  of  one  night 
the  100  Saints  now  here  could  lay  in  ashes  every  house  in  the  city,  whilst  the 
armed  bands  in  our  vicinity  should  pillage  and  revel  in  our  blood.  The  Deseret 
News  proclaims  to  the  wide  world  from  the  great  leader  of  the  hosts  of  the 
anointed  thus :  'Winter  quarters  is  mine,  saith  the  Lord.  Nebraska  will  I  lay 
waste.  With  fear  and  with  sword  shall  my  people  blot  out  from  the  face  of  the 
earth  all  those  who  kill  the  prophets  and  stone  the  Lord's  anointed.' " 

The  Deseret  News,  from  which  the  writer  quoted,  was  a  Mormon  newspaper 
published  at  Salt  Lake  City.  Truly  this  "Fair  Warning''  was  a  pessimistic  prophet 
— a  veritable  "calamity  howler" — but  events  failed  to  justify  his  doleful  prediction. 
When  Johnston's  army  arrived  at  Salt  Lake,  Brigham  Young  was  removed  as 
governor  of  the  territory  and  the  worst  of  the  trouble  was  over.  A  garrison  was 
maintained  there  for  several  years,  however,  as  a  precautionary-  measure  against 
further  insubordination  on  the  part  of  the  IVIormon  leaders. 

"westward  ho" 

Som.e  five  years  before  the  departure  of  the  Mormons  from  their  winter 
quarters  on  the  Missouri,  the  tide  of  em.igration  westward  had  commenced.  As 
early  as  1841  a  party  of  fifteen,  a  few  of  whom  were  women,  passed  the  fur 
companies'  posts  in  Wyoming  on  their  way  to  the  country  west  of  the  Rocky 
Mountains.  Later  in  the  same  year  Bidwell's  California  company  crossed  the 
plains.  In  1842  Elijah  White  led  112  men,  women  and  children  through  \\''yoming 
on  the  way  to  Oregon.  These  emigrants  were  equipped  with  eighteen  Conestoga 
wagons,  a  number  of  cattle,  and  several  pack  mules  and  horses.  In  crossing  the 
plains  the  emigrants  found  resting  places  at  Fort  Laramie  and  other  trading  posts, 
where  they  could  purchase  supplies,  though  they  sometimes  grumbled  at  the  prices 
charged  by  the  post  traders. 

In  1843  the  number  of  emigrants  who  crossed  the  plains  was  estimated  at  one 
thousand.  By  that  time  the  western  coast  was  no  longer  an  unknown  land.  Those 
who  went  west  in  1843  carried  with  them  oxen  and  horses,  herds  of  cattle,  farm 
implements,  household  goods,  etc.,  which  indicated  that  they  had  "come  to  stay." 
By  that  time,  too.  the  beaver  had  been  almost  exterminated  in  the  valleys  along 
the  Wyoming  streams  and  many  of  the  trappers  employed  by  the  fur  companies 


were  diverting  their  attention  to  occupations  that  promised  greater  profits,   or 
leaving  for  other  fields  where  the  beaver  were  more  plentiful. 


Among  those  who  settled  in  California  prior  to  the  Mexican  war  was  John 
Sutter,  who  was  born  of  Swiss  parents  in  Baden,  Germany,  in  1803.  He  came  to 
California  in  July,  1839,  and  the  next  year  became  a  Mexican  citizen.  Alvarado, 
the  revolutionist,  was  then  in  power  as  the  governor  of  the  province.  He  took  a 
liking  to  Mr.  Sutter  and  made  him  an  official  of  the  government.  The  same  }-ear 
Mr.  Sutter  bought  out  some  Russian  settlers  on  the  Sacramento  River  and  built 
a  small  fort.  It  was  at  this  fort  that  Fremont's  second  expedition  arrived  on 
March  8,  1844. 

Late  in  the  year  1847  Mr.  Sutter  employed  James  W.  Marshall  to  build  a  saw- 
mill near  the  fort.  As  the  mill  was  to  be  run  by  water  power  it  was  necessary 
to  excavate  a  mill-race,  and  it  was  in  this  race  that  gold  was  discovered.  Mr. 
Marshall,  who  made  the  discovery,  afterward  gave  the  following  account  of  how- 
it  occurred  :  "One  morning  in  January  (it  was  the  morning  of  January  24,  1848), 
as  I  was  taking  my  usual  walk  along  the  race,  after  shutting  off  the  water,  my 
eye  was  caught  with  the  glimpse  of  something  shining  in  the  bottom  of  the  ditch. 
There  was  about  a  foot  of  water  running  then.  I  reached  my  hand  down  and 
picked  it  up;  it  made  my  heart  thump,  for  I  was  certain  that  it  was  gold.  The 
piece  was  about  half  the  size  and  shape  of  a  pea.'' 

]\Ir.  Marshall  showed  the  nugget  to  Mr.  Sutter  and  a  few  of  the  men  whom 
he  thought  he  could  trust,  and  all  kept  a  lookout  for  more.  Within  a  few  days 
they  had  collected  about  three  ounces  of  the  metal,  which  was  subjected  to  tests 
and  proved  to  be  gold.  They  tried  to  keep  the  matter  a  secret,  for  fear  their 
workmen  would  desert  in  the  hope  of  getting  rich  quickly  by  searching  for  gold, 
but  it  happened  that  some  ex-soldiers  at  the  fort  learned  of  the  discovery  and  the 
news  spread  rapidly.  There  was  no  trans-continental  telegraph  in  those  days,  but 
it  was  not  long  until  every  hamlet  in  the  Union  knew  that  gold  had  been  found  on 
the  western  coast. 

Gold  had  been  found  in  placers  near  Los  Angeles  in  1841,  and  it  is  said  that 
Jedediah  S.  Smith  found  gold  near  Mono  Lake  on  his  first  trip  to  the  coast  in  1827. 
Neither  of  these  discoveries  created  the  least  ripple  of  excitement  when  compared 
with  the  discovery  at  Sutter's  mill.  Within  one  year  nearly  one  hundred  thousand 
people  from  the  older  states  went  to  California  with  the  expectation  of  accumulat- 
ing a  fortune  in  a  few  months.  There  were  three  ways  of  getting  to  the  El 
Dorado:  i.  By  going  by  sea  around  Cape  Horn;  2.  By  the  land  and  water  route 
via  the  Isthmus  of  Panama ;  and  3.  Overland  via  the  Oregon,  California  and 
Salt  Lake  trails.  Each  of  the  three  routes  was  soon  crowded  to  its  utmost 


The  principal  starting  points  for  the  journey  across  the  plains  were  at  Inde- 
pendence and  St.  Joseph,  Mo.,  though  a  little  later  inany  crossed  the  Missouri 
River  where  the  Citv  of  Omaha  is  now  located.    California  Street  in  that  eitv  takes 


its  nijine  from  the  fact  that  it  marks  the  course  followed  by  the  gold  seekers 
of  the  early  '50s.  In  April,  1849,  some  twenty  thousand  people  left  the  Missouri 
River  bound  for  the  nev/  gold  iields.  Ihe  plains  were  dotted  with  the  vehicle 
known  as  the  "prairie  schooner,"  some  rode  on  horseback,  and  many  undertook  the 
long,  wearisome  journey  on  foot.  One  argonaut,  who  afterward  returned  to  his 
home  east  of  the  Mississippi,  said  he  counted  459  wagons  in  going  a  distance  of 
nine  miles.  In  outfitting  at  the  starting  place,  many  of  the  wagons  were  laden 
with  tools,  provisions,  etc.,  but  as  the  journey  proceeded  and  the  teams  began  to 
show  signs  of  weariness,  many  of  the  heaviest  articles  were  thrown  away,  espe- 
cially as  the  driver  saw  others  passing  him  on  the  road.  The  main  object  was  to 
get  to  the  diggings  before  all  the  paying  claims  were  "staked  off."  Capt.  Howard 
Stansbury,  who  was  then  engaged  in  making  some  explorations  in  the  West  for 
the  Government,  says  in  his  reports : 

"The  road  was  literally  strewn  with  articles  that  had  been  thrown  away.  Bar 
iron,  steel,  large  blacksmith  anvils,  bellows,  crowbars,  drills,  augers,  gold  wasliers, 
chisels,  axes,  lead,  trunks,  spades,  plows,  grindstones,  baking  ovens,  cooking 
stoves  without  number,  kegs,  barrels,  harness,  clothing,  bacon  and  beans  were 
found  along  the  road  in  pretty  much  the  order  enumerated." 

Some  clung  to  everything  with  which  they  started  and  in  the  end  found  it  had 
paid  them  to  do  so.  Prices  in  California  soared.  Flour  sold  as  high  as  seventy- 
five  dollars  per  barrel,  bacon  fifty  cents  to  one  dollar  per  pound,  and  other  things 
in  proportion.  Those  who  came  too  late  to  secure  a  paying  claim,  but  brought 
v.'ith  them  a  supply  of  provisions,  made  about  as  much  money  as,  perhaps  more 
than,  the  average  gold  hunter.  San  Francisco  grew  from  a  straggling  hamlet  to 
a  thriving  city  almost  over  night  and  was  the  chief  source  of  supply  for  the  gold 
diggings.  "The  days  of  '49"  have  been  celebrated  in  song  and  story.  A  few 
acquired  fortunes,  but  a  large  majority  of  the  argonauts  were  glad  to  get  back  to 
the  homes  they  had  left,  many  of  them  poorer  than  when  they  started  for  the 
land  of  gold. 

The  first  gold  found  in  California  was  what  is  called  "free  gold,"  being 
easily  taken  from  the  places  where  it  had  been  deposited  in  the  sands  of  the 
streams.  No  costly  machinery,  such  as  stamp  mills  and  smelters,  was  needed  to 
extract  the  precious  metal.  By  1856,  eight  years  after  the  first  gold  was  found  by 
Mr.  Marshall,  $450,000,000  had  been  taken  from  the  California  placers. 

While  the  excitement  was  at  its  height.  Fort  Laramie,  Fort  Bridger  and  the 
other  posts  in  Wyoming  did  a  thriving  business  in  furnishing  supplies  to  the 
argonauts.  Those  who  acquired  wealth  in  the  diggings  usually  returned  east  by 
the  water  route,  while  those  who  had  failed  and  returned  overland  had  little 
money  with  which  to  purchase  supplies.  All  they  wanted  was  a  "bite  to  eat  and 
a  place  to  sleep."  They  carried  information,  however,  concerning  the  West  that 
had  its  influence  upon  many  who,  a  few  years  later  sought  homes  beyond  the 
great  "Father  of  Waters."  In  this  way  the  argonauts  of  '49  paved  the  way  for 
the  settlement  of  Wyoming  and  some  of  the  adjoining  states. 

Neither  Marshall  nor  Sutter,  who  made  the  first  discovery  of  gold,  derived 
any  substantial  profit  from  it.  They  expected  to  make  money  from  their  saw- 
mill, and  did  make  money  for  a  time,  but  as  the  timber  was  cut  off  near  the 
mill  and  logs  had  to  be  brought  from  a  distance,  their  profits  were  reduced. 
Added  to  this,  the  gold  fever  subsided  and  the  demand  for  lumber  correspond- 


ingly  decreased.  Both  were  granted  pensions  in  their  old  age.  Marshall  died 
at  the  age  of  seventy-three  at  Coloma,  and  was  buried  in  sight  of  the  spot  where 
he  found  the  first  nugget  of  gold  in  January,  1848.  Over  his  grave  stands  a 
statue  of  himself  in  bronze,  of  heroic  size — a  poor  reward  for  a  man  who  gave  to 
the  world  a  gold  field  that  has  produced  millions  of  dollars. 







The  adventures  and  experiences  of  the  early  settlers  of  Wyoming,  with  all 
their  humorous,  tragic  and  romantic  phases,  become  more  interesting,  to  the 
reader  and  more  valuable  historically,  as  the  days  go  by,  when  the  actors  dis- 
appear and  the  curtain  falls  on  the  thrilling  and  realistic  scenes  of  frontier  life. 
The  old  frontier  is  disappearing,  in  fact,  has  disappeared,  and  we  realize  the  truth 
of  the  old  saying,  "Distance  lends  enchantment  to  the  view."  Today  the  auto- 
mobile is  everywhere,  and  wherever  that  swift  moving  machine  glides  through 
the  landscape  there  is  no  frontier — there  is  no  explorer,  for  the  remotest  nook 
and  corner  is  explored — and  even  the  hunter  and  trapper  by  mountain  or  stream 
can  no  longer  be  a  recluse  in  silence  and  solitude,  for  from  the  banks  of  a  stream 
or  on  the  side  of  a  mountain  he  may  hear  the  chug  of  a  motor  car  or  look  up  into 
the  sky  and  see  that  bird  of  a  new  ci\ilization,  an  aeroplane.  Therefore  we  may 
dwell  with  peculiar  interest  on  the  memories  and  stories  of  the  old  pioneers. 

From  many  sources  have  been  gathered  the  personal  narratives,  sketches 
and  relations  that  follow,  many  of  them  from  the  lips  of  the  men  who  were  actors 
in  the  scenes  they  describe,  and  they  are  given  without  regard  to  time,  place  or 
order  of  occurrence,  promising  only  that  they  are  true  and  illustrate  historically 
the  early  days  of  Wyoming.  To  begin  with  some  of  the  early  experiences  of  the 
author,  in  which  I  have  given  some  notes  of  what  I  saw  and  ''a  part  of  which 
I  was." 


In  the  Territorial  Legislature  of  1882  I  was  a  member  of  the  house.  We 
passed  a  pretty  good  game  bill  for  that  period.  On  the  last  night  of  the  session 
while  the  house  was  indulging  in  a  good  deal  of  horse-play.  Judge  J.  M.  Carey 
informed  me  that  Pete  Downs,  a  member  from  Uinta  County,  had  just  been  ap- 
pointed fish  commissioner  and  suggested  that  I  announce  it  and  get  a  rise  from 
the  gentleman.  I  made  the  announcement  and  suggested  to  Downs  that  he 
should  introduce  terrapin  in  Crow  Creek  waters,  plant  clams  in  the  Sweetwater 
and  make  certain  experiments  with  pickeled  eel's  feet,  etc.  Pete  Downs  was 


an  original  character  of  a  jovial  nature  and  tuiiversally  popular.  He  never  made 
a  speech  longer  than  a  motion  to  adjourn.  As  I  finished  the  members  began  to 
call  Downs,  and  yell  "Speech!  speech!" 

Pete  got  up  somewhat  flustrated  and  said :  "Boys  you  know  I  can't  make  a 

"Yes  you  can,  go  on,  go  on,"  shouted  the  members. 

He  hesitated,  cleared  his  throat  and  assumed  a  belligerent  attitude. 
"I  tell  you  I'm  no  speech  maker,  but  I  want  you  fellers  to  understand  if  I 
tackle  this  job  I  am  going  to  do  it  right.  I'm  told  that  fish  is  the  greatest  brain 
food  in  existence.  If  that's  the  case,  I'm  going  to  stock  up  our  streams  to  beat 
the  band,  and  I'm  going  to  make  it  my  special  business  to  see  that  the  next 
Legislature  has  a  damn  sight  more  brains  than  this  one  has !" 

As  he  said  this  his  voice  rose  and  rang  through  the  hall,  he  swung  his  fist 
around  and  hit  the  desk  a  resounding  whack  and  sat  down.  The  house  broke  out 
in  a  roar  of  laughter  and  applause.  I  have  heard  many  orations  and  speeches 
but  none  so  instantaneously  effective. 

I  wish  to  state  here,  sub  rosa,  that  since  then,  several  Wyoming  Legislatures 
have  convened  and  adjourned,  that  certainly  appeared  to  be  shy  on  brain  food. 


In  attendance  at  the  Oregon  Trail  monument  celebrations,  I  met  and  had 
some  interesting  talks  with  old  timers.  In  the  evening  of  the  celebration  at  Fort 
Laramie  several  of  us  were  swapping  stories  under  the  piazza  of  the  old  cavalry 
barracks  which  resembles  the  palaces  of  South  American  presidents.  The  build- 
ing is  about  three  hundred  feet  long  and  has  a  balcony  extending  along  the  whole 
front.  Joe  Wiley  is  now  governor  general  of  this  famous  building  and  grounds. 
Talking  about  game  animals  in  that  section  in  early  days,  Ed.  Patrick  asserted 
that  he  had  seen  "5,000  antelope  in  one  bunch  near  Rawhide  Buttes,  and  they 
^  were  so  tame  it  was  a  shame  to  kill  one." 

"That's  good,"  said  I,  "but  when  I  crossed  the  plains  in  1864,  I  saw  10,000,000 
buffalo  in  practically  one  herd  extending  along  the  Arkansas  River  for  five  hundred 

"How  do  you  know  there  were  10,000,000"  said  Patrick. 

"I  counted  'em,"  said  I. 

This  raised  a  laugh  on  Patrick  and  he  came  back  with  this : 

"How  did  you  count  them?" 

"Psychologically  and  in  my  mind's  eye,"  said  I. 

There  might  have  been  more  but  a  million  or  so  difference  in  the  estimate 
wouldn't  cut  much  figure.  Our  route  lay  along  the  Arkansas  Valley  from  Man- 
hattan to  Ben's  old  fort  and  being  in  the  month  of  November  all  the  big  herds  of 
the  North  were  moving  South  and  found  their  best  feeding  grounds  in  this  section. 
They  therefore  delayed  in  crossing  south  during  the  pleasant  weather  and  rap- 
idly accumulated  in  numbers.  The  western  Indians  were  on  the  warpath  then 
and  might  be  classed  as  wild  animals,  but  that  makes  another  storj'. 

Showing  how  tame  wild  game  was  at  that  time,  Mr.  Patrick  mentioned  the 
incident  of  a  young  antelope  getting  in  between  his  team  of  horses  for  protection 
from  a  dog. 



In  August,  1878,  I  came  to  Cheyenne  to  take  the  position  of  mihtary  store- 
keeper at  Camp  Carhn  which  was  then  the  largest  supply  depot  in  the  West.  It 
had  fourteen  large  warehouses  full  of  military  supplies,  several  large  manufac- 
turing and  repair  establishments,  a  garrison  of  soldiers,  officers  and  employees 
quarters,  corrals  and  stables  for  five  large  wagon  trains.  Ten  forts  located  at 
points  in  Wyoming,  Utah,  Nebraska  and  Idaho  were  supplied  from  this  great 
depot,  and  from  three  hundred  to  four  hundred  civilians  were  given  constant 
employment  as  teamsters,  wagon  makers,  blacksmiths,  saddlers,  packers,  etc. 
The  military  depot  was  located  about  half  way  between  Fort  Russell  and 

In  the  summer  of  1879  with  my  wife  and  children,  I  made  a  camping  out 
trip  to  and  through  North  Park  for  a  month's  vacation.  We  took  a  tent,  camp 
equipage  and  grub.  There  were  few  ranches  and  for  days  at  a  time  we  saw  no 
human  habitations.  Game  was  very  plentiful,  especially  antelope.  At  the  southern 
end  of  the  pa^rk  we  camped  near  a  ranch  where  the  owner  had  seven  or  eight 
elk  he  had  captured  and  was  training  them  for  work  and  selling  them  to  animal 
collectors.     These  elk  were  as  tame  as  a  domestic  cow. 

On  the  trip  we  had  a  dog  who  was  fired  with  the  ambition  to  catch  an  ante- 
lope, but  he  got  his  lesson  and  quit.  In  the  last  attempt  he  started  after  a 
bunch  when  the  leader,  a  big  buck,  turned  around  suddenly  and  jumped  on  him 
with  his  forefeet,  stiff-legged.  The  dog,  who  was  hit  only  by  a  powerful  glanc- 
ing stroke,  rolled  over  down  the  hill  yelling  in  terror.  He  came  back  to  the 
wagon  with  scars  on  his  head  and  the  side  of  his  body  and  never  chased  any 
more  antelope. 

Twice  on  the  trip  we  found  little  baby  antelopes  in  the  sage  brush  where 
the  mother  had  left  them.  One  little  one  that  was  running  around  we  captured 
and  took  along  for  a  pet,  feeding  him  on  canned  milk,  warm  and  diluted.  He 
thrived  well  for  several  days,  but  at  one  of  our  camping  places  got  away  long 
enough  to  drink  some  very  cold  spring  water,  which  caused  his  death. 


On  this  trip  we  saw  for  the  first  time  a  bunch  of  mountain  sheep  in  the 
vicinity  of  Sherman.  They  were  some  five  hundred  yards  from  the  road  when 
first  sighted  and  quite  near  a  ranch  we  had  just  passed.  On  seeing  us  they  be- 
came very  curious,  perhaps  on  account  of  our  children,  and  walked  quietly 
toward  the  wagon  until  they  reached  a  knoll  looking  down  upon  us  about  fifty 
yards  away.  There  they  stopped,  a  big  buck  in  the  front  with  massive  horns  and 
five  ewes  grouped  around  him.  I  stopped  the  team,  got  out  my  rifle,  they  watch- 
ing us  and  I  them.  I  got  a  bead  on  the  big  buck  and  was  about  to  fire,  when 
my  wife  said,  "They  can't  be  wild  mountain  sheep.  They're  too  tame.  They 
must  be  some  breed  of  goats  belonging  to  that  ranch  we  passed.  I  wouldn't  shoot 
them."  We  discussed  the  matter,  the  sheep  still  looking  and  wondering  what  on 
earth  we  were  there  for.  As  I  put  away  the  gun  and  continued  the  journey  the 
sheep  turned  around  and  quietly  walked  away.  If  any  visitor  at  our  apartments 
fails  to  see  that  splendid  pair  of  big  horns  on  the  walls  they  can  blame  Mrs. 
Bartlett  for  her  mistaken  opinions  and  merciful  kindness. 



Incidental  to  this  trip  we  visited  Teller  City,  a  new  mining  camp  where  great 
gold  discoveries  had  just  been  reported.  There  was  a  great  rush  there.  A  town 
had  been  laid  out  in  the  timber  and  many  houses,  shacks  and  cabins  were  being 
buih.  A  new  hotel,  roughly  constructed  of  pine  boards,  was  being  built  and  I 
applied  for  a  room.  The  proprietor  said  all  the  completed  rooms  were  taken,  but 
explained  that  the  carpenters  would  have  another  room  enclosed  by  night  if  we 
wanted  to  take  it.  We  took  it  and  the  room  was  built  round  us  during  the  day. 
The  windows  and  door  were  put  in  and  the  boarding  of  the  walls  completed 
while  we  occupied  the  room.  It  was  the  first  time  I  had  ever  seen  a  room  "built 
around  you  while  you  wait."  That  night  we  had  a  grand  reception.  The 
mountains  on  the  east  were  lit  up  by  a  great  forest  fire  making  a  scene  almost 
terrific  in  grandeur. 

Another  thing — in  laying  out  the  streets  a  great  many  pine  trees  had  to  be 
cut  down.  Therefore  the  streets  and  roadways  were  full  of  stumps  and  it  re- 
quired the  utmost  skill  in  a  driver  to  get  through  without  smashing  a  wagon  or 
breaking  the  horses'  legs.  Therefore,  there  were  many  stump  speeches  made,  brief 
and  emphatic,  interlarded  with  "strange  oaths"  unfit  for  publication.  However, 
we  escaped  safely  with  our  team  and  our  morals. 


Going  back  a  little,  on  our  way  to  North  Park  we  visited  Cumming's  City  on 
the  Laramie  River,  near  Jelm  Mountain.  It  was  then  the  most  noted  mining 
camp  in  Wyoming  and  had  among  its  population  of  gold  hunters,  many  who 
afterward  became  Wyoming's  most  prominent  citizens  and  officials.  Bill  Nye  was 
one  who  made  the  camp  the  scene  of  some  of  his  most  excruciating  stories.  Judge 
Groesbeck,  who  afterwards  became  chief  justice  of  the  State  Supreme  Court,  was 
another.  Judge  Bramel,  who  was  at  that  time  an  enthusiastic  mining  pioneer 
was  among  the  choice  spirits  of  this  camp.  Women  and  children  were  rare  in 
the  camp  and  our  coming  through  as  campers  attracted  a  great  deal  of  interest. 
We  put  up  at  the  big  hotel  and  were  invited  around  to  see  the  wonderful  gold 
mines,  some  of  them  capitalized  at  $1,000,000.  Everybody  seemed  bent  on  making 
our  visit  enjoyable.  The  extent  to  which  this  effort  was  carried  was  seen  the 
next  morning.  We  started  quite  early  to  continue  our  journey.  When  about  half 
a  mile  out,  on  turning  a  bend  in  the  road,  we  saw  suspended  from  the  limb  of  a 
tree  which  stretched  to  the  middle  of  the  road,  a  man  with  a  rope  round  his  neck. 
The  horses  also  saw  the  figure  and  stopped  suddenly.  They  had  evidently  never 
seen  a  man  suspended  high  in  mid-air  with  no  foundation  for  his  feet.  They 
snorted  and  pawed  and  really  wanted  to  go  back,  although  we  were  yet  a  hundred 
yards  away.  Before  going  after  the  coroner  I  concluded  to  make  a  closer  examina- 
tion, first  turning  the  horses  around  so  they  wouldn't  cramp  the  wagon.  I 
walked  down  to  the  place  where  the  figure  hung  and  found  it  was  a  well  dressed 

Afterwards  I  learned  that  the  miners  got  up  this  little  show  for  our  enter- 
tainment. Things  had  been  rather  quiet  with  them  for  a  week,  no  shooting 
scrapes  or  lynchings,  and  they  wanted  to  liven  up  matters  and  give  us  a  sample 


of  what  life  in  a  genuine  mining  camp  should  be.  We  were  entertained  all  right, 
but  had  the  time  of  our  lives  trying  to  drive  the  horses  under  that  suspended 


In  1881  I  assisted  in  organizing  the  Wyoming  Copper  Company  and  as  one  of 
the  officers  of  the  company  went  to  Fairbank  where  we  erected  a  copper  furnace 
and  buildings  connected  with  the  smelting  works.  Colonel  Babbitt,  a  prominent 
cattleman,  was  the  leading  spirit  of  the  enterprise  and  he  had  interested  several 
Chicago  millionaires  in  it,  among  them  George  M.  Pullman  and  X.  K.  Fairbank 
and  we  gave  our  smelter  settlement  the  name  of  the  latter  gentleman. 

The  smelter  was  located  on  the  banks  of  Platte  River  at  the  mouth  of  the 
canyon  about  one  mile  and  a  half  above  Guernsey.  It  had  been  noted  as  the  finest 
pike  fishing  resort  on  the  river  and  was  a  favorite  place  for  the  sport  of  United 
States  officers  from  Fort  Laramie,  which  was  then  garrisoned  and  was  the 
principal  army  post  of  the  department. 

One  day  Superintendent  Bartlett  (no  relation)  and  myself  looking  down  the 
river,  saw  an  immense  school  of  pike  swimming  up,  their  fins  agitating  the 
surface  with  dimpling  waves.  They  kept  in  the  center  of  the  stream,  and  we 
could  not  reach  them  with  poles.  Accordingly  we  improvised  a  raft,  having 
plenty  of  lumber  and  tools,  rigged  up  our  lines,  got  some  fresh  meat  for  bait  and 
secured  some  heavy  irons  for  an  anchor.  Taking  one  of  our  big  ore  tubs  we  placed 
it  in  the  center  of  the  raft  and  anchored  in  mid-stream  where  the  water  was 
alive  around  us.  We  had  two  hooks  on  each  line  and  as  soon  as  they  were 
dropped  they  were  grabbed  by  the  hungry  fish,  and  we  hauled  them  in  two  at  a 
time  until  the  tub  was  nearly  full  and  we  were  exhausted  by  our  efforts  and 
the  excitement  of  the  catch 


Soon  after  the  smelter  was  erected  I  built  the  first  log  cabin  at  Fairbank  and 
brought  my  family  up  from  Cheyenne.  It  was  located  in  a  most  beautiful  spot 
close  to  the  river  in  a  grove  of  cottonwood  and  boxelder  trees.  It  was  at  the 
mouth  of  the  canyon  whose  precipitous  walls  of  red  sandstone  intermingled  with 
strata  of  white  limestone  towered  in  prismatic  beauty,  and  when  shone  upon  by 
the  sun  were  brilliant  w-ith  nature's  architectural  effects.  Just  above  the  cabin 
the  rapids  plunged  over  a  rocky  bed  and  the  murmer  of  the  falling  water  was 
continuous  music  in  our  ears.  Fremont  on  his  first  expedition  camped  across  the 
canyon  close  by  the  side  of  our  home,  and  in  his  report  gives  a  glowing  description 
of  its  scenic  beauties. 

The  serpent  entered  this  Eden,  but  without  his  ancient  fascination.  In  the 
summer  time  the  doors  and  wmdows  were  open.  On  two  occasions  we  captured 
rattlesnakes  that  had  entered  the  house  and  one  time  we  got  two  big  bull  snakes 
who  were  making  a  home  under  the  bed.  lying  in  wake  for  mice.  The  bull  snake 
is  harmless  but  so  much  resembles  a  rattler  that  anv  tenderfoot  will  be  deceived. 



It  is  the  unexpected  that  happens — sometimes.  One  day  I  was  sitting  in  our 
office  and  laboratory  building.  Franklin  Getterman,  our  chemist,  sat  at  the  desk 
writing.  Suddenly  a  hugh  bull  snake  dropped  down  "kerplunk,"  on  the  desk 
before  him.  He  gave  a  yell  and  in  about  two  jumps  landed  himself  outside  the 
door.  For  about  two  hundred  yards  he  made  as  good  time  as  I  ever  saw.  The 
snake  had  crawled  in  under  the  eaves  and  was  crawling  over  the  loose  boards  of 
the  ceiling  when  he  fell.  Getterman  was  a  recent  graduate  from  Freiburg, 
Germany,  and  if  he  had  died  of  heart  failure  then  the  world  would  have  lost  a 
remarkable  man,  as  he  is  now  the  president  and  general  manager  of  the  American 
Smelting  Company,  the  largest  smelting  organization  in  existence. 


Shortly  after  we  moved  into  the  cabin,  a  family  of  mountain  rats  also  moved 
in  and  occupied  the  space  between  the  pole  roof  and  the  canvas  ceiling  stretched 
below.  These  animals  are  playful  and  humorous.  They  have  several  games, 
one  especially  that  interested  the  children.  They  had  a  collection  of  little  stones 
and  ciay  balls  that  they  would  bring  to  the  ridge  pole  and  then  roll  them  down 
to  the  eaves  and  scamper  after  them.  Then  they  would  bring  them  up  again  and 
continue  the  sport.  Then  thev  had  another  game  that  I  judge  were  wrestling 
matches.  They  would  tumble  around,  roll  o\er  and  squeal  with  joy.  We  finally 
killed  two  of  them  and  the  others  took  the  hint  and  quit  the  premises  disgusted 
with  our  inhospitality. 

Speaking  of  skunks,  a  colon)-  of  these  interesting  animals  made  their  homes 
in  a  limestone  ledge  near  our  cabin.  Limestone  formations  here  are  marked  by 
many  caves  and  opeiiini;>  t-xlemling  in  irregular  passages  through  the  rock.  These 
afford  ideal  homes  for  skunks  and  rattlesnakes,  while  the  larger  caves  are  ap- 
propriated by  mountain  lions.  The  skunk  is  a  handsome  animal,  and  is  also  quite 
friendly  and  fearless.  When  not  attacked  they  are  harmless.  Although  moonlight 
nights  were  their  favorite  excursion  hours,  they  often  came  around  the  house 
and  under  the  house  in  the  day  time  without  any  fear  and  usually  inspected  the 
remains  of  food  thrown  out  from  the  kitchen,  ^^'e  finally  killed  three  or  four 
and  smoked  out  a  whole  colony  in  the  rocks,  after  which  they  quit  us.  If  their 
skins  had  been  as  valuable  then  as  now.  I  could  have  started  a  skunk  farm  and 
been  rich  enough  probably  to  start  a  peace  expedition  to  Europe  bv  this  time. 
Mountain  lions  were  quite  plentiful  up  the  canyon  and  many  were  killed  within  a 
mile  or  two  of  our  cabin. 


The  Lost  Cabin  mines  of  ^\■yoming  have  long  been  the  subject  of  much  con- 
jecture and  romantic  fiction.  The  true  history  of  this  famous  find  and  the  ac- 
companying adventures  of  those  who  participated  in  it  was  given  me  when  I  was. 


living  in  Washington  in  1894,  by  Charles  Clay,  one  of  Wyoming's  prominent  and 
honored  frontiersmen. 

Mr.  Clay  was  one  of  the  pioneers  and  like  Judge  Gibson  Clark  and  John 
Hunton  was  at  one  time  employed  at  the  post  trader's  store  at  Fort  Laramie  as 
clerk  and  assistant.  Afterward  he  engaged  in  freighting.  When  the  town  of 
Douglas  was  located  he  opened  a  general  store  and  for  several  years  did  the 
leading  business  there.  Later  he  was  elected  county  treasurer  for  two  or  three 
terms.  He  came  to  Washington,  D.  C.  with  a  view  of  pushing  a  claim  of  losses 
sustained  by  Indian  depredations,  and  having  access  to  the  Government  departments 
I  had  the  pleasure  of  giving  him  some  assistance.  We  spent  several  evenings 
together,  and  as  I  was  becoming  interested  in  mining  ventures  and  he  was  familiar 
with  the  placer  grounds  worked  by  the  old  gold  miners,  our  conversation  drifted 
that  way.     One  evening  just  before  he  left  Washington  he  said  to  me: 

"I  am  going  to  tell  you  what  I  know  about  the  Lost  Cabin  mines.  I  have 
kept  the  story  to  myself  for  nearly  forty  years  expecting  to  go  personally  and 
locate  the  place,  but  something  has  always  come  up  to  prevent  giving  it  my  time 
and  money.    I  think  you  can  find  it,  and  all  I  ask  is  give  rne  a  show  in  the  find." 

I  have  kept  the  story  sub  rosa  for  twenty  years  but  now  release  it,  trusting  the 
directions  given  will  enable  some  prospector  to  locate  these  rich  placers,  and  I 
leave  it  entirely  to  him  as  to  whether  he  owes  me  anything  for  the  information. 
This  is  the  story  : 

The  Lost  Cabin  gold  placers  were  discovered  in  the  fall  of  1865,  and  were 
worked  three  days  by  seven  men  from  the  Black  Hills  country.  Five  of  the  seven 
men  were  killed  by  the  Indians.  Two  escaped  and  brought  away  seven  thousand 
dollars  in  coarse  gold.  Since  that  time  no  effort  for  the  discovery  of  the  place  has 
been  successful  although  many  attempts  have  been  made  by  small  and  large  parties 
to  reach  these  wonderfully  rich  placers  where  the  gold  could  almost  literally  be 
picked  up  from  the  ground.  Under  a  treaty  made  by  the  Government  with  the 
powerful  Indian  tribes  then  occupying  this  territory  they  were  given  undisturbed 
possession  of  this  area  for  many  years  and  all  white  men  were  warned  not  to 
invade  their  hunting  grounds. 

Mr.  Clay  said  that  the  two  men  who  escaped  came  into  Fort  Laramie  and  as 
soon  as  they  got  in  went  to  the  Sutler's  store  and  asked  him  to  put  their  gold 
in  the  safe.  In  doing  this  they  confided  to  him  the  story  of  the  find  and  the 
fortunes  of  the  expedition.  This  was  in  October,  1865.  Early  in  that  month 
the  two  men  reached  old  Fort  Reno  at  the  point  which  is  now  the  crossing  of 
Powder  River.  They  arrived  there  in  a  terribly  weak  and  exhausted  condition. 
They  explained  that  they  had  belonged  to  a  party  of  seven  gold  prospectors  who 
went  into  the  Big  Horn  Mountains  on  their  eastern  slope  from  the  Black  Hills 
of  Dakota.  They  traveled  along  the  base  of  the  range  in  a  southwestern  direction, 
prospecting  and  testing  the  ground  at  all  points  where  the  streams  came  down 
from  the  mountains  until  they  reached  a  park  surrounded  by  heavy  timber  through 
which  ran  a  bold  and  swift  mountain  stream,  and  which  a  few  yards  below  joined 
a  larger  stream.  Here  they  found  rich  signs  of  the  yellow  metal  and  on  digging 
down  struck  bed  rock  at  a  depth  of  three  or  four  feet  where  gold  was  ver>'  plentiful 
and  coarse,  with  many  good  sized  nuggets. 

They  immediately  went  into  camp  having  tools  and  grub  in  addition  to  the  wild 
game  they  had  hunted  which  was  then  very  plentiful.    They  had  brought  two  pack 


animals  to  carry  their  tools  and  supplies.  Among  the  tools  was  a  big  log  saw 
especially  valuable  to  gold  miners,  and  they  soon  sawed  the  logs  they  needed  to 
construct  a  flume.  In  two  days  by  almost  continuous  hard  work  they  also  built 
a  substantial  log  cabin.  They  then  began  to  dig  and  wash  out  the  gold  in  good 

Late  one  afternoon  on  the  third  day  they  were  suddenly  surprised  and  attacked 
by  Indians.  It  seemed  to  be  a  large  band  but  they  were  almost  concealed  by  the 
surrounding  timber.  The  men  fought  as  best  they  could  until  nightfall,  but 
being  in  the  open  were  at  such  disadvantage  that  five  of  their  number  were  killed. 
The  Indians  would  not  expose  themselves.  The  night  was  cloudy  and  as  it  soon 
became  very  dark  the  two  men  who  had  not  been  hurt  gathered  up  the  gold  and 
succeeded  in  escaping  without  being  seen  by  the  Indians. 

In  addition  to  the  gold,  they  carried  their  arms  and  some  grub.  Traveling 
on  foot  they  put  as  much  distance  as  they  could  between  themselves  and  their 
foes  during  the  first  night  and  in  the  morning  hid  themselves  among  the  trees 
where  they  remained  until  night  came  on.  They  then  continued  their  journey  not 
knowing  where  they  were  going.  After  three  nights  of  continuous  walking  they 
reached  Fort  Reno,  where  there  was  a  small  garrison  of  United  States  soldiers 
stationed  to  protect  the  old  trail  and  furnish  a  camp  for  settlers  driven  out  by  the 
Indians.  They  told  their  story  to  the  lieutenant  in  command,  but  he  did  not 
credit  it  fully.  About  that  time  there  had  been  a  number  of  desertions  of  soldiers 
who  wanted  to  hunt  for  gold  and  were  willing  to  face  dangers  in  the  quest,  so  he 
held  them  under  guard  and  sent  them  with  a  detachment  and  wagon  train  then 
about  to  leave  for  Fort  Fetterman.  When  they  reached  Fort  Fetterman,  the  com- 
manding ofificer  had  them  under  investigation  and  becoming  convinced  of  the 
truth  of  their  story  allowed  them  to  go  to  Fort  Laramie  with  the  next  military 
wagon  train  departing  for  that  point. 


The  two  men  spent  the  winter  at  Fort  Laramie.  When  they  brought  the  gold 
to  Mr.  Clav  at  the  post  trader's  store  it  was  in  three  baking  powder  cans.  He 
put  it  in  the  safe  where  it  remained  until  their  departure  from  the  fort.  The 
men  were  Swedes  and  spoke  broken  English.  They  were  practically  ignorant  of 
the  country  they  passed  through  so  far  as  the  names  of  mountains  and  streams  were 
involved,  but  could  describe  the  topography  and  general  aspect  of  the  region 
through  which  they  had  traveled.  As  spring  approached  they  determined  to  go 
back  and  brave  new  dangers  to  find  their  lost  cabin  and  gold  field.  In  order 
to  insure  success  in  their  search,  they  decided  to  go  back  to  the  Black  Hills  and 
start  anew  over  the  same  route  they  first  took.  Mr.  Clay  says  they  organized  a 
new  party  in  the  Black  Hills  and  started  out  on  the  old  trail  but  that  nothing  was 
heard  from  them  after  they  had  reached  the  mountains  of  Wyoming  and  in  all 
probability  they  were  killed  by  the  Indians. 


As  the  knowledge  of  the  famous  discovery  spread  through  Fort  Laramie  and 
among  the  settlers  in  the  vicinity  one  of  those  big  gold  excitements  characteristic 


of  pioneer  days  resulted  and  many  plans  were  formed  by  different  parties  to  start 
prospecting  expeditions  to  search  for  the  lost  cabin.  The  largest  party  was 
organized  by  Colonel  Bullock,  at  that  time  post  trader  at  the  fort.  Fort  Laramie 
was  then  the  most  important  post  in  the  great  northwest  and  was  the  headquarters 
of  a  large  number  of  frontiersmen,  hunters,  trappers,  scouts,  army  contractors 
and  their  employees,  in  addition  to  the  army  garrison.  It  was  the  midway  resting 
place  of  numerous  caravans  of  emigrants  following  the  great  Overland  Trail  to 
California  and  from  these  sources  Colonel  Bullock  raised  a  company  of  one 
hundred  and  fifty  men  who  were  duly  enlisted  and  officered.  All  preparations  were 
made  to  start  when  the  project  came  to  the  notice  of  the  commanding  officer  of 
the  department  at  Omaha.  In  view  of  the  impending  Indian  wars  an  order  was 
issued  forbidding  the  expedition  and  if  necessary  ordering  but  the  military  forces 
to  stop  it. 

For  the  next  twelve  or  thirteen  years  it  was  unsafe  for  any  party  to  go  into 
that  region  as  the  Indians  were  very  numerous  and  powerful,  as  well  as  generally 
hostile,  so  that  the  mystery  that  hung  over  the  Lost  Cabin  mines  was  not  lifted 
and  hangs  over  them  to  this  day,  with  the  exception  of  this  rift  of  light  that  comes 
from  Charley  Clay's  narrative. 


To  have  lived  in  Wyoming  from  the  organization  of  the  territory  down  to  the 
present  day  is  indeed  a  rare  privilege.  John  Hunton  of  Fort  Laramie,  who  came 
into  this  state  with  a  freight  train  from  Julesburg  before  Cheyenne  was  on  the 
map,  and  has  since  been  prominently  identified  with  the  various  phases  of  frontier 
development,  as  post  trader,  contractor,  ranchman  and  engineer,  has  had  that 
notable  experience.    He  is  especially  identified  with  the  history  of  Fort  Laramie. 

It  would  be  difficult  to  put  into  cold  type  the  interesting  episodes  of  his  life 
and  of  the  early  settlers  who  were  in  his  group  of  comrades,  like  Colin  Hunter. 
Hi  Kelley,  E.  W.  Whitcomb,  Dan  McUlvan  and  Gibson  Clark,  but  his  story  is 
so  typical  of  early  days  in  Wyoming  that  the  writer  journeyed  to  Fort  Laramie 
in  May,  1918,  to  get  from  his  own  lips  a  relation,  that  only  he  could  give. 

Mr.  Hunton  was  born  in  Madison  County,  Ya..,  in  the  Blue  Ridge  Mountain. 
June  18,  1839.  His  father  and  mother,  .Alexander  and  Elizabeth  (Carpenter) 
Hunton,  were  among  the  oldest,  historic  families  of  the  South  and  it  was  natural 
that  John  should  be  among  the  first  to  join  the  Confederate  army  and  remain  in  its 
ranks  as  a  fighting  man  till  the  surrender  at  Appomattox.  Even  before  the  Ci\il 
war,  Mr.  Hunton,  as  one  of  the  Mrginia  State  Guards,  was  on  duty  at  Charlestown. 
"\"a.,  eight  miles  from  Harpers  Ferry  with  four  thousand  of  the  guard,  when 
John  Brown  was  hung.    Later,  he  was  in  Pickett's  famous  charge  at  Gettysburg. 

He  left  home  in  the  early  spring  of  1867,  and  went  to  Julesburg,  Colo.  From 
there  he  went  to  Fort  Russell  with  a  freight  train  carrying  finished  lumber  to 
use  in  building  Fort  Russell,  then  a  military  camp  established  to  protect  the  men 
engaged  in  building  the  Union  Pacific  Railroad.  The  camp  had  been  started  with 
the  construction  of  log  buildings  and  when  the  Government  had  decided  to 
establish  the  fort,  finished  lumber  and  imjjroved  equipment  was  freighted  in.  This 
was  before  Cheyenne  was  started. 



In  June,  young  Hunton  went  to  Fort  Laramie  and  was  employed  at  the  sutler's 
store  as  a  roustabout  by  Seth  E.  Ward,  who  was  then  post  trader.  Later  on  he  en- 
gaged as  clerk,  freighter  and  contractor,  continuing  at  the  fort  under  the  sutlership 
of  William  G.  Bullock,  who  had  Benjamin  B.  Mills  as  his  chief  clerk  in  charge  of 
the  business.  At  this  time  Gibson  Clark  and  Charles  Clay  were  also  employed 
as  clerks  and  assistants.  In  those  early  days  Fort  Laramie  was  one  of  the  im- 
portant Indian  trading  posts  of  the  west,  being  the  favorite  center  of  traffic  of 
numerous  tribes,  and  of  the  most  noted  hunters  and  fur  traders  of  that  whole 
region.  It  was  the  headquarters  of  Bordeaux,  Bissonett,  Rishaw  (Richard) 
Brothers,  Fourier,  Little  and  Big  Bat  (Baptiste)  Jim  Bridger,  and  other  noted 
scouts.  The  Sioux  and  Cheyennes  ranged  all  over  the  country  from  north  of  the 
Platte  to  Cache  La  Poudre  in  Colorado.  Many  of  the  furs  and  hides  were 
shipped  to  Robert  Campbell  who  had  a  large  establishment  at  St.  Louis  and  was 
one  of  the  most  noted  fur  traders  of  that  day.  When  in  the  West,  Campbell  made 
Fort  Laramie  his  headquarters. 

Mr.  Hunton  knew  personally  some  of  the  most  famous  Indian  chiefs  of  that 
day,  such  as  Red  Cloud,  Otter  Tail,  American  Horse,  Spotted  Tail  and  Young- 
man-Afraid-of-his-Horse.  and  attended  many  of  their  conferences  and  treaty 
councils.  In  the  famous  Treaty  of  1868,  Mr.  Hunton  was  a  witness  to  the  names 
of  the  Indian  chiefs,  their  signatures  being  a  cross  mark.  Mr.  Hunton  remained 
at  the  fort  till  October,  1870.  For  several  months  while  there  he  roomed  with  Jim 
Bridger,  the  famous  guide  and  scout.  In  1874  he  established  the  S.  O.  Ranch  and 
put  in  a  herd  of  cattle  at  a  point  where  the  Overland  Trail  crossed  the  Box  Elder, 
about  twelve  miles  west  of  Fort  Fetterman.  This  ranch  passed  through  various 
hands  till  it  was  finally  sold  to  Judge  Carey  and  has  since  become  one  of  the 
great  farm  and  ranch  establishments  of  the  state. 

At  various  times  Mr.  Hunton  engaged  in  contracting  with  the  Government 
for  hay,  wood  and  beef  at  Fort  Laramie.  Fort  Fetterman  and  Fort  McKinney, 
finally  located  a  home  ranch  at  Bordeaux  and  engaged  extensively  in  the  cattle 
business  in  that  section.  For  several  years  "Hunton's,"  as  the  place  was  known 
then,  being  on  the  Fort  Laramie  and  Black  Hills  Trail,  accommodated  travelers, 
stock  men,  cowboys,  Black  Hills  gold  hunters,  soldiers  and  Government  freighters 
with  meals  and  supplies  as  a  road  station  and  stopping  place. 

Roving  bands  of  Indians  remained  in  that  section  till  1877,  stealing  stock  and 
occasionally  "sniping"  a  settler.  While  at  Bordeaux,  Mr.  Hunton's  brother 
James,  was  killed  by  the  Indians.  That  was  in  1876.  About  this  time  the  road 
agents  and  horse  thieves  became  numerous  on  the  Black  Hills  road  and  the 
treasure  coaches  with  their  passengers  were  frequently  held  up  and  robbed.  These 
were  exciting  times  and  the  Cheyenne-Fort  Laramie  Road  was  the  most  frequented 
and  best  traveled  route  in  the  Mountain  West. 

In  1888  Mr.  Hunton  was  appointed  post  trader  at  Fort  Laramie  succeeding 
John  London.  Fle  held  that  position  till  the  order  was  issued  abandoning  the  fort, 
the  last  Government  troops  leaving  the  garrison  April  20,  1890.  The  order  of 
abandonment  was  issued  in  March,  1890,  and  shortly  thereafter  two  public  sales 
were  made,  one  in  March  of  the  army  material  accumulated  there,  and  one  in 
April  of  the  Government  buildings.  The  reservation  lands  excepting  forty  acres 
where  Mr.  Hunton  had  his  sutler's  store,  his  residence  and  various  other  buildings 
he  had  erected  at  his  own  expense  were  thrown  open  to  homestead  settlement. 


A  special  act  of  Congress  granted  him  the  privilege  of  purchasing  this  forty 
acre  tract  at  one  dollar  and  a  quarter  per  acre. 

The  reservation  lands  covered  an  area  of  six  miles  east  and  west  by  nine  miles 
north  and  south,  or  fifty-four  square  miles.  The  best  portion  of  this  land  was 
soon  taken  up  by  homestead  settlements  and  Mr.  Hunton  by  homesteading  and 
purchase  of  choice  land  at  the  center  of  the  post  secured  several  hundred  acres 
through  which  a  canal  was  built  making  a  beautiful  ranch  home  with  fertile  lands 
and  the  picturesque  scenes  of  his  early  life  in  Wyoming. 

Mr.  Hunton  also  acquired  the  Bullock  Ranch,  one  of  the  most  valuable  ranches 
on  Laramie  River,  which  is  now  known  as  "Gray  Rocks."  In  the  meantime  Mr. 
Hunton  and  his  wife  have  made  their  home  at  Fort  Laramie  where  all  around 
them  a  rich  agricultural  region  is  being  developed  under  the  Interstate  and 
Laramie  canals  recently  constructed  by  the  United  States  Reclamation  Service,  on 
each  side  of  Platte  River,  from  the  Whalen  Dam  about  five  miles  above  Fort 
Laramie.  Mr.  Hunton  has  the  distinction  as  an  engineer,  of  individually  making 
the  original  survey  for  the  Whalen  Dam  and  Canal  System  which  became  the 
basis  of  a  Government  reclamation  project  that  cost  over  eleven  million  dollars, 
including  the  Nebraska  canals. 

He  sold  his  survey  notes,  filings  and  water  rights  to  Lingle  &  Company  who 
began  the  construction,  but  they  afterward  sold  to  the  United  States  Government 
which  has  completed  here  one  of  the  great  irrigation  enterprises  of  the  West  with 
canals  extending  into  Nebraska  and  watering  one  hundred  thousand  acres  of  land 
in  Wyoming  and  much  more  in  Nebraska. 

Among  other  pioneers  and  builders  of  Wyoming  who  were  contemporary 
with  Mr.  Hunton  and  often  connected  with  him  in  business  enterprises,  were 
Colin  Hunter,  E.  W.  Whitcomb,  H.  B.  Kelley,  and  Dan  McUlvan.  Hunter  and 
Whitcomb  have  crossed  the  divide  within  the  past  two  years,  but  Kelley  and 
McUIvan  are  still  living  and  in  vigorous  health  at  the  time  of  this  writing. 


E.  W.  Whitcomb  came  to  Wyoming  in  i86S  from  New  England.  Being  of  a 
fearless  and  venturesome  disposition  he  went  out  on  the  old  California  Trail 
where  it  crosses  Horse  Shoe  Creek,  east  of  the  present  Town  of  Glendo  and 
started  a  trading  station.  About  as  soon  as  he  got  in  his  supplies,  built  his  cabin, 
Slade's  men  robbed  his  store  and  burned  up  everything  except  a  team  and  wagon 
he  had  up  the  creek.  He  then  went  to  Box  Elder  Creek  and  settled  there  for 
several  years  along  in  the  '"o's.  At  one  time  Whitcomb  and  Hi  Kelley  went  to 
Elk  Mountain  where  a  railroad  supply  and  lumber  camp  had  been  established  and 
engaged  in  business  there.  Afterward  he  took  up  a  land  claim  on  Crow  Creek  a 
few  miles  above  Cheyenne.  He  also  built  a  ranch  on  the  Chugwater  and  engaged 
largely  in  the  cattle  business.  Later  he  sold  out  his  interests  on  the  Chugwater 
and  established  ranches  on  the  Belle  Fourche. 

In  the  meantime  he  had  built  a  fine  residence  at  Cheyenne,  where  he  made 
his  home  with  his  family.  After  reaching  the  age  of  eighty-five  years  he  was 
killed  by  lightning  while  on  a  visit  to  his  Belle  Fourche  Ranch.  While  living  in 
Cheyenne  he  was  elected  one  of  the  commissioners  of  Laramie  County.  He 
was  a  gentleman  of  ability  and  honor  and  in  every  respect  a  fine  example  of  the 
character  of  our  best  pioneers. 



Many  of  the  most  sturdy  and  enterprising  pioneers  of  Wyoming  were  Scotch- 
men. Robert  Campbell,  the  great  fur  trader,  made  his  headquarters  at  Fort 
Laramie.  Colin  Hunter  came  from  Scotland  in  the  early  '60s  and  was  first  employed 
by  the  United  States  Government  at  Fort  Jackson  near  the  mouth  of  the  Missis- 
sippi. From  there  he  was  transferred  to  Wyoming  in  1866,  going  to  Fort 
Laramie  where  he  remained  as  a  civilian  employee  of  the  Government  till  the  fall 
of  1867.  From  Fort  Laramie  he  went  to  Elk  Mountain,  where  a  busy  lumber  and 
tie  camp  had  been  established  in  connection  with  the  building  of  the  Union  Pacific 
Railroad,  remaining  till  the  spring  of  1870,  when  he  went  to  Fort  Laramie  and 
engaged  in  hauling  wood  for  John  Hunton  who  had  a  contract  to  supply  the 
fort.  For  several  years  he  worked  teams  with  a  partner  named  Cush  Abbott  on 
Government  contracts  for  hay  and  wood.  About  the  year  1873  they  bought  one 
hundred  head  of  cattle  and  started  a  ranch  just  above  Chimney  Rock  on  the 
Chugwater,  in  the  meantime  keeping  their  freight  teams  at  work  on  Government 
contracts.  In  1877  Mr.  Hunter  sold  his  teams  to  John  Hunton  and  went  to 
Montana  to  engage  in  the  cattle  business  exclusively.  Later  he  sold  out  his 
Montana  holdings  and  came  to  Cheyenne  to  reside,  but  invested  largely  in  the 
ranch  and  cattle  business  at  various  points  in  Wyoming.  He  bought  the  Horse 
Creek  Ranch  of  Gordon  &  Campbell  and  went  into  partnership  with  John  Hunton 
at  the  Bullock  ranch  on  Laramie  River.  Mr.  Hunter  was  a  prominent  leader  in  the 
democratic  party  of  the  state.  He  held  many  positions  of  public  trust,  including 
that  of  state  senator.  He  died  at  Cheyenne  August  30,  1916,  at  the  age  of  sixty- 
eight  years. 


What  Dan  McUlvan  knows  about  the  early  days  of  Wyoming  and  won't  tell, 
would  fill  a  good  sized  volume.  He  lives  in  Cheyenne  in  the  enjoyment  of  an 
ample  fortune  and  while  he  enjoys  the  memory  of  those  early  days  when  he  lived 
an  open  air  life  on  the  plains  and  in  the  mountains  as  a  roustalsout.  miner,  tie- 
cutter,  freighter,  bridge-tender,  etc.,  he  keeps  the  enjoyment  to  himself  and  cannot 
be  induced  to  talk  for  publication.  From  one  of  his  old  friends  we  learn  that 
he  came  to  Wyoming  in  1865  and  for  sometime  ran  F)ridger's  Ferry  at  a  crossing 
near  what  is  now  Orin  Junction.  In  1867,  in  company  with  a  Mr.  McFarlane, 
he  was  engaged  in  working  a  gold  mine  for  Mr.  Bullock  on  the  Horseshoe  in  the 
Laramie  Peak  region,  until  the  Indians  drove  them  out  and  they  were  obliged  to 
abandon  the  enterprise.  The  fights  they  had  ^\■ith  the  Indians  and  their  narrow 
escapes  would  make  an  interesting  story.  From  there  he  went  to  the  tie  camp  at 
Elk  ]\Iountain  and  worked  for  the  Union  Pacific  Railroad.  Back  to  Fort  Laramie 
in  1870,  he  engaged  with  McFarlane  in  putting  in  wood  for  Mr.  Hunton,  and  after- 
ward freighted  goods  for  the  Indian  department.  In  1872  he  went  into  the  cattle 
business  establishing  a  ranch  north  of  Chimney  Rock,  which  was  later  purchased 
by  Erasmus  Nagle.  About  1885,  he  went  to  Cheyenne  and  in  company  with 
Henry  Altman  organized  the  famous  Hereford  Ranch  on  Crow  Creek  a  few  miles 
east  of  Cheyenne,  for  the  raising  of  high  grade,  pedigreed  cattle.  In  this  business 
he  accumulated  a  fortune.    Selling  out  his  interest  a  few  years  ago  he  retired  from 


business  and  enjoys  a  well  earned  rest  while  still  in  possession  of  vigorous  health 
and  an  iron  constitution  gained  in  the  sunshine  and  ozone  of  a  Wyoming  climate. 


The  editor  of  this  volume,  while  on  a  prospecting  trip  in  the  Laramie  mountains 
with  his  sons  in  the  summer  of  1899,  made  the  acquaintance  of  Frank  Grouard. 
We  camped  near  the  beautiful  Horse  Shoe  Park,  where  Grouard  was  in  charge  of 
a  copper  and  lead  mine.  The  evening  we  pitched  our  tent  he  came  over  and 
introduced  himself  and  offered  us  the  hospitalities  of  the  camp.  On  our  invitation 
he  spent  the  evening  with  us  smoking  and  swapping  stories,  but  principally  talking 
about  the  ores  and  mineral  prospects  in  that  vicinity.  For  the  few  days  we  were 
camped  there  we  interchanged  visits  and  took  many  meals  together.  A  few- 
months  later,  Grouard  made  us  a  week's  visit  at  our  headquarters  camp  at  Hart- 
ville  and  our  acquaintance  ripened  into  friendship. 

Grouard  was  one  of  the  most  interesting  men  that  I  have  ever  met,  and  had  the 
most  thrilling  and  adventurous  life  of  any  of  the  great  scouts  known  to  western 
history.  He  had  lived  six  years  among  the  Indians  as  the  adopted  brother  of 
Sitting  Bull,  where  he  gained  the  respect  and  admiration  of  the  whole  Sioux 
tribe  and  visiting  tribes,  for  his  achievements  as  hunter  and  marksman,  athletic 
powers  and  feats  of  dare-devil  bravery.  As  a  scout  and  Indian  trailer  he  never 
had  a  superior,  his  endurance  was  wonderful,  when  on  expeditions  in  pursuit  of 
Indians  he  was  always  accurate  and  unerring  in  his  knowledge  of  their  location, 
and  in  his  advice  as  to  the  best  method  of  approaching  and  fighting  them.  Generals 
Sheridan,  Crook,  Merritt  and  other  noted  commanders  have  testified  to  Grouard's 
remarkable  genius  as  a  scout,  and  various  correspondents  and  newspaper  men  like 
Gen.  James  S.  Brisbin,  Capt.  John  G.  Bourke,  Capt.  Jack  Crawford,  John 
F.  Finnerty,  have  been  on  expeditions  with  him  and  importuned  him  for  the 
story  of  his  life  without  success. 

He  was  naturally  reticent  and  as  modest  as  he  was  brave.  General  Crook,  in 
his  correspondence  with  the  war  department  in  1876,  referring  to  Grouard  and  his 
valuable  services,  said :  "I  would  sooner  lose  a  third  of  my  command  than  Frank 

His  affection  for,  and  confidence  in,  Grouard  was  reciprocated  and  the>i\-  became 
firm  and  steadfast  friends.  During  Grouard's  stay  in  our  camp  at  different  times 
he  overcame  his  reticence  and  told  us  many  events  of  his  life.  His  ancestors 
were  French  Huguenots  who  fled  to  America  and  settled  near  Portsmouth,  N.  H. 
His  father  was  born  there  and  at  the  age  of  twenty  went  to  the  South  Sea  Islands 
as  a  missionary  and  married  there  a  native  woman,  daughter  of  a  chief.  Frank 
was  the  second  son  and  was  therefore  half  French  and  half  Malay.  .\s  he  seldom 
referred  to  his  childhood,  his  companions  generally  thought  him  to  be  a  full  or  part 
Indian.  Indeed  he  might  be  mistaken  for  a  full-blooded  Sioux,  except  he  was 
handsomer  than  any  Indian.  He  was  six  feet  in  height,  weighed  two  hundred  and 
thirty  pounds,  had  broad  shoulders  and  a  heavy  growth  of  black  hair.  He  was- 
straight  and  symmetrical,  had  handsome  dark  brown  eyes.  His  habits  were 
temperate  so  that  he  retained  his  strength,  vigor  and  athletic  powers  at  all  times. 

Frank's  father  brought  his  family  to  California  where  his  wife  left  him  and 
returned  to  the  Islands.    Frank  was  left  in  the  family  of  Addison  Pratt  at  Beaver, 


Utah.  He  ran  away  from  the  Pratts  and  got  a  job  as  bull-whacker,  hauling 
freight  from  San  Bernardino  to  Helena,  Mont.  This  was  in  1865  when  he  was 
about  fifteen  years  of  age.  A  few  years  later  he  got  a  job  breaking  horses  for 
the  Holliday  Stage  Company  and  soon  after  was  put  in  the  Pony  Express  service 
from  Diamond  City  to  Fort  Hall  on  the  Missouri  River.  On  his  fourth  trip  the 
Indians  captured  him.  He  was  suddenly  surrounded  by  twenty  Blackfeet  who 
pulled  him  oR  his  horse  and  stripped  him  entirely  naked  and  told  him  to  go  back. 
Then  they  began  to  lash  him  with  quirts  following  him  for  several  miles  as  he 
ran  over  a  country  covered  with  patches  of  cactus.  He  was  not  long  in  reaching 
Fort  Hall,  seventy  miles  away. 

He  was  next  put  on  the  mail  line  from  Fort  Hall  to  Fort  Peck  at  the  mouth  of 
Milk  River.  He  was  then  a  boy  nineteen  years  of  age.  The  Sioux  were  getting 
ugly  and  committing  depredations  throughout  that  region.  It  was  winter  time  and 
while  making  a  trip,  going  through  a  gulch  in  a  snow  storm,  without  thought  of 
anyone  being  near  he  was  suddenly  hit  on  the  back  of  the  head  and  knocked  from 
his  horse.  A  band  of  Sioux  warriors  surrounded  him  and  began  to  quarrel  over 
him,  as  to  who  should  have  his  guns,  his  fur  coat,  gloves  and  leggings.  During 
the  quarrel  another  Indian  rode  up.  He  seemed  to  have  great  authority.  He 
stopped  the  quarrel  and  knocked  down  the  one  who  had  taken  the  rifle.  He  then 
took  Grouard  to  the  Indian  Village.  During  the  three  days  travel  before  reaching 
the  hostile  camp  he  learned  that  his  captor  was  the  famous  Indian  Chief,  "Sitting 
Bull,"  who,  on  arriving  took  Grouard  to  his  own  tent  and  motioned  him  to  sit 
down  on  a  pile  of  buffalo  robes.  He  fell  asleep  from  pure  exhaustion,  although 
he  fully  expected  to  be  tortured  and  killed  very  soon.  While  he  slept  the  Indians 
held  a  council  to  decide  his  fate.  Chiefs  Gall  and  No-Neck  declared  for  his  im- 
mediate execution  and  they  had  a  majority  of  the  tribe  with  them.  Sitting  Bull 
almost  alone  refused  to  consent  to  Grouard's  deatli  and  he  declared  he  would 
make  him  his  "brother."  His  public  adoption  into  Sitting  Bull's  family  saved  him 
from  a  cruel  death.  The  chief  had  taken  a  great  fancy  to  Grouard,  named  him 
"Standing  Bear,"  and  called  him  brother.  The  name,  Standing  Bear,  was  soon 
known  to  all  the  surrounding  tribes.  This  name  was  given  him  because  when 
captured  he  wore  a  heavy  fur  coat,  fur  leggings,  cap  and  gloves,  and  was  so 
bundled  up,  prepared  for  the  storm,  that  he  resembled  a  bear. 

He  lived  with  Sitting  Bull  for  six  years,  during  which  time  he  became 
thoroughly  acquainted  with  their  language  and  traditions,  their  manners  and 
customs  in  war  and  peace  and  he  so  excelled  the  best  of  them  in  athletic  exercises, 
markmanship,  running  and  wrestling  that  he  was  looked  upon  with  superstitious 
fear  as  a  superior  being.  He  studied  and  made  notes  of  the  legends  and  mythology 
of  the  Sioux  tribes  and  had  prepared  a  very  complete  history  which  was  destroyed 
in  a  fire  which  burned  his  residence  near  Buffalo,  Wyo. 

He  described  the  torture  test  he  had  to  undergo  as  a  Sioux  warrior.  All  the 
village  was  assembled.  He  was  taken  by  four  chiefs  and  stripped  naked.  His 
flesh  was  raised  by  pricking  him  with  needles.  Pieces  about  the  size  of  a  pea 
were  cut  out  with  sharp  knives,  from  each  arm,  in  all  over  four  hundred 
pieces.  They  pulled  out  his  eyebrows  and  eyelashes  one  by  one.  They  set  fire  to 
pieces  of  the  pith  of  the  sunflower  which  burned  like  punk,  and  held  them  against 
his  wrist  until  they  bumed  out.  Although  he  endured  untold  agony  he  did  not 
flinch  and  gave  no  sign  of  his  distress.    The  ceremonies  lasted  four  hours  and  he 


was  declared  a  good  Indian.  Then  he  was  put  through  the  "sweat"  as  a  sort  of  a 
healing  process.  During  the  latter  part  of  his  captivity  he  was  entrusted  with  peace 
negotiations  and  on  account  of  Sitting  Bull  breaking  his  agreement  with  him 
and  the  whites  he  determined  to  give  up  his  Indian  life. 

For  a  long  time  he  had  been  allowed  his  freedom  and  on  one  trip  he  went  to 
visit  a  white  friend  on  Snake  River,  Neb.  An  expedition  against  the  Indians 
was  being  organized.  Orders  were  sent  out  for  scouts  who  knew  the  country  and 
he  was  persuaded  to  go  to  the  camp  where  the  troops  were  gathered.  They  told 
him  to  go  and  see  General  Crook,  who  was  then  at  Fort  Laramie,  ninety  miles 
away.  He  started  at  night  and  reached  there  the  next  morning.  Crook  questioned 
him  very  closely  about  the  chance  of  getting  at  the  Indians,  engaged  him  as  a 
scout  at  $125  a  month,  and  they  went  back  to  the  Red  Cloud  Agency.  They 
went  on  an  expedition  to  Tongue  River  and  camped  at  the  present  site  of  Dayton. 
Here  he  assisted  in  making  a  treaty  with  Crazy  Horse,  for  which  service  the 
Government  paid  him  $500.  It  was  three  months  before  he  could  talk  good 
English.  During  this  period  he  wore  Indian  costume  and  long  hair  and  to  all 
appearances  was  a  genuine  Indian.  He  then  had  his  hair  cut  and  adopted  a  white 
man's  dress  and  customs. 

After  that  he  was  made  chief  of  scouts  and  accompanied  General  Crook  on 
his  various  expeditions,  and  was  also  with  General  MacKenzie,  General  Merritt 
and  General  Sheridan  at  different  periods.  He  was  with  Crook's  command  in  the 
campaign  which  resulted  in  the  Custer  massacre,  was  on  the  Custer  battlefield 
the  next  morning  after  the  fight  and  saw  the  bodies  of  the  newly  slain  men. 
Grouard  says  Custer  must  have  killed  himself  as  his  body  was  not  harmed.  The 
Indians  will  not  touch  the  body  of  a  suicide.  He  rode  around  their  villages  and 
estimated  that  they  had  nine  thousand  fighting  men.  He  was  with  Merritt  in  the 
Nez  Perce  campaign,  took  a  prominent  part  in  suppressing  the  ghost  dance  and 
Messiah  outbreaks  at  the  Pine  Ridge  Agency,  and  made  all  the  plans  for  the 
arrest  of  Sitting  Bull  which  practically  ended  the  Indian  troubles  of  that  time. 

He  was  given  a  life  position  by  the  United  States  Government  with  a  good 
salary  whether  on  duty  or  not,  but  he  was  too  proud  to  accept  pay  when  he  was 
rendering  no  service,  and  early  in  the  '90s  resigned  and  went  into  business  for 
himself.  He  settled  near  Buffalo,  Wyo.,  engaged  in  ranching  and  mining  and  while 
employed  in  the  latter  occupation  we  made  his  acquaintance.  The  details  of  his 
life  and  adventures  have  been  told  in  an  interesting  volume  written  by  Joe  De 
Barth,  a  well  known  writer  and  newspaper  man  of  Buffalo  where  Grouard  spent 
his  later  years. 


The  name  of  Sacajawea,  enrolled  as  a  pathfinder  on  the  pages  of  the  early 
history  of  the  Northwest,  has  given  an  added  lustre  to  the  womanhood  of  the 
Indian  race.  A  bill  was  introduced  in  the  Wyoming  Legislature  in  February, 
1907,  appropriating  $500  to  mark  the  grave  of  this  remarkable  Indian  girl,  who 
with  singular  fidelity,  keen  insight  and  unsurpassed  endurance  and  bravery,  guided 
the  Lewis  and  Clark  expedition  across  the  western  continent  to  the  Pacific  coast. 
The  same  year  the  North  Dakota  Legislature  appropriated  $15,000  for  a  founda- 
tion and  pedestal  upon  which  to  erect  a  statue  in  her  honor  to  be  erected  at 


Bismarck,  the  design  to  be  made  by  Leonard  Crunille.  Tiiere  is  also  a  project 
being  undertaken  in  Montana  to  erect  a  monument  to  Sacajawea  at  Three  Forks. 
It  is  a  tine  thing  even  after  more  than  a  hundred  years  have  elapsed  that  the  busy, 
money-making  people  of  this  generation  have  at  last  begun  to  recognize  the 
greatness  of  her  achievement  and  desire  to  do  honor  to  her  memory. 

Dr.  Grace  Raymond  Hebard,  of  the  Wyoming  State  University,  in  her  very 
interesting  account  of  Sacajawea's  services,  says:  "It  was  an  epoch-making  jour- 
ney, a  journey  that  moved  the  world  along;  that  pushed  the  boundary  of  the 
United  States  from  the  Mississippi  River  to  the  Pacific ;  that  gave  us  the  breadth 
of  the  hemisphere  from  ocean  to  ocean;  the  command  of  its  rivers  and  harbors; 
the  wealth  of  the  mountains,  plains  and  valleys — a  domain  rich  enough  for  the 
ambition  of  kings." 

Sacajawea  was  a  Shoshone  Indian  girl,  the  wife  of  Toissant  Charbonneau. 
She  was  engaged  as  guide  by  Lewis  and  Clark  when  they  reached  the  Mandan 
Indian  village  where  she  resided.  Her  husband,  Charbonneau  was  first  em- 
ployed as  an  interpreter.  He  had  two  wives,  the  youngest  being  Sacajawea,  who 
was  sold  to  him  as  a  slave  when  about  fourteen  years  old.  The  following  year, 
1805,  she  gave  birth  to  a  child  and  this  child  she  took  with  her  on  the  long  jour- 
ney, strapped  to  her  back.  The  babe  grew  up  to  become  a  skilled  guide  and 
scout  and  was  known  as  "Baptiste."  Before  this  time  Sacajawea  had  been  a 
captive  for  five  years  and  had  accompanied  her  captors  over  much  of  the 
ground  over  which  tlie  expedition  went,  and  so  by  her  knowledge  and  natural 
instinct  in  selecting  trails  she  led  the  explorers  on  their  way.  That  summer  the 
party  camped  on  the  exact  spot,  at  the  junction  of  the  Madison,  Jeft'erson  and 
-Gallatin  rivers,  where  as  a  child  captive  she  had  camped  and  played  years  be- 
fore. She  was  the  one  who  found  the  pass  through  the  mountains  and  saved 
•fhe  party  from  long  wanderings  in  an  unknown  wilderness. 

Many  dramatic  incidents  attended  the  trip.  On  one  occasion  when  crossing 
■a.  swollen  stream  one  of  their  boats  containing  their  valuable  records  was  over- 
turned and  the  records  were  floating  away  when  she  plunged  into  the  dangerous 
stream  and  rescued  the  papers  before  they  sank.  On  another  occasion  she 
found  a  brother  who  had  been  separated  from  the  family  many  years  had  be- 
come an  Indian  chief.  Neither  recognized  the  other  until  the  family  relations 
were  explained  when  they  had  a  most  affectionate  reunion.  The  brother  gave 
much  assistance  to  the  party  in  purchasing  horses  and  supplies.  She  even  assisted 
her  husband  in  interpreting  as  she  knew  some  Indian  dialects  better  than  he  did. 
When  starvation  threatened  them  she  collected  artichokes  and  other  nutritious 
plants  and  seeds  which  kept  them  alive  till  they  reached  places  where  better  food 
could  be  had. 

Lewis  and  Clark  reached  the  coast  December  7,  1805,  and  remained  till 
March,  1806,  when  they  began  to  retrace  their  journey  to  Mandan  which  they 
reached  in  August.     Referring  to  Sacajawea,  Lewis  and  Clark's  Journal  says ; 

"We  found  Charbonneau's  wife  particularly  useful.  Indeed  she  endured  with 
a  patience  truly  admirable  the  fatigues  of  so  long  a  route  incumbered  with  an 
infant  now  only  nineteen  months  old.  She  was  very  observant,  remembering 
locations  not  seen  since  her  childhood. 

"In  trouble  she  was  full  of  resources,  plucky  and  determined.  With  her 
helpless  infant  she  rode  with  the  men,  guiding  us  unerringly  through  mountain 


passes  and  lonely  places.  Intelligent,  cheerful,  resourceful,  tireless  and  faithful, 
she  inspired  us  all." 

No  better  eulogium  could  be  written  of  her  personal  character  of  the  great 
service  she  rendered  not  only  to  the  explorers  but  through  them  to  our  country. 
Her  name  is  said  to  be  derived  from  Sac,  a  canoe  or  raft,  a — the,  jawea,  launcher — 
a  launcher  or  paddler  of  canoes. 

She  was  short  of  stature  and  was  handsome  in  her  girlhood  days.  She  spoke 
French  as  well  as  several  Indian  tongues.  She  lived  to  a  great  age  and  during 
her  whole  life  was  wonderfully  active  and  intelligent.  She  died  at  the  Shoshone 
Agency  near  Lander,  April  9,  1884,  and  was  buried  in  the  burial  ground  of  the 
agency  where  her  grave  was  marked  by  a  small  slab.  The  grave  has  been 
identified  by  her  children  and  grandchildren,  a  fact  ascertained  and  certified  to, 
by  Rev.  John  Roberts,  who  was  a  missionary  at  the  reservation  from  1883  to 
1906.  If  the  State  of  Wyoming  ever  becomes  mindful  of  its  patriotic  and  historic 
obligations  it  will  erect  a  fitting  memorial  monument  to  Sacajawea,  the  brave 
pathfinding  Indian  girl,  and  also  one  to  Chief  Washakie,  the  greatest  of  Indian 
warriors  and  statesmen. 


The  management  of  the  State  Industrial  Convention  held  at  Casper  in  Sep- 
tember, 1905,  offered  a  prize  for  the  best  poem  on  Caspar  Collins.  The  award 
was  made  to  I.  S.  Bartlett  of  Cheyenne,  who  contributed  the  following: 

Ah,  sad  the  need  and  sad  the  day. 
When  Caspar  Collins  rode  away 
And  in  the  battle's  fiery  breath 
Rode  undismayed  and  captured  death. 

With  courage  rare  his  brave  young  heart 
Impelled  to  take  a  soldier's  part 
And  save  his  comrades  on  the  trail. 
He  counted  no  such  word  as  fail. 

He  rode  to  death  nor  cared  to  know 
The  fearful  numbers  of  his  foe, 
How  great  the  odds,  how  sure  his  fate; 
He  rode  to  lead  and  not  to  wait. 

Where  Casper's  church  spires  pierce  the  ambient  air 
And  the  young  city  rises  proud  and  fair. 
Where  children's  voices  mingle  with  the  bells 
And  sound  of  happy  industry,  that  tells 
The  storj'  of  a  new  and  better  life. 
We  turn  our  memory  to  red-blooded  strife, 
The  toilsome  march,  the  ambuscade,  the  yell 
Of  painted  savages  and  battle's  hell. 


That  made  our  pioneers  a  sturdy  race 
Of  iron  blood  and  nerves  of  steel,  to  face 
The   storms  and  dangers  of  the  wilderness, 
A  future  race,  a  future  land  to  bless. 

We  tread  historic  ground;  Casper's  old  fort 
And  old  Platte  Bridge,  were  once  resort 
Of  men  who  braved  the  perils  of  the  trail 
And  perished  there  with  none  to  tell  the  tale; 
Hunters  and  trappers.  Uncle  Samuel's  troops. 
Gold  seekers.  Mormons,  men  in  motley  groups 
With  prairie  schooners,  mounts  and  caravans. 
Trailed  o'er  the  plains;  'twas  in  the  Almighty's  plans 
For   they   were   empire  builders,   who   should   rear 
The  splendid  commonwealth  that  we  find  here; 
Thus  Casper  in  the  path  of  empire  lies 
Bound  to  old  memories  with  historic  ties. 

In  'sixty-five  one  July  day 

Near  Casper's  site  the  old  fort  lay; 

Thousands  of  Indians  swarmed  around. 

The  hills  near  by  with  yells  resound ; 

Few  were  the  garrison  but  brave. 

Hemmed  in  they  sought  all  means  to  save 

Their  little  band ;  but  worse  than  all 

A  wagon  train  was  due  that  day 

And  even  then  was  on  its  way 

From  Sweetwater  with  twenty  men ; 

How  could  they  reach  the  fort?  'twas  then 

A  terror  new  burst  on  their  view ; 

Could  they  be  saved?    Oh,  who  would  dare 

To  fight  2,000  Indians  there? 

Their  force  was  small  and  great  their  fear, 
But  five  and  twenty  volunteer 
To  march  at  once,  to  do  or  die ; 
But  who  will  lead  them  was  the  cry ; 
Old  officers  declined;  too  late 
They  said,  to  challenge  fate. 

Young  Caspar  Collins,  a  mere  boy. 
Stepped  to  the  front  with  courage  grand 
And  volunteered  to  lead  the  band, 
The  mission  to  him  was  a  joy. 

"Trot,  gallop,  charge,"  the  order  came, 
The  troopers  rode  to  death  and  fame, 
They  dashed  across  the  old  Platte  Bridge 


But  met  upon  the  frowning  ridge 
Two  thousand  Indians  swarming  there; 
With  yells  resounding  through  the  air 
They  sprang  from  many  an  ambuscade 
And  overwhelmed  the  cavalcade. 
Hot  raged  the  battle;   it  was  hell 
Transferred  to  earth  and  none  could  tell 
What  man  alone  could  save  his  life 
In  that  unequal,  maddening  strife. 
They  fought  retreating  to  the  fort 
To  reach  there  with  a  good  report, 
But  Collins  turned  to  help  a  man 
Wounded  and  dying  in  the  van, 
Alas  for  him,  alas  the  fate 
That  made  his  effort  all  too  late. 
He  rode  with  courage  undismayed 
Into  the  Indian  bands,  arrayed 
In  mad  revenge;  and  met  his  death 
Fighting  alone  to  his  last  breath. 

Thus  Caspar  Collins  in  the  thrilling  fray 

Died  gloriously  and  left  a  name 

Written  in  letters  bright  as  day 

Upon  the  annals  of  Wyoming  fame. 

While  Casper  Mountain  shadows   fall  at  night, 

Or  the  keen  lances  of  the  morning  light 

Dart  o'er  the  foothills,  or  the  light  breeze  blows 

Along  the  valley  where  the  North  Platte  flows. 

The  name  of  Caspar  Collins  will  abide. 

Written  with  those  who  grandly  strove  and  died 

To  save  their  fellowmen  and  build  a  state 

Of  happy  homes,  proud,  prosperous  and  great. 


No  story  of  the  frontier  days  of  Wyoming  and  the  Mountain  West  would  be 
complete  without  a  sketch  of  the  life  and  experiences  of  Luke  Voorhees,  now 
receiver  of  the  United  States  land  office  at  Cheyenne.  Probably  no  man  living 
could  give  such  a  rich  store  of  personal  experiences  and  adventures  pertaining 
to  the  pioneer  days  of  the  western  wilderness. 

He  was  bom  at  Belvidere,  N.  J.,  November  29,  1838,  and  the  next  year  his 
parents  moved  to  Michigan  where  he  lived  till  1857.  On  March  lOth  of  that 
year,  his  spirit  of  adventure  and  thirst  for  "the  wild,"  led  him  to  start  for 
Leavenworth,  Kan.,  as  he  expresses  it,  "to  hunt  buffalo,  scalp  Indians  and  get 
a  piece  of  land  to  farm." 

He  first  reached  Wyoming  in  October,  1859,  passing  over  what  is  now  Chey- 
enne nearly  eight  years  before  the  town  came  into  existence.     In  a  recent  edition 


of  the  Cheyenne  Leader,  Mr.  Voorhees  gives  a  history  of  the  Overland  Stage 
Company,  organized  in  1857,  which  is  replete  with  thrilling  incidents.  The  main 
historical  facts  are  given  elsewhere  in  this  work.  Speaking  of  the  perils  they 
encountered,  he  relates  the  following  incidents : 


In  March,  1862,  as  if  every  Indian  in  the  country  had  been  especially  instructed 
(the  Shoshones  and  Bannocks  in  the  western  mountains  and  the  Sioux  on  the 
plains),  simultaneously  pounced  upon  every  station  between  Bridger's  Ferry  and 
Bear  River  (about  where  Evanston,  Wyo.,  now  stands).  They  captured  the 
horses  and  mules  on  that  division  of  the  Overland  route.  The  stages,  passengers, 
and  express  were  left  standing  at  stations.  The  Indians  did  not,  on  that  raid, 
kill  anyone  except  at  Split  Rock  on  the  Sweetwater.  Holliday  being  a  little 
stylish  had  brought  out  from  Pennsylvania  a  colored  man  who  had  been  raised 
in  that  state  and  who  could  only  talk  Pennsylvania  Dutch.  The  Indians  when 
they  reached  Split  Rock  called  on  Black  Face,  as  they  called  him,  to  make  heap 
biscuit,  heap  coff  (meaning  coffee),  heap  shug.  Black  Face  said,  nix  come  roush. 
They  then  spoke  to  Black  Face  in  Mexican.  The  colored  man  shook  his  head 
and  said,  nixey.  Whereupon  they  tried  a  little  French  half-breed  talk.  Black 
Face  again  said  "nix  fershta."  In  the  meantime  the  colored  man  seemed  about 
to  collapse.  Things  looked  serious  for  him.  After  a  consultation  they  concluded 
to  skin  him  alive  and  get  heap  rawhide.  Then  they  said  heap  shoot.  So  they 
killed  the  poor  fellow,  helped  themselves  to  the  grub  and  left. 

In  the  year  1857,  Mr.  \'oorhees  made  the  trip  from  Lawrence,  Kan.,  up  the 
Kansas  River  to  the  confluence  of  the  Smoky  Hill  and  Republican  and  thence 
west  on  the  plains  about  one  hundred  and  fifty  miles,  on  a  buffalo  hunt,  and 
later  in  1859,  made  a  trip  up  the  Arkansas  River  via  Bent's  Old  Fort  to  "Pikes 
Peak  or  bust,"  camped  where  Denver  now  stands  and  went  over  the  country 
from  the  South  Platte  to  Pawnee  Buttes.  On  this  trip  he  saw  buffalo  herds 
covering  the  plains  for  200  miles  and  he  says  that  the  word  "millions"  would 
not  express  their  number.  He  saw  one  of  the  greatest  herds  in  the  vicinity  of 
Pine  Bluffs,  about  forty  miles  east  of  Cheyenne,  now  the  Golden  Prairie  district, 
where  many  dry  farmers  are  getting  rich  raising  wheat,  oats  and  live  stock.  He 
also  on  this  trip  passed  over  the  present  site  of  Cheyenne.  His  early  recollec- 
tions of  the  city  which  are  very  interesting  appear  in  other  parts  of  this  history. 
(Jne  incident  is  mentioned  of  a 


An  important  occurrence  was  the  advent  of  a  velocipede  on  January  23, 
1868,  which  the  cowboys  named  a  two-wheeled  jackrabbit.  About  the  same  time 
a  rather  impromptu  wedding  occurred  and  it  was  announced  in  the  Leader  in 
this  way:  "On  the  east  half  of  the  northwest  quarter  of  section  twenty-two 
(22).  township  twenty-one  (21),  north  of  range  eleven  (11)  east,  in  an  open 
sleigh  and  under  open  and  unclouded  canopy  by  the  Rev.  J-  F.  Mason,  James  B., 
only  son  of  John  Cox  of  Colorado,  and  Ellen  C.  eldest  daughter  of  Major  O. 
Harrington  of   Nebraska." 



Speaking  of  the  depredations  of  the  Indians  and  the  hold-ups  by  the  road 
agents  on  the  Overland  route  from  1861  to  1867,  Mr.  Voorhees  refers  as  follows 
to  one  trip  made  by  Ben  HoUiday  and  his  wife :  "In  June,  1863,  Ben  Holliday 
concluded  to  make  a  personal  trip  over  the  line  with  Mrs.  Holliday  from  Sac- 
ramento, Cal.,  to  Atchison,  Kan.  He  telegraphed  his  intention  to  do  so,  with 
strict  orders  that  no  one  but  the  division  superintendents  should  know  of  his 
trip  at  that  time  but  to  have  extra  horses  at  the  relay  stations  so  as  to  make 
record  time.  He  desired  the  utmost  secrecy  for  the  reason  that  he  was  taking 
$40,OCX3  in  gold  with  him  to  New  York  (gold  at  that  time  being  worth  $2.40  in 
greenbacks).  He  had  a  false  bottom  securely  built  in  the  coach  where  he 
packed  the  gold,  so  that  should  he  be  held  up,  no  road  agent  would  suspect 
the  money  being  in  any  other  place  than  the  treasure  box  which  was  always 
carried  in  the  front  boot  of  the  stage.  The  United  States  mail  was  carried  in 
the  hind  boot. 

"At  that  date  it  was  a  rare  thing  to  have  any  of  the  Overland  stages  held  up 
by  any  one  but  the  Indians.  However,  on  this  special  trip  of  Ben  Holliday  it 
really  happened.  For  between  Green  River  stage  station  and  Salt  Wells  on 
Bitter  Creek,  Wyoming,  three  men  suddenly  sprang  from  a  ravine,  each  armed 
with  a  double-barreled  shotgun  and  two  dragoon  revolvers,  calling  to  the  drivers 
to  halt,  which  order  was  quickly  obeyed.  The  road  agents  ordered  all  passen- 
gers— 'hands  up  high!'  On  seeing  a  lady  passenger  in  the  coach  they  said  she 
need  not  get  out  as  they  (the  robbers)  were  gentlemen  of  the  first  water  and 
never  molested  a  lady.  But  they  warned  Mr.  Holliday  to  keep  his  hands  above 
his  head.  During  the  search  through  the  treasure  box  and  mail,  Ben  Holliday's 
heavy,  bristly  mustache  began  tickling  his  nose.  It  became  so  acute  and  unbear- 
able that  he  finally  made  a  move  to  scratch  it.  Instantly  the  road  agent  ordered 
his  hands  up  high.  "My  God !'  said  Ben,  T  must  scratch  my  nose,  I  can't  stand 
it.'  'You  keep  your  hands  up  where  I  told  you,'  said  the  agent,  'I  will  attend 
to  the  nose  business.'  So  he  proceeded  to  rub  Ben's  nose  with  the  muzzle  of 
the  shotgun.     Thus  relieved  he  held  up  his  hands  until  the  search  was  finished. 

However,  the  false  bottom  in  the  coach  was  a  success  for  it  sa\-ed  the  gold 
which  Mr.  Holliday  carried  safely  through  to  New  York  where  he  changed  it 
into  greenbacks  clearing  the  handsome  sum  of  $56,000. 


During  the  winter  of  1866,  Mr.  \'oorhees  made  a  trip  by  stage  from  the 
gold  camp  (now  Helena),  Montana,  to  Salt  Lake  City.  At  that  time  he  had 
been  gold  placer  mining  for  three  years  in  various  camps  in  the  Northwest  and 
had  about  two  hundred  pounds  of  gold  dust  which  he  took  to  an  assay  office  to 
be  run  into  ingots  and  sold  for  currency,  gold  being  worth  then  about  $2.40  in 
greenbacks.  It  was  there  he  met  a  notorious  western  character  known  as  "Yeast 
Powder  Bill"  who  claimed  to  be  a  partner  of  Sam  Clemens  ( ;\Iark  Twain).  He 
said  he  and  Sam  had  been  prospecting  together  for  silver  in  Nevada,  that  Clem- 
ens claimed  to  be  a  pilot  (sagebrush  pilot)  but  they  had  got  lost,  which  proved 
he  was  no  good  and  he  had  quit  him. 


After  he  had  got  cleaned  up,  "Yeast  Powder"  started  for  a  drink.  "They 
brew  a  native  drink  out  of  wheat  and  potatoes  called  'valley  tan.'  I  never  tried 
it  but  those  who  did  said  it  was  the  stuff.  It  would  make  a  man  fight  a  Sierra 
grizzly  bear  or  his  grandmother.  Bill  bought  one  drink  for  fifty  cents  and  it 
created  such  an  increase  in  his  estimate  of  the  mines  that  he  and  Clemens  didn't 
discover,  that  he  bought  another.  The  world  looked  brighter  after  taking  the 
second  drink  and  he  wanted  a  square  meal. 

"He  was  directed  to  Salt  Lake  House.  Bill  laid  off  his  belt  and  two  navy 
revolvers  so  he  could  eat  comfortably.  The  landlord  said  the  dinner  was  $3,  pay 
in  advance.  Yeast  Powder  said  it  seemed  steep  but  he  always  tried  to  play 
the  game  to  the  limit  so  he  paid  the  $3  and  entered  the  dining  room.  The  menu 
was  not  a  printed  one,  but  verbal.  Little  Mollie,  the  waitress,  or  head  waiter, 
was  a  very  good  looking  little  English  (Mormon)  girl.  Bill  told  her  to  call  the 
roll  for  $3  worth  of  grub,  as  he  wanted  to  chaw  worse  than  a  California  grizzly 
wanted  to  chaw  a  Digger  Indian.  Mollie  called  over  the  grub  as  she  thought  of 
it.  She  said  'carrots,  biled  beef,  cabbage,  taters,  turnips,  tea,  hog  meat  and 
beans  (Brigham  cautioned  his  people  to  say  hog  meat,  not  pork),  dried  apple 
pie,  stewed  calves'  liver  and  curlew.'  'Curlew!  what  the  hell  is  curlew?"  asked 
Bill.     Mollie  said  it  was  a  bird  that  could  fly  away  up  and  whistle.     Well,  Bill 

said,  any  d d  thing  that  could  fly  and  whistle  and  would  stay  in  this  country, 

he  did  not  want  to  tackle,  so  he  took  tea,  hog  meat  and  beans,  taters,  calves'  liver 
and  dried  apple  pie." 

Among  Mr.  Voorhees'  thrilling  experiences  with  Indians  and  stage  robbers, 
were  the  incidents  connected  with  his  starting  and  managing  the  Cheyenne  and 
Black  Hills  Stage  Line.  He  organized  the  company  in  February,  1876,  and  soon 
had  stages  running.  At  that  time  the  wonderful  stories  of  the  rich  gold  placers 
of  the  Black  Hills  caused  a  stampede  to  the  Hills,  most  of  the  rush  being  by 
way  of  Cheyenne.  The  magnitude  of  the  enterprise  of  running  a  stage  line  to 
say  nothing  of  its  dangers,  is  shown  by  his  first  orders  for  equipment  of  thirty 
Concord  coaches  and  600  head  of  horses.  The  line  was  kept  up  till  1882,  and  the 
hair-raising  experiences  with  Indians  and  stage  robbers  during  that  time,  could 
fill  a  volume.  He  had  seven  stage  drivers  killed  by  stage  robbers  and  Sioux  In- 

On  giving  up  the  stage  line  business  Mr.  Voorhees  engaged  extensively  in  the 
cattle  business  and  has  made  Cheyenne  his  home.  He  has  occupied  the  position 
of  state  treasurer  and  other  prominent  official  positions  and  is  enjoying  a  green 
old  age,  in  robust  health  and  active  life,  loved  and  respected  by  all. 


The  following  stories  are  told  by  Rev.  W.  B.  D.  Gray,  who  was  one  of  the 
early  missionaries  to  Wyoming.  His  biography  which  appears  in  another  part 
of  this  history  is  replete  in-vthrilling  incidents  and  scenes  of  pioneer  days.  Mr. 
Gray  is  something  of  a  sportsman,  using  the  term  in  its  best  sense.  He  is  one 
of  the  best  riflemen  in  the  state,  and  he  attained  distinction  before  coming  to 
Wyoming,  as  a  bowman,  having  won  several  prizes  at  National  Archery  Tourna- 
ments as  the  best  shot  at  different  distances.  He  is  six  feet  and  one  inch  in  height, 
straight  as  an  Indian  and  weighs  230  pounds.       Many  a  ranchman  in  Wyoming 


and  South  Dakota  has  been  provided  with  venison  as  a  resuh  of  the  preacher's 
rifle  practice. 

The  character  of  the  material  out  of  which  the  nervy,  self-rehant  men  and 
women  of  the  mountain  and  plateaus  of  our  great  Northwest  are  made,  is  shown 
in  the  unusual  brightness  of  the  children  born  and  reared  in  the  high  altitudes 
of  the  Rocky  Mountains,  of  which  the  men  and  women  are  the  finished  product. 
This  is  well  illustrated  by  the  following  incident : 

In  a  little  frontier  village,  nestling  close  under  one  of  the  mighty  Rocky 
Mountain  ranges,  down  which,  through  a  picturesque  canyon,  came  rushing  and 
tumbling  a  beautiful  stream,  a  Christian  lady  gathered  the  children  on  Sunday 
afternoons  to  tell  Bible  stories  and  impart  to  their  eager  ears  some  instruction 
from  the  Holy  Book.  One  Sunday  she  told  the  story  of  the  Good  Samaritan, 
in  which  the  children  were  very  much  interested.  The  next  Sunday  she  asked 
them  if  they  could  remember  what  the  last  lesson  was  about.  Hands  went  up 
in  all  directions.  In  front  of  her  sat  a  little  boy,  who,  in  his  eagerness,  rose  to 
his  feet,  holding  up  both  hands — 

"T  know,  ma'am ;  I  know  all  about  it.  It  was  "The  Hold-up  in  Jericho  Can- 
yon.' " 

"No!  no!  Johnnie,"  replied  the  teacher;  "it  was  a  Bible  story  that  I  told 

"Yes,  ma'am!    I  know  it;  I  can  tell  the  kids." 
So  Johnnie  stood  up  and  told  the  story. 

"Why,  ma'am,"  he  said,  "a  chap  was  goin'  up  the  canyon  and  some  fellers 
came  out  of  the  brush  and  slugged  him,  put  him  to  sleep,  took  away  his  wad, 
and  left  him  lying  in  the  trail  all  covered  with  blood  and  dirt.  Pretty  soon,  a 
doctor  feller  came  along  and  when  he  saw  him,  he  said,  'He  ain't  none  of  my 
medicine,'  and  hit  the  trail  and  went  up  the  canyon. 

"Then  a  preacher  feller  came  along,  and  he  saw  him,  and  said,  T  ain't  goin' 
to  monkey  with  him,'  and  he  hit  the  trail  and  followed  the  doctor. 

"Then  a  cowboy  came  along  on  his  bronc;  just  a  good,  honest  cowboy. 
When  he  saw  him,  he  lit  off  and  felt  him.  He  wa'n't  dead !  He  looked  again. 
They'd  got  his  wad  and  left  him  sure  in  bad  shape.  So  he  pulled  off  his  wipe, 
rubbed  the  blood  off  the  feller's  face,  picked  him  up  and  put  him  on  the  bronc 
and  took  him  up  the  trail  till  he  came  to  a  road  house.  Then  he  called  out,  'Hi, 
Bill !  Come  out  here ;  here's  a  chap  I  found  down  the  canyon.  They've  slugged 
him,  got  his  wad,  and  left  him  in  bad  shape.  You  must  take  him  in  and  take 
care  of  him.  Here's  my  wad  and  if  there  ain't  enough  to  pay  you,  when  I  come 
back  from  the  round-up,  I'll  bring  you  some  more.'  " 

It  was  in  a  region  of  the  Northwestern  country  unsurpassed  for  beauty  and 
magm'ficence  of  scenery.  The  afternoon's  sun  was  slowly  sinking  behind  the 
mountains,  when  suddenly  upon  the  summit  of  one  of  the  foothills  appeared  two 
horsemen,  their  figures  strongly  outlined  against  the  evening  sky.  As  they  stood 
there  the  strokes  of  an  ax  could  be  distinctly  hea*|d  coming  from  a  bunch  of 
timber  in  a  bend  of  the  stream  below.  Evidently  the  sound  attracted  the  at- 
tention of  the  quondam  trappers,  for  after  securing  their  horses  in  a  dense 
thicket  they  made  their  way  noiselessly  to  a  point  where  a  good  view  of  the  op- 
posite bank  could  be  had. 

Before  them  lay  a  secluded  plateau  almost  hidden  by  the  heavy  timber  sur- 


rounding  it.  Close  to  its  edge  a  band  of  rough-looking  men  were  busily  engaged 
in  felling  trees  and  building  a  long,  low  cabin  and  stable  of  heavy  logs.  Near 
by,  almost  hidden  by  underbrush,  could  be  seen  an  opening  into  a  cave  of  no 
mean  proportions,  to  which  the  men  could  retreat  in  case  of  necessity.  Tied  to 
trees  were  a  number  of  horses  saddled  and  bridled  for  instant  use,  and  the  ever 
ready  "Winchesters"  were  close  at  hand.     This  was  the  James'  gang. 

"Thar's  my  game  by  all  that's  lovely,"  whispered  Bill.  "Now  that  I've  run 
'em  down,  let's  get  out  of  here." 

As  the  shadows  of  a  moonless  night  fell  upon  mountain  and  plain  the  two 
men  might  be  seen  cooking  their  supper  over  a  camp  fire.  The  younger  of  the 
two,  evidently  the  leader,  was  a  man  of  medium  size,  with  a  mass  of  long, 
curly,  brown  hair,  black  eyes  and  a  pleasant  face,  dressed  in  a  suit  of  buckskin, 
with  a  soft  felt  hat  placed  jauntily  upon  his  head.  About  his  waist  was  a  belt 
full  of  cartridges,  to  which  was  suspended  a  bowie  knife  and  revolver  of  large 
size,  while  by  his  side  lay  a  rifle  that  showed  signs  of  wear. 

His  companion,  larger  in  size  and  less  attractive  in  feature,  was  similarly 
armed.  The  former,  though  scarcely  thirty  years  of  age,  was  a  gtiide  already 
known  and  respected  in  the  Rocky  Mountain  country,  going  by  the  cognomen 
of  "Young  Bill."  His  known  honesty  and  bravery  had  long  before  attracted 
the  attention  of  those  whose  business  it  was  to  hunt  down  criminals,  and  of  late 
he  had  added  to  his  profession  that  of  "detective";  though  it  was  not  known 
to  any  except  those  who  employed  him.  \Mien  the  hastily  prepared  supper 
v.-as  disposed  of  and' all  traces  of  the  fire  obliterated,  the  elder  man  said  to  his 
companion : 

"Wall,  Bill,  I  don't  know  what  )'er  plans  ar',  but  this  ere  is  gettin'  too  un- 
comfortably hot  to  suit  me,  and  I'm  goin'  to  pull  over  the  divide  and  hunt  more 
congenial  companions.  If  ye  want  ter  gather  in  that  James  gang  lone-handed, 
all  right ;  but  as  fer  me,  I  prefer  to  trap  varmints  which  have  more  'fur'  and  less 

The  hand  of  the  younger  man  dropped  naturally  and  suggestively  to  his 
belt  as  he  softly  replied :  "Ye'll  stay  where  ye  be  and  help  build  me  a  cabin  and 
start  a  ranch  alongside  my  game,  and  then  ye  can  get  out  as  soon  as  ye  please.  I 
ain't  afeared  to  play  this  game  lone-handed  if  I  know  myself." 

Two  years  elapsed.  The  cabin  the  road  agents  built  and  occupied  as  their 
northern  retreat  when  hard  pressed  by  the  officers  of  the  law  still  stands,  but 
thanks  to  "Bill"  and  other  daring  officers,  the  gang  is  broken  up.  Upon  the 
same  plateau  stood  the  detective's  cabin  and  near  it  a  "dugout"  in  which  he  spent 
his  nights  while  hunting  down  the  road  agents.  Midway  between  the  two  cabins 
a  prosperous  town  has  sprtmg  up,  comprising  a  hotel,  blacksmith  shop,  two 
saloons,  and  several  dwellings  known  as  "Black  Canon  City." 

It  was  a  beautiful  day;  our  friend,  the  detective,  was  just  finishing  his  noonday 
meal  when  the  sound  of  a  horse's  footfall  broke  the  stillness,  followed  by  the  usual 
announcement  of  an  arrival:  "Hello,  inside.''  "Hello,  yourself,"  came  the  quick 

"Is  this  town  Black  Canon  City?" 

"You  bet  it  are,  stranger." 

"Do  you  have  any  preaching  hereabouts  ?" 



"I'm  a  preacher  and  would  like  to  make  an  appointment  if  it  is  agreeable  to  the 
citizens  of  this  growing  berg." 

"See  here,  mister,  I  don't  know  how  much  nerve  3-e've  got,  or  how  preachin' 
will  take,  but  I  like  yer  spirit  and  I'll  back  ye  in  this  thing;  and  when  'Bill'  backs 
a  feller  he  don't  have  no  trouble  and  the  thing  goes.  Get  down  and  rest  yer 
saddle  while  yer  eat." 

When  the  physical  necessities  of  the  preacher  had  been  met  the  detective  con- 
tinued: "I  haint  got  much  of  a  cabin,  ye  see,  but  it's  about  as  big  as  any  in  the 
town ;  so  if  ye  can  get  along  with  the  dirt  floor  ye  can  preach  here  and  I'll  rustle 
ye  up  a  crowd.'' 

Thus  began  a  work  for  the  Master  in  one  of  the  outposts  of  the  Rocky 
Mountain  districts.  Later  in  the  season  a  Sunday  School  was  started  in  the 
same  cabin,  to  be  removed  afterward  to  a  little  log  schoolhouse  which  the  settlers 
built.  When  the  day  arrived  for  the  removal  of  the  Sunday  School  from  the 
detective's  cabin,  a  friend  of  the  enterprise  went  to  one  of  the  saloons  and  spoke 
thus : 

"See  here,  fellers,  the  people  of  this  'ere  camp  ar'  goin'  to  start  a  Sunday  School 
today  over  in  the  school  house.  They  are  goin'  over  now ;  money's  scarce  with 
them  and  I  propose  we  give  "em  a  boost." 

"That's  the  talk,"  said  the  saloon  keeper,  "and  this  'ere  shop  is  goin'  to  close 
until  that  ar'  thing  is  over :  we'll  all  go  acrost  and  give  'em  a  starter ;  but  mind 
ye,  boys,  nothin'  smaller  than  'cartwheels'  (dollars)  go  into  the  hat  today." 

The  other  saloon  would  not  be  outdone.  As  a  result  it  was  a  "goodly"  if  not 
"Godly"  crowd  which  filled  the  rear  seats  of  the  little  log  schoolhouse,  and  the 
Sunday  School  had  more  money  that  afternoon  than  ever  before  in  its  history. 

From  these  beginnings,  and  this  Sunday  School,  sprang  a  Congregational 
Church  which  has  had  much  to  do  with  shaping  the  character  of  the  town  and 
nearby  country.  The  detective  still  lives,  honored  and  respected ;  his  cabin  has 
been  destroyed,  but  the  entrance  to  both  his  and  the  James  brothers'  caves  can 
still  be  seen.     The  old  preacher  has  gone  to  his  eternal  reward. 

THE   C0WC0Y'.S    PR.WER 

O  Lord,  I've  never  lived  where  churches  grow : 

I've  loved  creation  better  as  it  stood 
That  day  you  finished  it.  so  long  ago, 

And  looked  upon  your  work  and  called  it  good. 

Just  let  me  live  my  life  as  I've  begun ! 

And  give  me  work  that's  open  to  the  sky; 
Make  me  a  partner  of  the  wind  and  sun, 

And  I  won't  ask  a  life  that's  soft  or  high. 

Make  me  as  big  and  open  as  the  plains ; 

As  honest  as  the  horse  between  my  knees ; 
Clean  as  the  wind  that  blows  behind  the  rains ; 

Free  as  the  hawk  that  circles  down  the  breeze. 


Just  keep  an  eye  on  all  that's  done  and  said; 

Just  right  me  sometimes  when  I  turn  aside; 
And  guide  me  on  the  long,  dim  trail  ahead — 

That  stretches  upward  towards  the  Great  Divide. 

— Author  Unknozmi. 









When  the  Nineteenth  Century  was  in  its  infancy,  the  first  fur  traders  and 
trappers  came  into  the  country  that  now  forms  the  State  of  Wyoming.  From 
that  time  until  1868  the  region  was  known  by  various  names,  such  as  the  "North 
Platte  Country,'  the  ''Sweetwater,"  the  "Wind  River  Valley,"  the  "Big  Horn  Coun- 
try," etc.  Inuring  this  period  of  half  a  century  the  trappers  and  traders  were  the 
only  white  inhabitants  of  the  entire  Rocky  Mountain  country.  Their  occupancy 
was  not  of  a  permanent  character,  as  they  migrated  from  place  to  place  in  pursuit 
of  fur-bearing  animals.  Even  trading  posts  that  one  year  bore  all  the  evidences 
of  stablility  were  abandoned  the  next.  Official  reports  of  Lewis  and  Clark. 
Fremont,  and  other  Government  explorers,  called  attention  to  the  character  and 
possibilities  of  the  Northwest,  but  even  then  years  were  permitted  to  elapse  before 
the  first  actual  settlements  were  attempted  within  the  present  limits  of  the  state. 


"The  L^tah  Handbook  of  History"  says  that  John  Nebeker,  Isaac  Bullock 
and  fifty-three  others  settled  at  Fort  Supply,  in  the  Green  River  Valley,  in 
November,  1853,  ^"d  credits  these  persons  with  being  the  first  actual  settlers 
in  Wyoming.  The  place  where  this  settlement  was  established  was  at  old  Fort 
Bridger,  in  what  is  now  Uinta  County.  Bridger  sold  his  fort  there  to  the  Mor- 
mons, who  in  1855  changed  the  name  of  the  post  to  Fort  Supply,  the  object  being 
to  carry  a  full  line  of  supplies  for  emigrants  on  their  way  to  the  Pacific  coast. 
It  was  abandoned  about  two  years  later,  when  a  detachment  of  United  States 
troops  under  Col.  E.  B.  Alexander  marched  against  the  Mormon  fort,  and  the 


buildings  were  destroyed  by  the  soldiers.     Colonel  Alexander's  command  formed 
part  of  the  Utah  expedition,  commanded  by  Col.  Albert  Sidney  Johnston. 

In  1867  a  party  of  prospectors,  among  whom  were  Henry  Riddell,  Richard 
Grace,  Noyes  Baldwin,  Frank  Marshall,  Harry  Hubbell  and  others  afterward 
known  as  Wyoming  pioneers,  discovered  the  Carisa  lode  and  made  their  first 
locations  at  South  Pass,  in  the  southern  part  of  Fremont  County.  News  of  the 
discovery  of  gold  soon  reached  Salt  Lake  City  and  a  party  of  thirty  men,  under 
the  lead  of  a  man  named  Lawrence,  left  that  place  prepared  to  spend  the  winter 
in  the  new  gold  fields.  On  the  way  to  Wyoming  the  party  was  attacked  by 
Arapaho  Indians,  with  the  result  that  Lawrence  and  one  other  man  were  killed. 
The  others  were  pursued  by  the  savages  for  some  distance,  when  the  Indians 
withdrew,  probably  because  they  were  afraid  to  follow  the  prospectors  into  the 
Shoshone  country. 

South  Pass  City  was  laid  out  in  October,  1867,  and  before  cold  weather  came 
the  town  had  a  population  of  about  seven  hundred  people.  A  sawmill  was  built 
and  a  number  of  houses,  of  the  most  primitive  character,  were  erected.  Then 
the  Atlantic  Ledge,  six  miles  northeast  of  South  Pass  City,  and  Miners  Delight, 
two  miles  northeast  of  the  Atlantic  Ledge,  were  opened  and  there  was  an  influx 
of  gold  seekers  to  those  fields.  Other  mines  were  the  Summit,  King  Solomon's, 
Northern  Light,  Lone  Star  State,  Jim  Crow,  Hoosier  Boy.  Mahomet,  Copper- 
opolis.  Elmira,  Scott  &  Eddy,  and  the  Dakota  Gulch,  on  Willow  Creek,  each 
having  a  population  of  one  hundred  or  more. 

As  these  miners  were  miles  away  from  the  nearest  established  local  govern- 
ment, and  feeling  the  need  of  some  authority  to  enforce  the  laws,  they  established 
a  county  called  "Carter,"  for  W.  A.  Carter  of  Fort  Bridger.  Its  western  boundary 
was  the  present  western  boundary  of  Sweetwater  County  and  it  extended  east- 
ward for  a  distance  of  about  one  hundred  and  thirty  miles.  The  action  of  the 
miners  was  legalized  by  the  Dakota  Legislature  in  a  bill  approved  on  December 
27,  1867,  and  the  county  was  organized  on  January  3.  1868,  with  John  Murphy 
as  the  first  sheriff,  upon  whom  devolved  the  duty  of  maintaining  order  in  a  com- 
munity composed  in  the  main  of  rather  turbulent  individuals,  though  there  were 
some  who  were  always  ready  to  assist  in  enforcing  the  laws. 

About  the  middle  of  February,  1868,  John  Able,  Jeff  Standifer,  H.  A.  Thomp- 
son, L  F.  Staples,  Louis  and  Peter  Brade,  James  Leffingwell,  Frank  McGovern, 
Moses  Sturman,  John  Eaves,  John  Holbrook,  George  Hirst,  the  Alexander  broth- 
ers, William  Matheney,  Christopher  Weaver  and  a  few  others  left  Salt  Lake 
City  and  struggled  through  the  winter  snows,  in  order  to  be  among  the  early 
arrivals  of  that  year  in  the  new  mining  districts.  Colonel  Morrow,  commandant 
at  Fort  Bridger,  heard  of  their  coming  and  published  a  special  order  warning 
such  parties  that  they  must  not  expect  to  purchase  supplies  at  the  fort,  for  the 
reason  that  the  stock  on  hand  there  was  barely  sufficient  to  subsist  the  garrison 
until  traffic  opened  in  the  spring. 

In  April,  1868,  a  new  mining  town  of  about  three  hundred  prospectors  was 
founded  on  Rock  Creek,  some  four  miles  from  South  Pass  City,  in  the  midst 
of  a  gold-bearing  quartz  district,  and  Hamilton,  another  mining  center,  was 
established  about  four  miles  farther  north.  H.  G.  Nickerson  discovered  and 
opened  the  Bullion  mine  at  Lewiston  a  little  later  in  the  year.  Louis  P.  Vidal 
located  the  Buckeye  mine  in  the  early  part  of  the  year  1869. 


In  P'ebruary,  1868,  Warren  &  Hastings  began  the  publication  of  a  newspaper 
called  the  Sweetwater  Miner,  at  Fort  Bridger,  which  circulated  reports  that  had 
a  tendency  to  encourage  immigration.  The  first  merchant  in  the  Wyoming  gold 
fields  was  Worden  Noble.  He , was  born  in  the  State  of  New  York  in  1847  and 
came  to  Fort  Laramie  in  1866  as  a  bookkeeper  for  the  firm  of  Coffee  &  Caney. 
In  the  spring  of  1868  he  opened  a  store  at  South  Pass  City,  which  he  conducted 
for  about  one  year,  after  which  he  was  the  contractor  for  Camp  Stambaugh 
(afterward  a  permanent  post)  for  about  seven  years.  He  then  turned  his  atten- 
tion to  stock  raising,  and  was  one  of  the  county,  commissioners  of  Sweetwater 
County  from  1871  to  1877,  when  he  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Legislative 
Council  of  the  territory. 


One  of  the  most  potent  factors  in  bringing  actual  settlers  into  Wyoming  was 
the  Union  Pacific  Railroad.  In  July,  1867,  the  railroad  company  established 
a  land  office  where  the  City  of  Cheyenne  now  stands  and  began  the  sale  of  lots. 
The  first  house  in  Cheyenne  was  built  about  that  time  by  a  man  named  Larimer. 
Among  the  first  settlers  there  were  J.  R.  Whitehead,  Robert  M.  Beers.  Thomas 
E.  McLeland  and  three  others,  who  came  with  their  families  on  the  same  day. 
In  July.  1867.  the  first  two-story  house  in  the  city  was  commenced  by  J.  R. 

Morton  E.  Post,  another  early  settler  at  Cheyenne,  purchased  two  lots  from 
the  railroad  land  agent  and  then  started  back  to  a  claim  he  had  on  the  Platte 
River,  about  seventy-five  miles  below  Denver.  On  the  way,  and  when  only 
a  few  miles  from  Cheyenne,  he  met  a  man  who  had  discovered  a  coal  mine,  but 
who  was  afraid  to  visit  the  place  because  of  Indians.  Post  agreed  to  accompany 
him  to  the  mine,  which  they  found  only  sixteen  miles  from  Cheyenne  and  staked 
off  their  claim.  In  August.  1867.  Mr.  Post  opened  a  store  on  the  corner  of 
Seventeenth  and  Ferguson  streets  (Ferguson  Street  is  now  Carey  Avenue).  When 
he  bought  his  two  lots  from  the  railroad  company  he  paid  $600  for  them,  and 
before  the  close  of  the  year  sold  part  of  them  for  $5,600.  In  1872  he  was  elected 
one  of  the  county  commissioners  of  Laramie  County,  and  in  1877  he  established 
the  first  quartz  mill  at  Deadwood,  Dakota  Territory.  The  next  year  he  was 
one  of  the  firm  that  opened  the  banking  house  of  Stebbins,  Post  &  Company  at 
Deadwood.  In  1878  he  was  elected  to  the  upper  house  of  the  Wyoming  Legisla- 
ture and  in  1880  was  chosen  delegate  to  Congress.  He  was  reelected  delegate 
in  1882.  and  declined  a  nomination  for  a  third  term  in  i88d. 


When  the  L-nion  Pacific  Railroad  reached  Cheyenne  in  1867,  that  town 
remained  the  terminus  until  work  was  resumed  the  following  spring.  The  new 
town  filled  up  with  outlaws  and  disorderly  characters,  with  which  the  civil 
authorities  seemed  powerless  to  cope.  In  this  emergency  a  number  of  citizens 
got  together  and  organized  a  vigilance  committee.  The  first  act  of  the  com- 
mittee occurred  on  January  11,  1868.  Three  men — drier,  St.  Clair  and  Brown- 
ville — were  under  bonds  to  appear  before  the  court  for  robbery  on  January  14. 


1868.  The}'  were  bound  together  and  a  canvas  fastened  to  them  bearing  their 
names  and  the  following  legend:  "$900  stolen;  $500  returned;  city  authorities 
please  not  interfere  until  10  o'clock  A.  M.  Next  case  goes  up  a  tree.  Beware 
of  the  Vigilance  Committee.'' 

On  the  night  of  the  20th,  Charles  Martin  and  Charles  Morgan  were  hanged 
by  the  committee,  the  former  for  killing  Andrew  Harris  in  a  quarrel  and  the 
latter  for  horse  stealing.  The  summary  punishment  meted  out  to  offenders  by 
the  committee  had  a  salutary  effect  on  the  community,  and  with  the  extension 
of  the  railroad  westward  a  majority  of  the  undesirables  left  the  town.  (See 
chapter  entitled  "The  Story  of  Cheyenne"  for  a  full  account  of  the  vigilance 

During  the  year  1868  the  railroad  was  completed  to  the  western  boundary 
of  the  state,  bringing  with  it  hundreds  of  homeseekers.  By  the  close  of  the 
year  some  enthusiastic  persons  estimated  the  population  of  \\'yoming  at  fifty 
thousand,  or  even  more,  an  estimate  that  proved  to  be  entirely  too  high,  as  was 
shown  by  the  first  authorized  census  the  following  year,  when  the  territorial 
government  was  established. 


In  1865  James  M.  Ashley,  a  member  of  Congress  from  Ohio,  introduced  in 
the  national  House  of  Representatives  a  bill  "to  provide  a  temporary  government 
for  the  Territory  of  Wyoming."  This  was  the  first  move  toward  the  formation 
of  a  new  territory  in  the  Big  Horn  country,  and,  so  far  as  is  shown  by  the  records, 
it  was  the  first  suggestion  of  the  name  "Wyoming"  for  such  a  territory.  The 
word  "Wyoming"  is  said  to  have  been  derived  from  the  Delaware  Indian  name 
"Waugh-mau-wa-ma"  (meaning  large  plains),  a  name  applied  by  them  to  the 
broad,  beautiful  valley  they  once  inhabited  in  Pennsylvania.  The  writer  has 
been  unable  to  ascertain  who  first  proposed  the  name  for  a  territory  in  the  Rocky 
Mountain  region  that  was  never  seen  by  a  Delaware  Indian,  or  how  it  came  to 
be  selected.  In  the  "large  plains"  sense  the  name  is  certainly  applicable  to  the 
State  of  Wyoming.  This  fact  may  have  influenced  Mr.  Ashley,  who  came  from 
a  state  once  claimed  by  the  Delawares,  to  adopt  the  name,  but  that  is  purely  a 
matter  of  conjecture.  The  Ashley  bill  was  referred  to  the  committee  on  terri- 
tories, which  failed  to  report  it  back  to  the  house  for  final  action,  and  there 
the  subject  slumbered  for  more  than  two  years. 

On  September  27,  1867,  the  citizens  of  Cheyenne  and  the  settlers  in  the 
immediate  vicinity  held  a  meeting  at  the  city  hall  to  consider,  among  other  things, 
the  question  of  a  territorial  organization.  H.  M.  Hook  presided  at  this  meeting 
and  J.  R.  Whitehead  was  chosen  secretary.  A  resolution  was  adopted  to  hold 
an  election  for  a  delegate  to  Congress  on  the  second  Tuesday  in  October.  Accord- 
ingly, on  October  8,  1867,  J.  S.  Casement  was  elected  delegate.  He  went  to 
Washington  immediately  after  his  election,  but  was  not  admitted  because  he 
represented  no  organized  territory.  He  was  able,  however,  to  refresh  the  memory 
of  the  committee  on  territories,  with  the  result  that  the  Ashley  hill  was  resur- 
rected and  brought  before  the  house. 

About  the  same  time,  W.  W.  Brookings,  a  member  of  the  Dakota  Legislature, 
introduced  in  that  body  a  memorial  asking  for  the  organization  of  a  territory,  to 


be  called  "Lincoln,''  from  the  southwestern  part  of  Dakota.  The  memorial  was 
adopted  by  the  Legislature  and  forwarded  to  Congress,  but  the  only  effect  it 
had  was  to  indicate  that  the  people  of  Dakota  were  willing  that  the  territory 
should  be  divided.  Early  in  the  year  1868  a  petition  praying  for  a  territorial 
organization  was  presented  to  Congress,  signed  "H.  Latham,  agent  for  the  people 
of  Wyoming."  The  work  of  Mr.  Casement,  the  Brookings  memorial,  and  the 
petition  of  Mr.  Latham  finally  bore  fruit.  The  Ashley  bill,  modified  in  some 
particulars,  passed  the  house  and  was  sent  to  the  senate.  There  a  spirited  dis- 
cussion occurred  over  the  name,  a  number  of  the  senators  favoring  "Cheyenne," 
rather  than  "Wyoming,"  but  in  the  end  the  latter  was  adopted  and  the  bill  "to 
provide  a  temporary  government  for  the  Territory  of  Wyoming"  was  approved 
bv  President  Andrew  Johnson  on  July  25,  1868. 


"Section  i.  Be  it  enacted  by  the  Senate  and  House  of  Representatives  of 
the  United  States  of  America,  in  Congress  assembled :  That  all  that  part  of  the 
United  States  described  as  follows — Commencing  at  the  intersection  of  the 
twenty-seventh  meridian  of  longitude  west  from  Washington  with  the  forty- 
fifth  degree  of  north  latitude,  and  running  thence  west  to  the  thirty-fourth  meri- 
dian of  west  longitude;  thence  south  to  the  forty-first  degree  of  north  latitude; 
thence  east  to  the  twenty-seventh  meridian  of  west  longitude,  and  thence  north 
to  the  place  of  beginning,  be,  and  the  same  is  hereby,  organized  into  a  temporary 
government  by  the  name  of  the  Territory  of  Wyoming ;  Provided,  That  nothing 
in  this  act  shall  be  construed  to  impair  the  rights  of  persons  or  property  now 
pertaining  to  the  Indians  in  said  territory,  so  long  as  such  rights  shall  remain 
unextinguished  by  treatv  between  the  United  States  and  such  Indians ;  Pro- 
\ided  further.  That  nothing  in  this  act  contained  shall  be  construed  to  inhibit 
the  Government  of  the  United  States  from  dividing  said  territory  into  two  or 
more  territories,  in  such  manner  and  at  such  times  as  Congress  shall  deem  con- 
venient and  proper,  or  from  attaching  any  portion  thereof  to  any  other  territory 
or  state. 

"Section  2.  And  be  it  further  enacted.  That  the  executive  power  and  authority 
ill  and  over  said  Territory  of  Wyoming  shall  be  vested  in  a  governor,  who  shall 
hold  office  for  four  years,  and  until  his  successor  shall  be  appointed  and  qualified, 
unless  sooner  removed  by  the  President  of  the  Ignited  States,  with  the  advice 
and  consent  of  the  Senate.  The  governor  shall  reside  within  said  territory,  shall 
be  commander-in-chief  of  the  militia  thereof,  shall  perform  the  duties  and  receive 
the  emoluments  of  superintendent  of  Indian  affairs,  and  shall  approve  all  laws 
passed  by  the  Legislative  Assembly  before  they  shall  take  effect,  unless  the 
same  shall  pass  by  a  two-thirds  vote  as  provided  by  section  six  of  this  act;  he 
may  grant  pardons  for  ofifienses  against  the  laws  of  said  territory,  and  reprieves 
for  offenses  against  the  laws  of  the  United  States,  until  the  decision  of  the  Presi- 
dent can  be  made  known  thereon ;  he  shall  commission  all  officers  who  shall  be 
appointed  to  ofifice  under  the  laws  of  said  territory,  and  shall  take  care  that  the 
laws  be  faithfully  executed. 

"Section  3.  And  be  it  further  enacted.  That  there  shall  be  a  secretary  of 
said  territory,  who  shall  reside  therein  and  hold  his  ofifice  for  four  years,  unless 


sooner  removed  by  the  President  of  the  United  States,  with  the  consent  of  the 
Senate;  he  shall  record  and  preserve  all  the  laws  and  the  proceedings  of  the 
Legislative  Assembly  hereinafter  constituted,  and  all  acts  and  proceedings  of 
the  governor  in  his  executi\e  department ;  he  shall  transmit  one  copy  of  the  laws 
and  one  copy  of  the  executive  proceedings  on  or  before  the  first  day  of  December 
in  each  year  to  the  President  of  the  United  States,  and  at  the  same  time,  two 
copies  of  the  laws  to  the  speaker  of  the  House  of  Representatives  and  the  presi- 
dent of  the  Senate  for  the  use  of  Congress;  and  in  case  of  death,  removal, 
resignation  or  other  necessary  absence  of  the  governor  from  the  territory,  the 
secretary  shall  have,  and  he  is  hereby  authorized  and  required  to  execute  and 
perform,  all  the  powers  and  duties  of  the  governor  during  such  vacancy  or 
absence,  or  until  another  governor  shall  be  appointed  to  fill  such  vacancy. 

"Section  4.  And  be  it  further  enacted,  That  the  legislative  power  and 
authority  of  said  territory  shall  be  vested  in  the  governor  and  Legislative  Assem- 
bly. The  Legislative  Assembly  shall  consist  of  a  council  and  House  of  Repre- 
sentatives. The  council  shall  consist  of  nine  members,  which  may  be  increased 
to  thirteen,  having  the  qualifications  of  voters  as  hereinafter  prescribed,  whose 
term  of  service  shall  continue  two  years.  The  House  of  Representatives  shall 
consist  of  thirteen  members,  which  may  be  increased  to  twenty-seven,  possessing 
the  same  qualifications  as  prescribed  for  members  of  the  council,  and  whose 
term  of  service  shall  continue  one  year.  An  apportionment  shall  be  made  by 
the  governor  as  nearly  equal  as  practicable  among  the  several  counties  or  dis- 
tricts for  the  election  of  the  council  and  the  House  of  Representatives,  giving 
to  each  section  of  the  territory  representation  in  the  ratio  of  their  population 
(excepting  Indians  not  taxed),  as  nearly  as  may  be,  and  the  members  of  the 
council  and  House  of  Representatives  shall  reside  in  and  be  inhabitants  of  the 
districts  for  which  they  may  be  elected,  respectively.  Previous  to  the  first 
election  the  governor  shall  cause  a  census  or  enumeration  of  the  inhabitants  of 
the  several  counties  or  districts  of  the  territory  to  be  taken,  and  the  first  election 
shall  be  held  at  such  times  and  places,  and  be  conducted  in  such  manner  as  the 
governor  shall  appoint  and  direct,  and  he  shall  at  the  same  time  declare  the 
number  of  members  of  the  council  and  House  of  Representatives  to  which  each 
of  the  counties  or  districts  shall  be  entitled  under  this  act.  The  number  of 
persons  authorized  to  be  elected,  having  the  highest  number  of  votes  in  each 
of  the  said  council  districts  for  members  of  the  council,  shall  be  declared  by  the 
governor  duly  elected  to  the  council ;  and  the  person  or  persons  authorized  to 
be  elected  having  the  greatest  number  of  votes  for  the  House  of  Representatives 
equal  to  the  number  to  which  each  county  or  district  shall  be  entitled,  shall  be  , 
declared  by  the  governor  to  be  elected  members  of  the  House  of  Representatives ; 
Provided,  That  in  case  of  a  tie  between  two  or  more  persons  voted  for,  the  gov- 
ernor shall  order  a  new  election  to  supply  the  vacancy  made  by  such  tie  vote. 
And  the  persons  thus  elected  to  the  Legislative  Assembly  shall  meet  at  such 
place  and  on  such  day  as  the  governor  shall  appoint ;  but  thereafter  the  time, 
place  and  manner  of  holding  elections  by  the  people,  and  the  apportioning  the 
representation  in  the  several  counties  or  districts  to  the  council  and  House  of 
Representatives,  according  to  the  population,  shall  be  prescribed  by  law.  as  well 
as  the  dav  of  the  commencement  of  the  regular  sessions  of  the  Legislative  Assem- 


bly:  Jr'rovided,  That  no  one  session  shall  exceed  the  term  of  forty  days,  except 
the  first,  which  may  be  extended  to  sixty  days,  but  no  longer. 

"Section  5.  And  be  it  further  enacted,  That  every  male  citizen  of  the  United 
States  above  the  age  of  twenty-one  years,  and  (including)  persons  who  shall 
have  declared  their  intention  to  become  citizens  of  the  United  States,  who  shall 
have  been  residents  of  the  said  territory  at  the  time  of  the  passage  of  this  act, 
shall  be  entitled  to  vote  at  the  first  and  all  subsequent  elections  in  the  territory, 
and  shall  be  eligible  to  hold  any  office  in  said  territory.  And  the  Legislative 
Assembly  shall  not  at  any  time  abridge  the  right  of  suffrage,  or  to  hold  office, 
on  account  of  race,  color  or  previous  condition  of  servitude  of  any  resident  of 
the  territory;  Provided,  That  the  right  of  suffrage  and  of  holding  office  shall 
be  exercised  only  by  citizens  of  the  United  States,  and  those  who  shall  have 
declared  on  oath  before  a  competent  court  of  record  their  intention  to  become 
such,  and  shall  have  taken  an  oath  to  support  the  Constitution  and  Government 
of  the  United  States. 

"Section  6.  And  be  it  further  enacted.  That  the  legislative  power  of  the 
territory  shall  extend  to  all  rightful  subjects  of  legislation  consistent  with  the 
Constitution  of  the  United  States  and  the  provisions  of  this  act;  but  no  law  shall 
be  passed  interfering  with  the  prirnary  disposal  of  the  soil;  no  tax  shall  be 
imposed  upon  the  property  of  the  United  States,  nor  shall  the  lands  or  other 
property  of  non-residents  be  taxed  higher  than  the  lands  or  other  property  of 
residents,  nor  shall  any  law  be  passed  impairing  the  rights  of  private  property, 
nor  shall  any  unequal  discrimination  be  made  in  taxing  different  kinds  of  prop- 
erty, but  all  property  subject  to  taxation  shall  be  taxed  in  proportion  to  its  value. 
Every  bill  which  shall  have  been  passed  by  the  council  and  House  of  Representa- 
tives of  said  territory  shall,  before  it  becomes  a  law,  be  presented  to  the  governor 
of  the  territorv".  If  he  approves,  he  shall  sign  it;  but  if  not,  he  shall  return  it 
with  his  objections,  to  the  house  in  which  it  originated,  who  shall  enter  the 
objections  at  large  upon  their  journal  and  proceed  to  reconsider  it.  If,  after 
such  reconsideration,  two-thirds  of  that  house  shall  agree  to  pass  the  bill,  it 
shall  be  sent,  together  with  the  objections,  to  the  other  house,  by  which  it  shall 
likewise  be  reconsidered;  and  if  it  be  approved  by  two-thirds  of  that  house  it 
shall  become  a  law.  But  in  all  such  cases  the  votes  of  both  houses  shall  be 
determined  by  yeas  and  nays,  to  be  entered  on  the  journal  of  each  house,  respec- 
tively. If  any  bill  shall  not  be  returned  by  the  governor  within  five  days  (Sundays 
excepted)  after  it  shall  have  been  presented  to  him,  the  same  shall  become  a  law 
in  like  manner  as  if  he  had  signed  it.  unless  the  Assembly,  by  adjournment,  prevent 
its  return,  in  which  case  it  shall  not  become  a  law. 

"Section  7.  And  be  it  further  enacted.  That  all  township,  district  and  county 
officers,  not  herein  otherwise  provided  for,  shall  be  appointed  or  elected,  as  the 
case  may  be.  in  such  manner  as  shall  be  provided  by  the  governor  and  Legislative 
Assembly  of  the  territory.  The  governor  shall  nominate  and,  by  and  with  the 
consent  of  the  council,  appoint  all  officers  not  herein  otherwise  provided  for, 
and  in  the  first  instance  the  governor  alone  may  appoint  all  such  officers,  who 
shall  hold  their  offices  until  the  end  of  the  first  session  of  the  Legislative  Assem- 
bly; and  he  shall  lay  off  the  necessary  districts  for  members  of  the  council  and 
House  of  Representatives,  and  all  other  officers. 

"Section  8.     And  be  it  further  enacted,  That  no  member  of  the  Legislative 


Assembly  shall  hold  or  be  appointed  to  any  office  which  shall  have  been  created, 
or  the  salary  or  emoluments  of  which  shall  have  been  increased  while  he  was 
a  member,  during  the  term  for  which  he  was  elected,  and  for  one  year  after  the 
expiration  of  such  temi;  and  no  person  holding  a  commission  or  appointment 
under  the  United  States,  except  postmasters,  shall  be  a  member  of  the  Legislative 
Assembly,  or  shall  hold  any  office  under  the  government  of  said  territory. 

"Section  9.  And  be  it  further  enacted,  That  the  judicial  power  of  said  terri- 
tory shall  be  vested  in  a  Supreme  Court,  District  courts,  Probate  courts  and  justices 
of  the  peace.  The  Supreme  Court  shall  consist  of  a  chief  justice  and  two  asso- 
ciate justices,  and  two  of  whom  shall  constitute  a  quorum,  and  who  shall  hold 
a  term  at  the  seat  of  government  of  said  territory  annually,  and  they  shall 
hold  their  offices  for  four  years,  unless  sooner  removed  by  the  President  of  the 
United  States.  The  said  territory  shall  be  divided  into  three  judicial  districts 
and  a  District  Court  shall  be  held  in  each  of  the  said  districts  by  one  of  the 
justices  of  the  Supreme  Court,  at  such  time  and  place  as  may  be  prescribed  by 
law;  and  said  judges  shall,  after  their  appointments,  respectively,  reside  in  the 
districts  which  shall  be  assigned  them.  The  jurisdiction  of  the  several  courts 
herein  provided  for,  both  appellate  and  original,  and  that  of  the  Probate  courts 
and  of  the  justices  of  the  peace,  shall  be  limited  by  law :  Provided,  That  justices 
of  the  peace  shall  not  have  jurisdiction  of  any  matter  in  controversy  when  the 
title  or  boundaries  of  land  may  be  in  dispute,  or  where  the  debt  or  sum  claimed 
shall  exceed  one  hundred  dollars ;  and  the  said  Supreme  and  District  courts, 
respectively,  shall  possess  chancery  as  well  as  common  law  jurisdiction  and 
authority  for  the  redress  of  all  wrongs  committed  against  the  Constitution  oi* 
laws  of  the  United  States  or  of  the  territory  affecting  persons  or  property. 
Each  District  Court,  or  the  judge  thereof,  shall  appoint  its  clerk,  who  shall  also 
be  register  in  chancery,  and  shall  keep  his  office  where  the  court  may  be  held. 
Writs  of  error,  bills  of  exception,  and  appeals  shall  be  allowed  in  all  cases  from 
the  final  decisions  of  said  District  courts  to  the  Supreme  Court  under  the  regu- 
lations as  may  be  prescribed  by  law,  but  in  no  case  removed  to  the  Supreme 
Court  shall  trial  by  jury  be  allowed  in  said  court.  The  Supreme  Court,  or  the 
justices  thereof,  shall  appoint  its  own  clerks,  and  every  clerk  shall  hold  his 
office  at  the  pleasure  of  the  court  for  which  he  shall  have  been  appointed.  Writs 
of  error  and  appeal  from  the  final  decision  of  the  Supreme  Court  shall  be  allowed 
and  may  be  taken  to  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United  States  in  the  same  manner 
and  under  the  same  regulations  as  from  the  Circuit  courts  of  the  United  States, 
where  the  value  of  property  or  the  amount  in  controversy,  to  be  ascertained  by 
the  oath  or  affirmation  of  either  party,  or  other  competent  witness,  shall  exceed 
one  thousand  dollars :  and  each  of  the  said  District  courts  shall  have  and  exercise 
the  same  jurisdiction  in  all  cases  arising  under  the  Constitution  and  laws  of  the 
United  States  as  is  vested  in  the  Circuit  Court  and  District  courts  of  the  United 
States;  and  the  said  Supreme  and  District  courts  of  the  said  territory,  and  the 
respective  judges  thereof,  shall  and  may  grant  writs  of  habeas  corpus  in  all  cases 
in  which  the  same  are  grantable  by  the  judges  of  the  United  States  in  the  District 
of  Columbia  :  and  the  first  six  days  of  every  term  of  said  courts,  or  so  much 
thereof  as  shall  be  necessary,  shall  be  appropriated  to  the  trial  of  causes  arising 
under  said  Constitution  and  laws ;  and  writs  of  error  and  appeal  in  all  such  cases 
shall  be  made  to  the  Supreme  Court  of  said  territory,  the  same  as  in  other  cases. 


The  said  clerk  shall  receive  in  all  such  cases  the  same  fees  which  the  clerks  of 
the  District  courts  of  Dakota  Territory  now  received  for  similar  services. 

"Section  lo.  And  be  it  further  enacted,  That  there  shall  be  appointed  an 
attorney  for  said  territory,  who  shall  continue  in  office  for  four  years,  unless 
sooner  removed  by  the  President  with  the  consent  of  the  Senate,  and  who  shall 
receive  the  same  fees  and  salary  as  is  now  received  by  the  attorney  of  the  United 
States  for  the  Territory  of  Dakota.  There  shall  also  be  a  marshal  for  the  terri- 
tory appointed,  who  shall  hold  his  office  for  four  years,  unless  sooner  removed 
by  the  President  with  the  consent  of  the  Senate,  and  who  shall  execute  all 
processes  issuing  from  the  said  courts  when  exercising  their  jurisdiction  as  Cir- 
cuit and  District  courts  of  the  United  States;  he  shall  perform  his  duties,  be 
subject  to  the  same  regulations  and  penalties,  and  be  entitled  to  the  same  fees 
as  the  marshal  of  the  District  Court  of  the  United  States  for  the  present  Terri- 
tory of  Dakota,  and  shall,  in  addition,  be  paid  two  hundred  annually  as  compen- 
sation for  extra  services. 

"Section  ii.  And  be  it  further  enacted.  That  the  governor,  secretary,  chief 
justice  and  associate  justices,  attorney  and  marshal  shall  be  nominated,  and,  by 
and  with  the  consent  of  the  Senate,  appointed  by  the  President  of  the  United 
States.  The  governor  and  secretary  to  be  appointed  as  aforesaid  shall,  before 
they  act  as  such,  respectively,  take  an  oath  or  affirmation  before  the  district 
judge,  or  some  justice  of  the  peace  in  the  limits  of  said  territory  duly  authorized 
to  administer  oaths  and  affirmations  by  the  laws  now  in  force  therein,  or  before 
the  chief  justice  or  some  associate  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  of  the  United 
States,  to  support  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States,  and  faithfully  to  dis- 
charge the  duties  of  their  respective  offices,  which  said  oaths  when  so  taken  shall 
be  certified  by  the  person  by  whom  the  same  shall  have  been  taken ;  and  such 
certificates  shall  be  received  and  recorded  by  the  secretary  among  the  executive 
proceedings,  and  the  chief  justice  and  associate  justices,  and  all  other  civil 
officers  in  said  territory,  before  they  act  as  such,  shall  take  a  like  oath  or  affirma- 
tion before  the  governor  or  secretary,  or  some  judge  or  justice  of  the  peace  of 
the  territory,  who  may  be  duly  commissioned  and  qualified,  which  said  oath  or 
affirmation  shall  be  certified  and  transmitted  by  the  person  taking  the  same  to 
the  secretary  to  be  recorded  by  him  as  aforesaid,  and  afterwards  the  like  oath  or 
affirmation  shall  be  taken,  certified  and  recorded,  in  such  manner  and  form  as 
may  be  prescribed  by  law.  The  governor  shall  receive  an  annual  salary  of  $2,000 
as  governor  and  $1,000  as  superintendent  of  Indian  afifairs;  the  chief  justice  and 
associate  justices  shall  each  receive  an  annual  salary  of  $2,500,  and  the  secretary 
shall  receive  an  annual  salary  of  $i,Soo.  The  said  salaries  shall  be  payable 
quarter-yearly  at  the  treasury  of  the  United  States.  The  members  of  the 
Legislative  Assembly  shall  be  entitled  to  receive  $4  each  per  day  during  their 
attendance  at  the  sessions  thereof,  and  $3  for  every  twenty  miles'  travel  in 
going  to  and  returning  from  the  said  sessions,  estimating  the  distance  by  the 
nearest  traveled  route.  There  shall  be  appropriated  annually  the  sum  of  $1,000, 
to  be  expended  by  the  governor  to  defray  the  contingent  expenses  of  the  terri- 
tory. There  shall  also  be  appropriated  annually  a  sufficient  sum,  to  be  expended 
by  the  secretary,  and  upon  an  estimate  to  be  made  by  the  secretary  of  the  treasury 
of  the  United  States,  to  defray  the  expenses  of  the  Legislative  Assembly,  the 
printing  of  the  laws,  and  other  incidental  expenses ;  and  the  secretary  of  the  ter- 


ritory  shall  annually  account  to  the  secretatry  of  the  treasury  of  the  United 
States  for  the  manner  in  which  the  aforesaid  sum  shall  have  been  expended. 

"Section  12.  And  be  it  further  enacted,  That  the  Legislative  Assembly  of 
the  Territory  of  Wyoming  shall  hold  its  first  session  at  such  time  and  place  in 
said  territory  as  the  governor  thereof  shall  appoint  and  direct ;  and  at  said 
first  session,  or  as  soon  thereafter  as  they  shall  deem  expedient,  the  governor 
and  Legislative  Assembly  shall  proceed  to  locate  and  establish  the  seat  of  govern- 
ment for  said  territory  at  such  place  as  they  may  deem  eligible ;  which  place, 
however,  shall  thereafter  be  subject  to  be  changed  by  the  said  governor  and 
Legislative  Assembly. 

"Section  13.  And  be  it  further  enacted,  That  a  delegate  to  the  House  of 
Representatives  of  the  United  States,  to  serve  during  each  Congress  of  the  United 
States,  may  be  elected  by  the  voters  qualified  to  elect  members  of  the  Legislative 
Assembly,  who  shall  be  entitled  to  the  same  rights  and  privileges  as  are  exercised 
and  enjoyed  by  the  delegates  from  the  several  other  territories  of  the  United 
States  in  the  said  House  of  Representatives.  The  first  election  shall  be  held 
at  such  time  and  places,  and  conducted  in  such  manner,  as  the  governor  shall 
appoint  and  direct ;  and  at  all  subsequent  elections,  the  time,  place  and  manner 
of  holding  elections  shall  be  prescribed  by  law.  The  person  having  the  greatest 
number  of  votes  of  the  qualified  electors  as  hereintofore  provided,  shall  be 
declared  by  the  governor  to  be  elected,  and  a  certificate  thereof  shall  be  accord- 
ingly given. 

"Section  14.  And  be  it  further  enacted.  That  sections  numbered  sixteen  and 
thirty-six  in  each  township  in  said  territory  shall  be,  and  the  same  are  hereby, 
reserved  for  the  purpose  of  being  applied  to  public  schools  in  the  state  or  states 
hereafter  to  be  erected  out  of  the  same. 

"Section  15.  And  be  it  further  enacted.  That  temporarily  and  until  other- 
wise provided  by  law  the  governor  of  said  territory  may  define  the  judicial 
districts  of  said  territory,  and  assign  the  judges  who  may  be  appointed  for  the 
said  territory  to  the  several  districts,  and  also  appoint  the  times  and  places  of 
holding  courts  in  the  several  counties  or  subdivisions  in  such  of  said  judicial 
districts  by  proclamation  to  be  issued  by  him ;  but  the  Legislative  Assembly,  at 
their  first  session,  may  organize,  alter  or  modify  such  judicial  districts  and 
assign  the  judges  and  alter  the  times  and  places  of  holding  the  courts  as  to  them 
shall  seem  proper  and  convenient. 

"Section  16.  And  be  it  further  enacted.  That  the  Constitution  and  all  laws 
of  the  United  States  which  are  not  locally  inapplicable,  shall  have  the  same 
force  and  efifect  within  the  said  Territory  of  \^'yoming  as  elsewhere  within  the 
LTnited  States. 

"Section  17.  And  be  it  further  enacted.  That  this  act  shall  take  efifect  from 
and  after  the  time  when  the  executive  and  judicial  officers  herein  provided  for 
shall  have  been  duly  appointed  and  qualified :  Provided,  That  all  general  terri- 
torial laws  of  the  Territory  of  Dakota  in  force  in  any  portion  of  said  Territory 
of  Wyoming  at  the  time  this  act  shall  take  effect  shall  be  and  continue  in  force 
throughout  the  said  territory  until  repealed  by  the  legislative  authority  of  said 
territory,  except  such  laws  as  relate  to  the  possession  or  occupation  of  mines 
or  mining  claims." 



Several  months  elapsed  after  the  passage  of  the  above  act  before  the  Terri- 
tory of  Wyoming  was  organized.  The  reasons  for  this  delay,  as  well  as  the 
conditions  then  existing  in  the  territory,  are  thus  set  forth  in  the  message  of 
Governor  A.  J.  Faulk  to  the  Territorial  Legislature  of  Dakota  which  assembled 
in  December,  1868: 

"The  courts  have  been  open  for  the  redress  of  wrongs  and  found  adequate, 
except  perhaps  in  that  portion  of  the  territory  known  in  our  statutes  as  Laramie 
and  Carter  counties.  There,  in  those  recently  organized  counties,  on  account  of 
their  remoteness  from  the  established  judicial  districts  of  the  territory,  a  state 
of  society  bordering  on  anarchy  has  for  a  time  existed ;  and  which,  from  unavoid- 
able circumstances,  has  been  temporarily  and  imperfectly  relieved  by  the  action 
of  the  Legislature  during  its  last  session,  by  the  passage  of  an  act  embracing 
those  counties  within  the  boundaries  of  the  Second  Judicial  District  and  author- 
izing his  honor,  the  chief  justice,  to  hold  a  term  of  court  at  the  City  of 

"Owing  to  the  rich  discoveries  of  gold  and  other  valuable  minerals  in  that 
vicinity,  and  the  construction  of  the  Union  Pacific  Railroad  through  the  southern 
portion  of  those  counties,  a  large  population  was  soon  collected,  which  embraced, 
among  others,  many  turbulent  and  lawless  individuals,  who  were  practically 
beyond  the  control  of  civil  law,  and  whose  crimes  were  of  such  a  startling  char- 
acter as  to  compel  the  better  class  of  citizens  to  resort  to  measures  deemed 
unavoidably  necessary  for  the  protection  of  society,  to  reduce  such  refractory 
spirits  to  submission.  The  authority  exercised  under  such  circumstances,  by 
vigilance  committees,  finds  many  apologists — but  to  my  judgment  it  is  greatly 
to  be  deprecated — and  it  is  most  earnestly  hoped  that  the  time  is  past  when  a 
resort  to  such  measures  can  be  in  any  degree  palliated  or  justified. 

"In  my  last  annual  message  I  alluded  to  this  subject  and  favored  on  that 
occasion  the  organization  of  those  counties,  by  an  act  of  Congress,  into  separate 
territory  as  the  only  practicable  or  effectual  remedy  for  existing  and  apprehended 
social  evils.  In  this  I  was  cordially  sustained  by  the  Legislature  and  by  the 
unanimous  voice  of  the  people.  In  accordance  with  our  wishes,  an  act  creating 
a  temporary  government  for  Wyoming,  which  embraced  those  two  counties,  was 
passed  by  Congress  and  approved  July  25,  1868,  but,  unfortunately,  has  not  yet 
gone  into  practical  operation,  on  account  of  the  failure  of  Congress  to  make 
the  necessary  appropriation  to  defray  the  expenses,  and  the  non-appointment 
and  confirmation  of  territorial  officers.  This  evil,  however,  is  but  tempor.-iry. 
But  a  short  time  can  yet  elapse  until  the  machinery  of  a  separate  government 
will  be  in  full  operation  in  Wyoming,  when,  through  the  regular  application 
of  the  civil  laws,  faithfully  and  speedily  administered,  crime  will  be  suppressed 
and  the  law-abiding  citizens  will  finally  be  relieved  from  the  social  disorders 
which  have  afflicted  them.  Under  such  auspicious  circumstances,  in  view  of  the 
railroad  facilities  possessed  by  the  territory,  and  the  vast  beds  of  coal  and 
deposits  of  precious  metals,  which  ha\e  already  been  developed,  we  may 
reasonably  anticipate  for  Wyoming  a  career  of  prosperity  which  Eastern  Dakota, 
with  all  its  advantages,  might  well  envy." 



The  session  of  Congress  which  began  in  December,  1868,  remedied  the 
omission  of  the  preceding  one  and  made  the  necessary  appropriations  for  the 
inauguration  of  the  territorial  government  of  Wyoming.  Early  in  the  year 
1869,  the  following  territorial  officers  were  appointed  by  President  Grant:  John 
A.  Campbell,  governor;  Edward  M.  Lee,  secretary;  Joseph  M.  Carey,  United 
States  attorney;  Silas  Reed,  surveyor-general;  Edgar  P.  Snow,  assessor  of  inter- 
nal revenue;  Thomas  Harlan,  collector  of  internal  revenue;  Charles  C.  Crowe, 
register  of  the  land  office;  Frank  Wolcott,  receiver  of  public  moneys;  John  W. 
Donnellan,  treasurer;  Benjamin  Gallagher,  auditor;  John  H.  Howe,  chief  justice; 
William  T.  Jones  and  John  W.  Kingman,  associate  justices  ;  Church  Howe,  United 
States  marshal. 

The  governor  and  secretary  took  the  oath  of  office  on  April  15,  1869,  and 
the  justices  of  the  territorial  Supreme  Court  on  the  19th  of  the  month  following. 
The  latter  date  really  marks  the  beginning  of 

Campbell's  administr.\tion 

John  A.  Campbell,  the  first  governor  of  the  Territory  of  Wyoming,  was 
born  at  Salem,  Ohio,  October  8,  1835.  After  attending  the  public  schools  in 
his  native  town  he  learned  the  newspaper  business  and  at  the  breaking  out  of 
the  Civil  war  was  employed  as  an  editorial  writer  on  the  Cleveland  (Ohio) 
Leader.  In  April,  1861,  he  enlisted  as  a  private,  was  promoted  to  second  lieu- 
tenant and  assigned  to  duty  on  the  stafif  of  Gen.  A.  D.  McCook.  On  November 
26.  1862.  he  was  promoted  to  major  and  assistant  adjutant-general,  and  from 
1863  to  the  close  of  the  war  he  served  on  the  stafif  of  Gen.  John  M.  Schofield. 
Among  the  engagements  in  which  he  participated  were  Rich  Mountain,  Shiloh, 
Perryvflle,  Stone's  River,  most  of  the  actions  incident  to  the  Atlanta  campaign 
in  1864,  Franklin,  Nashville  and  a  number  of  minor  skirmishes.  In  1865  he 
was  promoted  to  colonel  and  brevet  brigadier-general.  At  the  close  of  the  war 
he  was  offered  a  commission  in  the  regular  army,  but  declined.  He  then  served 
as  assistant  secretary  of  war  until  appointed  governor  of  Wyoming  and  super- 
intendent of  Indian  affairs  in  1869.  As  the  first  governor,  he  organized  the 
territorial  government,  established  the  first  judicial  districts,  etc.  In  1873  he 
was  reappointed  for  a  second  term  and  served  as  governor  until  1875,  when 
he  resigned  to  accept  the  appointment  of  third  assistant  secretary  of  state.  Later 
in  the  same  year  he  accepted  the  consulship  to  Basle,  Switzerland,  in  the  hope 
that  a  change  of  climate  would  prove  beneficial  to  his  health.  But  he  found  the 
climate  of  Switzerland  too  severe  and  in  a  short  time  returned  to  the  I'nited 
States.    His  death  occurred  on  July  15,  1880.  in  Washington,  D.  C. 

On  May  19,  1869,  the  day  the  territorial  justices  qualified.  Governor  Camp- 
bell issued  his  first  proclamation,  dividing  the  territory  into  three  judicial  dis- 
tricts, and  fixing  the  times  and  places  of  holding  courts  therein.  (See  chapter 
on  the  Bench  and  Bar.)  His  next  oflficial  act  was  to  order  a  census  of  the 
territory  taken  in  accordance  with  section  4  of  the  organic  act.  This  order 
was  issued  on  May  28,  1869,  but  the  marshal  met  with  serious  delay,  on  account 
of  the  failure  of  some  of  the  enumerating  officers  to  perform  their  duties,  and 
the  census  was  not  completed  until  the  30th  of  July. 



Another  proclamation  by  Governor  Campbell,  issued  on  August  3,  i86g,  called 
an  election  for  delegates  to  Congress  and  members  of  the  Territorial  Legisla- 
ture, said  election  to  be  held  on  Thursday,  September  2,  1869.  The  proclamation 
also  divided  the  territory  into  council  and  representative  districts.  Laramie 
County  constituted  the  first  council  district,  Albany  and  Carbon  counties  the 
second,  and  Carter  County  the  third.  Each  district  was  directed  to  elect  three 
members  of  the  upper  branch  of  the  Legislature.  The  representatives  were 
apportioned  as  follows :  Territory  at  large,  one ;  Laramie  County,  four ;  Albany 
County,  three;  Carbon  County,  one;  Carter  County,  three;  that  portion  of  the 
territory  taken  from  Utah  and  Idaho,  one. 

At  the  election  the  total  number  of  votes  cast  was  5,266.  For  delegate  to 
Congress,  Stephen  F.  Nuckolls  received  3,930  and  W.  W.  Corlett  received  1,965. 
Members  of  the  council— T.  D.  Murrin,  James  R.  Whitehead,  T.  W.  Poole,  W. 
H.  Bright,  W.  S.  Rockwell,  George  Wardmen,  Frederick  Laycock,  James  W. 
Brady  and  George  Wilson.  Representatives — J.  C.  Abney,  Posey  S.  Wilson. 
Howard  Sebree,  Herman  Haas,  Louis  Miller,  J.  N.  Douglas,  William  Herrick, 
Benjamin  Sheeks.  James  Menefee,  J.  C.  Strong,  John  Holbrook,  J.  M.  Freeman 
and  S.  M.  Curran. 

Stephen  F.  Nuckolls,  the  first  delegate  to  Congress,  was  born  in  Grayson 
County,  Virginia,  August  16,  1825.  About  the  time  he  v,-as  twenty-one  years 
of  age  he  went  to  Missouri  and  in  1854  removed  to  Nebraska,  where  he  was 
one  of  the  founders  of  Nebraska  City,  and  was  elected  to  the  Territorial  Legis- 
lature. While  in  ]\Iissouri  and  Nebraska  he  was  engaged  in  mercantile  pursuits, 
but  in  i860  went  to  Denver,  where  he  was  interested  in  mining  operations.  After 
a  short  residence  in  Denver,  he  went  to  New  York  and  remained  there  until 
1867.  when  the  call  of  the  West  brought  him  to  Wyoming.  Mr.  Nuckolls  was 
a  man  of  good  education  and  during  his  one  term  as  delegate  was  infiuentia! 
in  securing  the  enactment  of  laws  to  promote  the  material  interests  of  Wyoming. 


On  September  22.  1869,  Governor  Campbell  issued  a  proclamation  convening 
the  Legislative  ."Assembly  "in  the  City  of  Cheyenne,  on  the  12th  day  of  October 
next."  Pursuant  to  this  proclamation,  the  members  elect  of  the  two  branches 
of  the  Legislature  assembled  in  Cheyenne  on  Tuesday,  October  12,  1869.  The 
council  organized  by  electing. W.  H.  Bright,  president;  Edward  Orpen.  secretary; 
Mark  Parrish,  assistant  secretary;  J.  R.  Rockwell,  enrolling  clerk;  William  B. 
Hines,  engrossing  clerk ;  C.  FT.  IMoxley,  sergeant  at  arms. 

In  the  House  of  Representatives  S.  M.  Curran,  of  Carbon  County,  was 
chosen  speaker :  L.  L.  Bedell,  chief  clerk ;  William  C.  .Stanley,  assistant  clerk : 
George  E.  Talpey,  enrolling  clerk  ;  E.  ^IcEvena,  engrossing  clerk  :  \\'illiam  Baker, 
sergeant  at  arms. 

Governor  Campbell  delivered  his  first  message  to  a  joint  session  of  the  two 
houses  on  the  i.^th.  In  it  he  reviewed  what  had  been  done  in  the  establishment 
of  the  territorial  srovernment,  the  trouble  with  the  Indians  in  the  ^^'infl  River 


X'alley  and  the  mining  settlements,  and  recommended  the  enactment  of  a  militia 
law  for  the  better  protection  of  the  frontier.  On  December  8,  1869,  the  gov- 
ernor approved  a  memorial  asking  Congress  to  establish  a  penitentiary  at  Laramie 
City,  and  to  appropriate  for  that  purpose  a  sum  not  less  than  sixty  thousand 
dollars.  The  same  day  he  approved  an  act  providing  for  the  acquisition  of  a 
site  for  the  prison  at  or  near  Laramie  City.  The  laws  of  Dakota  Territory  were 
repealed  on  December  10,  1869,  so  far  as  they  applied  to  Wyoming;  the  name 
of  Carter  County  was  changed  to  Sweetwater ;  the  County  of  Uinta  was  estab- 
lished and  the  county  seat  temporarily  located  at  Fort  Bridger;  and  a  law  was 
enacted  giving  women  the  right  to  vote  and  hold  oiSce.  The  Legislature  was  in 
session  for  sixty  days.  Concerning  its  work  it  has  been  said :  "The  first  Legis- 
lature adopted  and  perfected  a  code  which,  with  the  example  of  the  several  new 
territories  to  guide  them,  was  an  admirable  foundation  on  which  to  construct 
a  perfect  state  in  the  future.  Had  no  omissions  been  made,  there  need  have 
been  no  more  legislation.'' 

Probably  the  most  important  acts  of  the  session  were  those  establishing  a 
public  school  system,  providing  for  the  opening  of  certain  territorial  highways, 
and  the  adoption  of  the  civil  and  criminal  codes  above  mentioned. 


At  the  opening  of  the  session  Governor  Campbell  submitted  a  design  for  a 
territorial  seal.  On  December  9.  1869,  he  approved  a  bill  for  a  seal,  the  design 
for  which  was  that  proposed  by  him,  with  some  modifications.  As  described  in 
the  act,  the  seal  was  to  consist  of  "a  Norman  shield  on  the  upper  half  of  which 
is  emblazoned  a  mountain  scene,  with  a  railroad  train,  the  sun  appearing  above 
the  horizon,  the  figures  '1868'  below  the  middle  point  of  the  top  of  the  shield. 
On  the  first  quarter  below,  on  a  white  ground,  a  plow,  a  pick,  a  shovel  and  a 
shepherd's  crook ;  on  the  next  quarter,  namely :  the  lower  part  of  the  shield,  on  a 
red  ground,  an  arm  upholding  a  drawn  sword ;  the  shield  to  be  surmounted  by 
the  inscription  'Cedant  Arma  Toga,'  and  the  entire  design  surrounded  by  the 
words  'Territory  of  Wyoming,  Great  Seal.'  " 


The  second  session  of  the  Legislative  Assembly  began  at  Cheyenne  on  Tues- 
day, November  7,  1871,  and  continued  until  Saturday,  December  i6th.  The  terri- 
torial officers  at  this  time  were  as  follows :  John  A.  Campbell,  governor ;  Herman 
Glafcke.  secretary;  Joseph  W.  Fisher,  chief  justice;  John  W.  Kingman  and 
Joseph  M.  Carey,  associate  justices ;  Edward  P.  Johnson,  attorney ;  Church  Howe, 
United  States  marshal ;  William  T.  Jones,  delegate  in  Congress. 

The  principal  acts  of  this  session  were  those  providing  for  the  organization 
of  the  territorial  militia :  exempting  certain  property  from  sale  upon  execution 
or  other  process;  lien  laws  for  the  protection  of  miners  and  mechanics;  an  act 
for  the  protection  of  live  stock ;  the  establishment  of  a  territorial  library ;  pro- 
viding for  the  opening  of  a  number  of  wagon  roads  ;  and  a  memorial  was  addressed 
to  Congress  asking  for  the  establishment  of  postal  routes  through  the  territory. 



As  the  sessions  of  the  Legislative  Assembly  were  held  biennially,  the  third 
Assembly  convened  on  Thursday,  November  4,  1873.  The  principal  territorial 
officials  at  that  time  were  John  A.  Campbell,  governor;  Jason  B.  Brown,  secre- 
tary; Joseph  W.  Fisher,  chief  justice;  Joseph  M.  Carey  and  E.  A.  Thomas, 
associate  justices;  Edward  P.  Johnson,  attorney;  Frank  Wolcott,  marshal;  VV. 
R.  Steele,  delegate  in  Congress. 

This  was  the  last  session  of  the  Assembly  under  Governor  Campbell's  admin- 
istration. It  was  in  session  for  forty  days  and  enacted  a  number  of  laws  amenda- 
tory of  those  passed  by  previous  Legislatures.  Acts  were  also  passed  regulating 
the  branding  and  herding  of  live  stock;  establishing  a  board  of  immigration  to 
encourage  settlement  of  various  parts  of  the  territory;  defining  the  judicial  dis- 
tricts ;  and  providing  for  a  fiscal  year  to  begin  on  the  first  of  October  annually. 

th.wer's  administration 

John  AI.  Thayer,  the  second  territorial  governor  of  Wyoming,  was  born  at 
Bellingham,  Alass.,  where  he  attended  the  public  schools  and  studied  law.  About 
the  time  he  was  admitted  to  the  bar  the  Territory  of  Nebraska  was  organized, 
and  in  November,  1854,  he  located  at  Omaha,  crossing  the  Missouri  River  in  an 
old  canoe  in  company  with  Thomas  O'Connor  and  another  Irishman  named  Boyle. 
In  1859  he  commanded  an  expedition  against  the  Pawnee  Indians.  The  same 
year  he  was  a  delegate  to  the  convention  at  Bellevue.  which  organized  the  repub- 
lican party  in  Nebraska.  He  was  nominated  by  that  convention  for  delegate  to 
Congress,  but  was  defeated  by  a  Air.  Daily.  In  i860  he  was  again  the  republican 
candidate  for  congressional  delegate,  but  was  again  defeated.  He  was  then 
elected  a  member  of  the  Territorial  Legislature,  but  resigned  before  the  expiration 
of  his  term  to  accept  a  commission  as  colonel  of  the  First  Nebraska  Infantry. 
In  1862  he  was  promoted  to  brigadier-general.  At  the  close  of  the  Civil  war  he 
returned  to  Nebraska.  In  1867  he  was  elected  one  of  the  first  United  States  sena- 
tors from  Nebraska.  He  was  appointed  governor  of  Wyoming  by  President  Grant 
and  entered  upon  the  duties  of  that  office  on  February  10,  1875.  His  administra- 
tion lasted  until  April  10,  1878,  when  he  was  succeeded  by  John  W.  Hoyt.  Gov- 
ernor Thayer  then  went  back  to  Omaha  and  resumed  the  practice  of  his  profes- 
sion. In  1886  he  was  elected  governor  of  Nebraska  and  was  reelected  in  1888. 
He  died  in  Omaha  on  March  19,  1906. 

About  the  time  Governor  Thayer  came  into  office  a  number  of  changes 
were  made  in  the  list  of  territorial  officials.  George  W.  French  succeeded  Jason 
B.  Brown  as  secretary;  Jacob  B.  Blair  took  the  place  of  Joseph  M.  Carey  as 
associate  justice;  W.  F.  Sweesy  was  appointed  LTnited  States  marshal;  Orlando 
North,  auditor;  A.  R.  Converse,  treasurer;  and  J.  J.  Jenkins,  district  attorney. 
W".  R.  Steele  was  reelected  delegate  to  Congress  in  1874. 

legislative  sessions 

Two  sessions  of  the  Legislative  Assembly  were  held  while  Thayer  was  gov- 
ernor.    On  November  2,   1875,  the   fourth  session  was  convened  at   Cheyenne 


and  Governor  Thayer  delivered  his  first  message  on  the  4th.  It  was  an  exhaustive 
document,  deaHng  with  practically  every  subject  of  territorial  interest,  and  showed 
a  familiarity  with  Wyoming  conditions  that  was  surprising,  coming  from  one  who 
had  been  in  the  territory  only  a  few  months. 

At  this  session  an  act  was  passed  providing  for  a  revision  of  the  territorial 
laws.  W.  L.  Kuykendall,  C.  W.  Bramel,  Orlando  North,  Michael  Murphy, 
George  W.  Ritter  and  C.  M.  White  were  appointed  a  committee  "to  make  all 
necessary  arrangements  and  contracts  for  the  compilation  and  publication  of  all 
laws,  including  those  of  the  fourth  Legislative  Assembly."  The  committee  selected 
James  R.  Whitehead  to  superintend  the  work  and  the  first  edition  of  the  "Com- 
piled Laws  of  Wyoming"  was  printed  by  Herman  Glafcke,  former  territorial 
secretary,  in  1S76. 

The  fifth  session  of  the  Legislative  Assembly  began  on  November  7,  1877, 
and  continued  for  forty  days.  Several  important  laws  were  enacted  during  this 
session,  to-wit :  Regulating  the  practice  of  medicine ;  limiting  the  mdebtedness 
of  counties;  fixing  the  fees  and  salaries  of  public  ofificials,  and  providing  for 
the  opening  and  improvement  of  certain  highways.  On  November  22,  1877, 
Governor  Thayer  approved  a  memorial  to  Congress  protesting  against  a  division 
of  the  territory,  a  subject  which  some  people  were  just  then  agitating,  and 
recommending  the  annexation  of  the  Black  Hills  country  to  Wyoming.  The 
memorial  may  have  had  some  influence  in  preventing  the  division  of  the  territory, 
but  the  annexation  recommended  was  never  made. 

hoyt's  .\dministration 

John  W.  Hoyt,  the  third  territorial  governor  of  Wyoming,  was  born  near 
\\'orthington,  Ohio,  October  31,  1831.  When  about  eighteen  years  of  age  he 
graduated  at  the  Ohio  Wesleyan  University  and  immediately  afterward  began 
the  study  of  medicine.  In  1853  he  received  the  degree  of  M.  D.  from  the 
Ohio  Medical  College.  Four  years  later  he  removed  to  Madison,  Wis.,  where 
for  ten  years  he  was  engaged  in  business  as  an  editor  and  publisher.  He  can- 
vassed the  Northwest  in  the  interests  of  the  Morrill  Agricultural  College  Bill 
when  that  measure  was  pending  in  Congress.  In  1874  he  was  elected  a  member 
of  the  Wisconsin  Railroad  Commission.  Governor  Hoyt  was  a  commissioner  to 
several  of  the  world's  greatest  industrial  expositions,  viz :  London,  1862 ;  Paris, 
1867;  Vienna.  1873;  the  Centennial  at  Philadelphia,  1876;  and  the  Columbian 
Exposition  at  Chicago,  1893.  In  1877  he  declined  an  appointment  as  minister 
to  Spain,  but  soon  afterward  accepted  the  governorship  of  Wyoming  Territory. 
At  the  expiration  of  his  term  as  governor  he  remained  for  some  time  in  Wyo- 
ming and  aided  materially  in  developing  the  territory's  educational  system.  He 
was  the  first  president  of  the  State  University:  a  member  of  the  constitutional 
convention  in  1889:  was  president  of  the  Wyoming  Development  Company  for 
five  years ;  established  and  published  for  a  short  time  the  Wyoming  Journal  at 
Laramie,  and  was  otherwise  connected  with  the  advancement  of  the  material 
interests  of  Wyoming.  In  1891  he  went  to  Washington.  D.  C,  where  he  passed 
the  closing  years  of  his  life  in  literary  work.  He  was  the  author  of  several 
books  relating  to  education,  agriculture  and  railway  afifairs. 

Governor  Hoyt's  administration  as  governor  of  the  territors'  began  on  April 


lo,  1878,  and  continued  until  August,  1882.  During  the  time  he  held  the  office 
the  population  increased  more  than  100  per  cent.  x\t  the  beginning  of  his  term 
the  principal  territorial  offices  were  filled  by  the  following  incumbents:  A. 
Worth  Spates,  secretary;  J.  B.  Sener,  chief  justice;  Jacob  B.  Blair  and  William 
Ware  Peck,  associate  justices ;  C.  H.  Layman,  United  States  attorney ;  Gustave 
Schnitger.  marshal:  J.  S.  Xason,  auditor;  Francis  E.  \\'arren.  treasurer;  Stephen 
W.  Downey,  delegate  in  Congress. 


The  first  session  of  the  Legislative  Assembly  held  after  Governor  Hoyt  was 
inducted  into  office  began  at  Cheyenne  on  Tuesday,  November  4,  187Q.  During 
the  session  acts  were  passed  authorizing  certain  counties  to  issue  bonds  in  aid 
of  railroad  companies :  amending  the  civil  and  criminal  codes  of  the  territorj' ; 
regulating  the  manner  of  conducting  elections ;  prohibiting  lotteries ;  and  declar- 
ing the  following  legal  holidays:  January  ist  (New  Year's  day),  February  226 
(George  Washington's  birthday),  July  4th  (Independence  day),  any  day  set 
apart  by  the  President  of  the  United  States  as  a  day  of  annual  thanksgiving,  and 
December  25th   (Christmas). 


The  Legislature  of  1879  was  the  sixth  to  be  held  after  the  organization  of 
the  territory.  No  more  sessions  were  held  until  January  10,  1882,  when  the 
seventh  Legislature  was  convened  at  Cheyenne.  Governor  Hoyt  was  still  in 
office,  but  several  changes  had  been  made  in  the  roster  of  territorial  officials 
since  the  preceding  session.  E.  S.  N.  Morgan  had  succeeded  A.  W.  Spates  as 
secretary ;  Samuel  C.  Parks  had  been  appointed  associate  justice  in  place  of 
William  W.  Peck;  M.  C.  Brown  was  now  L'nited  States  attorney;  Morton  E. 
Post,  delegate  in  Congress ;  Jesse  Knight,  territorial  auditor ;  and  Francis  E. 
\^'arren  still  held  the  office  of  territorial  treasurer. 

In  accordance  with  the  provisions  of  the  organic  act,  the  Legislature  of 
1882  increased  the  number  of  members  in  the  council  to  twelve  and  the  number 
of  representatives  to  twenty-four.  The  territory  was  divided  into  five  council 
districts  and  apportioned  to  each  district  the  number  of  members,  to-wit :  First 
district,  Laramie  County,  four  mernbers ;  Second  district,  Albany  County,  three 
members ;  Third  district.  Carbon  and  Johnson  counties,  two  members ;  Fourth 
district,  Sweetwater  County,  one  member;  Fifth  district,  Uinta  County,  two 

For  representative  purposes  the  territory  was  divided  into  six  districts,  which, 
with  the  number  of  members  apportioned  to  each,  were  as  follows :  First,  Lara- 
mie County,  eight  members ;  Second,  Albany  County,  five  members ;  Third,  Car- 
bon County,  four  members;  Fourth,  Johnson  County,  one  member:  Fifth,  Sweet- 
water County,  three  members ;  Sixth,  LHnta  County,  three  members. 

Other  acts  of  this  session  were  those  providing  for  the  better  organization 
of  the  territorial  militia ;  authorizing  the  secretary  of  the  territory  to  procure 
a  suitable  block  of  granite,  have  it  properly  inscribed  and  forward  it  to  Wash- 
ington to  be  placed  in  the  Washington  Monument  as  Wyoming's  memorial  stone ; 


and  amending  the  act  relating  to  the  territorial  seal.     The  joint  resolution  of  the 
two  branches  of  the  Legislature  requested  the  reappointment  of  Governor  Hoyt. 

male's  administration 

William  Hale,  the  fourth  governor  of  the  Territory  of  Wyoming,  succeeded 
John  W.  Hoyt  on  August  3.  1882.  He  was  born  in  the  Town  of  New  London, 
Henry  County,  Iowa,  November  18,  1837.  He  received  a  liberal  education, 
studied  law,  and  was  admitted  to  practice  at  Oskaloosa,  Iowa,  soon  after  he 
reached  his  twenty-first  birthday  anniversary.  He  began  practice  at  Glenwood, 
Iowa;  was  elected  to  the  Legislature  of  that  state  in  1863  and  served  as  repre- 
sentative for  four  years ;  was  presidential  elector  on  the  republican  ticket  for 
the  Fifth  Congressional  district  in  1868;  and  on  July  18,  1882,  was  appointed 
governor  of  Wyoming  by  President  Arthur.  Soon  after  he  took  up  the  reins 
of  government,  Montana,  through  representatives  in  Congress,  sought  to  obtain 
jurisdiction  over  the  Yellowstone  National  Park.  Governor  Hale,  although  in 
failing  health  and  suffering  from  physical  pain,  journeyed  over  two  thousand  miles 
to  reach  the  park  and  establish  there  the  civil  and  criminal  jurisdiction  of  Wyo- 
ming Territory.  This  and  other  acts  demonstrated  his  loyalty  to  the  territory 
of  which  he  had  been  appointed  governor  and  so  endeared  him  to  the  people  of 
Wyoming  that,  when  his  administration  was  brought  to  an  end  by  his  untimely 
death  on  January  13,  1885.  The  Legislative  Assembly  appropriated  $500  toward 
defraying  his  funeral  expenses  and  erecting  a  monument  to  his  memory,  the 
appropriation  being  made  by  an  act  approved  on  March  12,   1886. 

The  territorial  officers  at  the  beginning  of  Hale's  administration  were :  E.  S. 
N.  Alorgan,  secretary;  John  C.  Perry,  chief  justice;  J.  B.  Blair  and  Samuel  C. 
Parks,  associate  justices;  J.  A.  Riner,  United  States  attorney;  Gustave  Schnitger, 
marshal;  P.  L.  Smith,  auditor;  Francis  E.  Warren,  treasurer;  E.  C.  David, 
surveyor-general;  E.  W.  Mann  and  Charles  H.  Priest,  registers  of  the  land  office; 
W.  S.  Hurlburt  and  E.  S.  Crocker,  receivers  of  public  moneys;  M.  E.  Post, 
delegate  in  Congress. 


Only  one  session  of  the  Legislative  Assembly  was  held  while  Hale  was  gov- 
ernor, viz.,  the  eighth,  which  was  convened  at  Cheyenne  on  Tuesday,  January 
8,  1884.  Among  the  more  important  acts  of  this  session  was  the  appointment  of 
W.  W.  Corlett,  Isaac  P.  Caldwell  and  Clarence  D.  Clark  commissioners  to_  revise 
and  codify  the  territorial  laws.  Other  acts  were  those  authorizing  county  com- 
missioners to  appropriate  funds  for  sinking  artesian  wells ;  to  encourage  the 
organization  of  volunteer  fire  companies  in  towns  and  cities;  creating  Fremont 
County;  and  to  provide  for  the  education  and  training  of  juvenile  delinquents. 

Upon  the  death  of  Governor  Hale,  Secretary  Morgan  became  acting  governor 
and  served  in  that  capacity  until  February  27,  1885,  when  Francis  E.  Warren, 
treasurer  of  the  territory,  was  appointed  governor. 

w.\rren's  .\dministr.\tion 

Francis  E.  Warren,  fifth  territorial  governor  of  W\'oming.  was  born  at  Hins- 
dale. Mass..  June  20.   1844.     His  ancestor.  Dr.  Joseph  Warren,  was  one  of  the 


first  men  in  the  American  colonies  to  advocate  independence.  At  the  beginning 
of  the  Revolutionary  war  he  was  commissioned  general  and  was  in  command  of 
the  colonial  forces  at  the  battle  of  Bunker  Hill,  where  he  fell  fighting  for  the 
liberty  of  his  countrymen.  Francis  E.  Warren  was  educated  in  the  common 
schools  and  at  Hinsdale  Academy.  In  1861  he  left  school  to  enlist  as  a  private 
in  Company  C,  Forty-ninth  Massachusetts  Infantry.  His  regiment  was  sent 
to  the  Department  of  the  Gulf  and  while  at  New  Orleans  he  was  promoted  to 
corporal.  At  the  siege  of  Port  Hudson  he  won  a  medal  of  honor  for  gallant 
conduct.  In  the  spring  of  1868  he  came  to  Iowa  as  foreman  of  a  construction  gang 
on  the  Rock  Island  Railroad.  From  Iowa  he  came  to  Cheyenne,  where  he  engaged 
in  merchandising.  In  1871  he  formed  a  partnership  with  A.  R.  Converse,  under 
the  firm  name  of  Converse  &  Warren.  In  1878  Mr.  Converse  retired  from  the 
firm  and  the  business  was  then  carried  on  under  the  name  of  F.  E.  Warren  &  Com- 
pany for  a  few  years,  when  Mr.  Warren  turned  his  attention  to  the  live  stock 
business.  He  was  president  of  the  Warren  Live  Stock  Company  and  erected 
several  buildings  in  Cheyenne. 

From  the  time  he  became  a  resident  of  Cheyenne  Governor  Warren  took  a 
commendable  interest  in  public  affairs.  In  1872  he  was  one  of  the  trustees  of 
Cheyenne  and  the  same  year  was  elected  a  member  of  the  Territorial  Legislature. 
He  served  as  president  of  the  council  in  the  Legislative  Assembly  and  was 
treasurer  of  the  territory  for  about  six  years.  In  1885  he  was  elected  mayor  of 
Cheyenne  and  in  February  of  that  year  was  appointed  governor  of  the  territory 
by  President  Arthur.  He  was  removed  by  President  Cleveland  in  the  fall  of 
1886,  but  was  again  appointed  governor  by  President  Harrison  in  March,  1889. 
When  Wyoming  was  admitted  as  a  state  in  1890  Governor  Warren  was  elected  the 
first  governor  of  the  new  state,  but  served  as  such  only  two  weeks,  when  he  was 
elected  one  of  the  first  L'nited  States  senators  from  Wyoming.  His  term  expired 
in  1893  and  the  Legislature  of  that  year  failed  to  elect  a  senator,  so  that  the  state 
had  but  one  senator  in  Congress.  In  1895  Mr.  W'arren  was  again  elected  and  has 
served  in  the  United  States  senate  continuously  since  that  time.  His  present 
term  expires  on  March  4,  1919. 


In  August,  1885,  about  six  months  after  Governor  Warren  entered  upon  the 
duties  of  the  ofifice,  the  Union  Pacific  Railroad  Company  brought  several  hundred 
Chinese  laborers  into  the  territory,  to  work  in  the  coal  mines  at  Evanston,  Rock 
Springs,  Carbon  and  other  places  along  the  railroad.  The  white  laborers  claimed 
that  the  Chinese  coolies  had  usurped  their  places  in  the  mines  by  working  for 
lower  wages  than  the  white  miners  would  accept.  On  September  2,  1885,  about 
two  hundred  armed  men  assembled  at  Rock  Springs  and  attacked  the  Chinese. 
Several  shots  were  fired  and  the  Chinamen  took  to  the  hill,  with  their  assailants 
in  close  pursuit.  About  fifty  of  the  coolies  were  killed,  after  which  the  rioters 
returned  to  the  coal  camp  and  destroyed  the  property  of  the  coolies.  Fifty 
houses  belonging  to  the  railroad  company  were  also  destroyed,  and  some  of  the 
miners  wanted  to  burn  the  Chinamen  with  the  buildings.  Chinese  in  the  other 
coal  camjis,  when  they  learned  of  the  affair  at  Rock  Springs,  did  not  wait  for 
further  developments,  but  left  the  country  at  once. 


As  soon  as  Governor  Warren  heard  of  the  trouble  at  Rock  Springs  (having 
no  organized  territorial  militia  that  could  be  depended  on)  he  telegraphed  Gen. 
O.  O.  Howard,  commanding  the  Department  of  the  Platte,  for  troops  to  pre- 
serve order.  General  Howard  promised  to  send  a  force  sufficient  for  military 
protection,  but  he  was  slow  in  carrying  the  promise  into  execution  and  the  gov- 
ernor appealed  to  the  secretary  of  war.  Troops  finally  arrived  in  time  to  prevent 
another  massacre.  Governor  \\'arren  was  severely  criticized  at  the  time  for 
giving  protection  to  the  imported  laborers,  but  after  the  excitement  died  out  it 
was  generally  recognized  that  he  did  the  only  thing  he  could  do  and  be  true  to 
his  oath  of  office  as  governor. 


(jn  January  12,  1886.  the  ninth  legislative  session  began  at  Cheyenne.  This 
was  the  only  session  of  the  Legislative  Assembly  held  during  Governor  Warren's 
first  administration.  The  territorial  officers  at  this  time  were:  E.  S.  X.  Morgan, 
secretary;  John  W.  Lacey,  chief  justice;  Jacob  B.  Blair  and  Samuel  T.  Corn, 
associate  justices ;  Anthony  C.  Campbell,  United  States  attorney ;  Thomas  J. 
Carr,  marshal :  Mortimer  X.  Grant,  auditor ;  \\'illiam  P.  Gannett,  treasurer : 
Joseph  M.  Carey,  delegate  in  Congress. 

An  act  defining  the  boundaries  of  certain  counties  was  passed  at  this  session ; 
county  commissioners  were  required  by  another  law  to  see  that  veterans  of  the 
Civil  war  were  given  decent  burial ;  bounties  were  offered  for  the  destruction 
of  wild  animals  that  preyed  upon  crops  and  live  stock;  and  provision  was  made 
for  the  incorporation  of  towns  having  a  population  of  three  hundred  or  more 
bv  the  commissioners  of  the  counties  in  which  thev  were  located. 

On  Alarch  4,  1886,  Governor  Warren  approved  an  act  providing  that  "A 
capitol  building,  for  the  use  of  the  territory,  shall  be  erected  in  the  City  of  Chey- 
enne, the  capital  of  the  territory,  at  a  cost  not  exceeding  the  sum  of  one  hundred 
and  fifty  thousand  dollars." 

By  the  provisions  of  the  act  the  governor  was  to  appoint  a  building  com- 
mission of  five  members,  which  should  acquire  a  site  by  donation  or  otherwise, 
approve  plans  and  award  the  contract  for  the  construction  of  the  building.  Six 
per  cent  bonds  to  the  amount  of  $150,000  were  authorized  (not  more  than 
S25.000  of  which  should  be  issued  at  any  one  time),  payable' twenty-five  years 
after  date,  though  the  territory  was  given  the  option  of  redeeming  one-tenth  of 
said  bonds  at  the  expiration  of  fifteen  years  and  one-tenth  annually  thereafter 
until  all  were  paid. 

Governor  Warren  appointed  as  capitol  commissioners  Erasmus  X'agle.  Charles 
X.  Potter,  X'athaniel  R.  Davis,  Morton  E.  Post  and  Nicholas  J.  O'Brien.  This 
commission  erected  the  central  portion  of  the  capitol  according  to  plans  fur- 
nished by  D.  W.  Gibbs  &  Company.  A.  Feick  &  Company  being  awarded  the 
contract.  (See  Moonlight's  Administration  for  further  history  of  the  capitol 



By  the  act  of  March  9,  1886,  an  insane  asylum  was  ordered  to  be  built  at 
Evanston,  at  a  cost  not  exceeding  thirty  thousand  dollars,  and  bonds  to  that 
amount,  "or  so  much  thereof  as  may  be  necessary,"  were  ordered,  with  the  pro- 
vision that  none  of  the  bonds  should  be  sold  for  less  than  their  par  value. 

Two  days  later  an  act  was  approved  establishing  an  institution  for  the  edu- 
cation of  the  blind,  deaf  and  dumb.  This  institution  was  to  be  located  at  Chey- 
enne, and  the  act  provided  that  "no  institute  shall  be  opened  until  there  are  twelve 
pupils  ready  who  will  enter  said  school,  and  when  the  number  of  pupils  shall 
fall  below  the  number  of  eight,  then  said  institute  shall  be  closed.''  An  appro- 
priation of  $8,000  was  made  for  the  support  of  the  school  for  the  first  two  years, 
and  the  governor  was  authorized  to  appoint  a  board  of  three  trustees,  to  be 
confirmed  by  the  legislative  council. 

The  Legislative  Assembly  of  1886  also  authorized  the  establishment  of  a 
territorial  university,  a  history  of  which  is  given  in  the  chapter  on  Educational 

Baxter's  administration 

When  President  Cleveland  removed  Governor  Warren,  he  appointed  George 
W.  Baxter  as  his  successor.  The  story  of  Baxter's  administration  is  soon  told, 
as  its  duration  was  but  forty-five  days.  Mr.  Baxter  was  a  native  of  Tennessee, 
where  he  was  born  on  January  7,  1855.  He  was  educated  at  Sewanee,  Tenn., 
and  at  the  United  States  Military  Academy  at  West  Point,  where  he  gradu- 
ated in  1878.  The  next  three  years  he  spent  as  a  lieutenant  on  the  frontier, 
and  in  1881  he  became  a  resident  of  Wyoming.  In  1884  he  purchased  50,000 
acres  of  land  from  the  Union  Pacific  Railroad  Company.  He  afterward  sold 
20,000  acres  and  converted  the  remaining  30,000  into  a  cattle  range.  In  order 
to  fence  his  range  he  had  to  inclose  the  alternate  sections  belonging  to  the  United 
States.  This  he  did  in  the  spring  of  1885.  after  consulting  attorneys  as  to  his 
right  to  do  so.  and  in  August  of  that  year  President  Cleveland  issued  his  order 
prohibiting  the  fencing  of  Government  land  for  range  purposes.  Mr.  Baxter 
took  the  oath  of  office  as  governor  on  November  6,  1886,  and  soon  afterward 
it  came  to  the  knowledge  of  the  President  that  he  had  inclosed  land  belonging 
to  the  public  domain.  Mr.  Baxter  then  resigned  "by  request"  and  retired  from 
the  governorship  on  December  20,  1886.  He  remained  in  the  territory  for  some 
time  after  his  resignation;  was  a  delegate  from  Laramie  County  to  the  consti- 
tutional convention  in  1889,  and  the  next  year  was  the  democratic  candidate 
for  governor  at  the  first  state  election.  Not  long  after  that  he  removed  to 
Knoxville,  Tenn.  Nothing  of  importance  occurred  during  the  brief  period  that 
he  served  as  governor. 

moonlight's  administration 

Thomas  ^Moonlight,  the  seventh  territorial  governor  of  W'yoming,  was  a 
native  of  Forfarshire.  Scotland,  where  he  was  born  on  November  10,  1833. 
When  about  thirteen  years  of  age  be  ran  away  from  home  and  came  to  America 


as  a  forecastle  hand  on  one  of  the  sailing  ships  of  that  day.  The  vessel  landed 
at  Philadelphia  and  young  Moonlight  found  himself  in  a  strange  land,  penniless 
and  without  friends.  His  first  employment  in  the  United  States  was  in  a  glass 
factory  in  Xew  Jersey.  In  May.  1853.  he  enlisted  in  Company  D,  Fourth  United 
States  Artillery,  and  served  in  the  Seminole  war  in  Florida  and  on  the  frontier 
until  1859,  when  he  retired  from  the  army.  He  then  purchased  a  farm  in 
Leavenworth  County,  Kansas,  and  lived  there  until  the  breaking  out  of  the  Civil 
war.  On  June  7,  1861,  he  was  mustered  into  the  United  States  volunteer  service 
as  captain  of  a  light  battery  which  he  had  recruited,  and  ordered  to  Missouri. 
In  September,  1862,  he  was  commissioned  lieutenant-colonel  of  the  Eleventh 
Kansas  Infantry,  with  which  he  was  engaged  in  a  number  of  battles  in  Arkansas 
and  Missouri.  In  1867  President  Andrew  Johnson  appointed  him  collector  of 
internal  revenue  for  Kansas,  which  position  he  held  until  elected  secretary  of 
state  in  August,  1868.  Colonel  Moonlight  then  became  actively  identified  with 
the  political  affairs  of  Kansas.  He  was  chairman  of  the  democratic  state  con- 
vention in  1880  and  was  the  nominee  of  that  party  for  governor  in  1886,  but 
was  defeated.  On  December  20,  1886,  he  was  appointed  governor  of  Wyoming 
Territory  by  President  Cleveland  and  served  until  after  the  inauguration  of 
President  Harrison  in  March.  1889.  He  then  returned  to  Kansas,  where  he 
passed  the  remainder  of  his  life. 

Contemporary  with  Governor  Moonlight,  several  changes  were  made  in  the 
territorial  offices.  Samuel  D.  Shannon  was  appointed  secretary ;  \Villiam  L. 
Maginnis.  chief  justice;  M.  C.  Saufley  and  Samuel  T.  Corn,  associate  justices: 
Anthony  C.  Campbell,  United  States  attorney;  Thomas  J.  Carr,  marshal;  Morti- 
mer X.  Grant,  auditor;  Luke  \'oorhees,  treasurer;  Joseph  M.  Carey,  delegate  in 
Congress — reelected  in   1886. 


The  tenth  session  of  the  Territorial  Legislative  Assembly  convened  at  Chey- 
enne on  January  10,  1888,  with  J.  A.  Riner  president  of  the  council  and  L.  D. 
Pease  speaker  of  the  house.  This  was  the  only  legislative  session  held  during 
Moonlight's  administration.  A  general  banking  law  was  passed  at  this  session ; 
county  commissioners  were  given  greater  power  in  the  matter  of  sinking  artesian 
wells ;  and  an  act  for  the  protection  of  grazing  lands  was  passed.  A  controvers\- 
between  the  governor  and  the  Legislature  arose  over  the  erection  of  public  build- 
ings. An  act  providing  for  the  completion  of  the  capitol  building,  the  univer?it\- 
buildings,  the  insane  asylum,  and  for  the  establishment  of  a  penitentiary  at 
Rawlins  and  a  poor  asylum  "at  or  near  Lander"  was  vetoed  by  the  governor, 
chiefly  on  the  gorunds  that  the  appropriations  therefor  were  excessive.  The 
act  was  passed  over  the  governor's  veto  on  ^March  2,  1888,  by  the  required  two- 
thirds  majority  of  each  house. 


The  appropriation  for  the  completion  of  the  capitol  building,  amounting  to 
$125,000,  seems  to  have  been  the  princijjal  "bone  of  contention."  the  governor 
claiming  that   the  additions   proposed   would  cost  much   more  than  the  amount 


appropriated,  and  that  the  building  in  its  present  condition  was  sufficient  for 
the  needs  of  the  territory  until  more  money  could  be  raised  without  placing  a 
heavy  burden  of  taxation  upon  the  people.  Nevertheless,  the  Legislature  passed 
the  bill  over  Mr.  Moonlight's  veto,  as  already  stated.  It  provided  for  the  appoint- 
ment of  a  new  capitol  commission,  and  after  its  passage  the  governor  appointed 
Lawrence  J.  Bresnahan,  George  W.  Baxter,  Andrew  Gilchrist,  Arthur  Poole 
and  John  C.  Baird  as  the  new  commissioners.  The  council  rejected  ex-Governor 
Baxter  and  at  first  refused  to  confirm  the  appointment  of  Mr.  Bresnahan.  Thomas 
A.  Kent  was  then  appointed  in  place  of  Mr.  Baxter.  The  commission  organized 
by  electing  Mr.  Bresnahan  chairman  and  John  C.  Baird  secretary.  D.  W.  Gibbs  & 
Company,  who  furnished  the  plans  for  the  central  portion,  also  furnished  the 
plans  for  the  east  and  west  wings,  which  were  built  under  the  auspices  of  the 
above  named  commission,  by  Moses  P.  Keefe,  contractor.  The  present  east  and 
west  wings  were  not  completed  until  191 7. 

Time  demonstrated  that  there  was  some  reason  in  the  governor's  objections 
to  the  bill.  The  institutions  named  were  finally  completed  according  to  the 
original  designs,  but  the  expense  proved  a  heavy  burden  for  a  young  state  to 
carry,  the  bonds  issued  having  been  assumed  by  the  State  of  Wyoming  when 
it  was  admitted  into  the  Union.  A  history  of  all  these  institutions  will  be  found 
elsewhere  in  this  volume. 


Francis  E.  Warren  was  reappointed  governor  by  President  Benjamin  Har- 
rison on  March  27,  1889,  to  succeed  Governor  Monnlight,  and  his  second  admin- 
istration proved  to  be  the  last  under  the  old  territorial  regime.  The  Legislature 
of  1888  had  adopted  and  sent  to  Congress  a  memorial  asking  that  ^^^'oming 
be  admitted,  and  it  was  generally  conceded  that  the  prayer  of  the  memorialists 
was  to  be  granted.  An  act  of  Congress,  admitting  the  state,  was  approved  by 
President  Harrison  on  July  10,  1890,  but  the  territorial  government  continued 
in  force  until  the  following  October. 


The  eleventh  and  last  session  of  the  Territoriar Legislature  began  at  Cheyenne 
on  January  10,  1890.  The  territorial  officers  at  that  time  were  as  follows: 
Francis  E.  Warren,  governor;  John  W.  Meldrum,  secretary;  Willis  Van  Devan- 
ter.  chief  justice;  M.  C.  Saufley  and  Clarence  D.  Clark,  associate  justices;  Ben- 
jamin F.  Fowler,  United  States  attorney ;  Thomas  J.  Carr,  marshal ;  Mortimer 
N.  Grant,  auditor;  Luke  Voorhees,  treasurer;  Joseph  M.  Carey,  delegate  in 

The  members  of  the  Legislative  Assembly  at  this  session  seemed  to  realize 
that  the  admission  of  the  state  was  a  certainty.  Consequently  a  number  of  acts 
passed  were  in  the  nature  of  "setting  the  house  in  order"  for  the  new  government. 
An  election  for  state  officers  was  held  in  September,  1890,  and  on  the  nth  of 
October  the  Territory  of  Wyoming,  with  its  twenty-two  years'  eventful  career, 
passed  into  history. 






During  the  first  few  years  of  Wyoming's  existence  as  an  organized  territory, 
considerable  dissatisfaction  was  manifested  over  the  appointment  of  non-residents 
to  conduct  the  territorial  government.  After  a  while  this  dissatisfaction  disap- 
peared, at  least  so  far  as  open  e.xpression  was  concerned,  though  there  were  many 
of  the  resident  population  who  cherished  the  dream  of  the  time  to  come  when 
they  would  be  able  to  have  a  state  government  of  their  own.  The  census  of 
1880  showed  Wyoming's  population  to  be  20,789,  and  the  talk  of  asking  Congress 
to  pass  an  act  admitting  Wyoming  to  statehood  began.  Nothing  definite  was 
done,  however,  until  February  7,  1888,  when  the  following  memorial  was  intro- 
duced in  the  Territorial  Legislature : 

"Resolved  by  the  Council  and  House  of  Representatives  of  the  Tenth  Legis- 
lative Assembly  of  the  Territory  of  Wyoming,  to  memorialize  the  Congress  of 
the  United  States  as  follows : 


"The  Tenth  Legislative  Assembly  of  the  Territory  of  Wyoming,  in  session 
assembled,  respectfully  represents  to  the  Congress  of  the  LTnited  States  the  fol- 

"The  organic  act  of  the  territory  was  approved  on  the  twenty-fifth  day  of 
July,  eighteen  hundred  and  sixty-eight ;  the  organization  was  completed  on  the 
nineteenth  day  of  May,  eighteen  hundred  and  sixty-nine;  as  organized,  the  terri- 
tory has  existed  for  nearly  nineteen  years. 

"Its  coal  fields  are  numerous  and  extensive,  have  been  much  worked,  and  are 
seemingly  exhaustless :  its  iron,  soda  and  oil  fields  are  extensive  and  rich  and  are 
seemingly  exhaustless  ;  its  native  grasses  are  various,  abundant  and  highly  nutri- 
tious;  contrary  to  former  impression,  its  capacity  for  vegetable  culture  is  remark- 
able, aided  by  irrigation. 

"An  extensive  system  of  skilled  irrigation  has  been  established,  is  rapidly 
increasing  and  admits  of  large  and  indefinite  expansion. 

"In  his  report  to  the  secretary  of  the  interior  for  1885,  the  then  governor 
(Warren)  stated  the  number  of  live  stock  in  the  territory,  consisting  of  horned 


cattle,  sheep,  horses  and  mules,  at  3,100,000  head;  and  their  valuation  at  $75,- 
000,000;  and  in  his  report  to  the  secretary  for  1886,  the  number  as  increased, 
and  the  value  as  exceeding  seventy-five  million  dollars ;  the  two  years  were 
periods  of  exceptional  market  depression  in  li\e  stock  \alues,  the  last  much  more 
than  the  first. 

"The  long,  extensive  and  accurate  experience  of  that  governor  with  the 
subject,  and  his  sound  and  practical  judgment  entitle  his  statements  to  especial 

"l"he  report  to  the  secretary  for  1887,  by  the  present  governor  (iMoonlight) 
does  not  state  the  number  or  \aluation  for  that  year ;  but  it  shows  improved 
methods  in  the  raising  of  horned  cattle  are  in  promising  progress;  and  that  horse 
and  sheep  cultures  have  become  extensive,  are  rapidly  increasing,  are  conducted 
with  superior  intelligence,  and  represent  large  investments  and  fine  breeds.  The 
unmistakable  ability  and  intelligence  evinced  by  the  report  render  it  worthy  of 
full  confidence. 

"It  is  plain  to  ordinary  observation,  that  nature  intends-  Wyoming  for  a 
great  railway  area  of  the  west  division  of  the  continent  and  a  great  railroad 
highway  for  transcontinental  traffic.  The  Union  Pacific  Railway  traverses  the 
southern  belt  of  the  territory;  another  trunk  Pacific  railway  has  been  completed 
partially  across  the  territory  ;  and  the  construction  of  a  third  has  nearly  reached 
its  eastern  boundary. 

"The  lines  finished,  lateralization  will  follow  according  to  the  inevitable  law 
of  trunk  line  development.  Other  important  railroads  are  also  operating,  and 
ordinary  observation  can  easily  foresee  that  within  the  next  fourth  of  a  century 
the  territory  will  be  gridironed  over  by  a  complete  railway  system. 

"\  free  public  and  compulsory  system  of  education  is  well  advanced  here. 

"The  above  data  are  moderately  stated,  and  prepare  the  mind  to  accept  the 
estimate  of  the  present  population  of  the  territory,  which  is  stated  in  the  gov- 
ernor's report  for  1887  at  85,000.  This  assembly  confidently  accepts  the  report 
as  correct  on  the  subject. 

"It  is  manifest  that  the  prosperity  and  welfare  of  the  people  of  this  territory 
will  advance,  under  state  institutions,  far  beyond  what  can  be  realized  in  a  terri- 
torial condition. 

"This  Legislature  respectfully  requests  of  Congress  such  legislation  as  will 
enable  the  people  of  the  territory  to  form  a  constitution  and  state  government, 
and  for  the  admission  of  such  state  into  the  Union  of  the  United  States  of 
America  on  an  equal  footing  with  the  original  states  thereof ;  and  that  such 
legislation  may  embrace  ample  and  gratuitous  grants  to  such  state  government 
by  the  Federal  Government  of  the  lands  of  the  latter,  lying  within  the  territory, 
for  the  support  of  common  schools,  for  the  erection  at  the  capital  of  the  state 
of  public  buildings  for  judicial  and  legislative  purposes,  or  to  promote  the  con- 
struction of  such  buildings;  and  also  for  the  erection  of  a  penitentiary  or  state 
prison,  the  donated  lands  and  the  proceeds  thereof  to  be  employed  as  the  Legis- 
lature of  such  state  government  may  direct,  in  respect  to  the  support  and  conduct 
of  the  schools  and  the  erection  or  construction  of  such  judicial,  legislative  and 
penitentiary  buildings,  and  that  such  legislation  may  further  provide  that  a  proper 
per  centum  of  the  proceeds  of  the  sales  of  all  public  lands  lying  within  said  state, 
which  shall  be  sold  by  the  LTnited  States,   subsequent  to  the  admission  of  said 


state  into  the  Union,  after  deducting  all  expenses  incident  to  the  same,  shall 
be  donated  and  paid  to  the  said  state  for  the  purpose  of  making  and  improving 
public  roads,  constructing  ditches  or  canals,  to  effect  a  general  system  of  irriga- 
tion of  the  agricultural  land  in  the  state,  as  its  Legislature  shall  direct. 

"Resolved,   That  a   duly  authenticated  copy   of   the   foregoing   resolution   be 
transmitted  to  the  governor  of  the  territory  and  that  he  stand  requested  to  take 
the  proper  steps  to  obtain  from  Congress  the  above  desired  legislation. 
"l.  d.  pease, 

"Speaker  of  the  House  of  Representati\'es. 

"jOHN    A.    RINER, 

"President  of  the  Council." 
A  copy  of  the  memorial  was  sent  to  Joseph  M.  Carey,  then  the  delegate  in 
Congress,  and  through  his  influence  a  bill  was  introduced  in  the  senate  "to 
provide  for  the  formation  and  admission  into  the  Union  of  the  State  of  Wyo- 
ming and  for  other  purposes."  A  bill  was  also  introduced  in  the  house  to  enable 
Wyoming  and  certain  other  territories  to  form  constitutions  and  state  govern- 
ments. On  February  27,  1889,  the  senate  committee  on  territories  reported  the 
bill  back  to  that  body,  and  the  house  bill  was  also  favorably  reported  by  the 
committee  on  territories,  but  the  session  of  Congress  came  to  an  end  on  the  4th 
of  March  and  the  bill  failed  to  pass  for  lack  of  time  to  give  it  the  necessary  and 
customary  consideration. 


The  people  of  \\'yoming,  firm  in  the  belief  that,  had  time  permitted,  the 
enabling  act  would  have  been  passed,  and  equally  firm  in  the  belief  that  the  next 
session  of  Congress  would  grant  their  request,  determined  to  proceed  as  though 
the  enabling  act  had  passed.  As  a  precedent  for  their  action  they  followed  the 
examples  of  Arkansas,  California,  Florida,  Iowa,  Kentucky,  Maine,  Michigan. 
Oregon,  Vermont  and  Wisconsin,  all  of  which  states  formed  constitutions  and 
secured  their  admission  into  the  Union  without  enabling  acts  from  Congress. 

In  i88g  there  were  ten  organized  counties  in  Wyoming.  The  boards  of  county 
commissioners  in  seven  of  those  counties  adopted  resolutions  "to  put  into  opera- 
tion the  election  machinery  under  the  lawg  of  the  territory,  for  the  election  of 
delegates  to  a  constitutional  convention  and  the  submission  of  such  constitution 
as  may  be  presented  by  the  said  convention  to  the  people  of  this  county  for 
ratification  or  rejection,  if  the  governor,  chief  justice  and  secretary  of  the  terri- 
tory shall  in  their  wisdom  see  fit  to  take  the  initiatory  steps  under  the  provisions 
of  said  Senate  bill  for  calling  into  existence  a  constitutional  convention." 

As  the  several  counties  adopted  this  resolution,  the  chairman  of  the  board 
of  county  commissioners  advised  the  governor,  chief  justice  and  secretary  of  the 
territory  of  such  action,  with  the  request  that,  "if  other  counties  of  the  territory 
make  similar  pledges  and  requests,  they  shall  divide  the  territory  into  districts, 
apportion  the  number  of  delegates  to  the  several  districts  or  counties,  and  do 
such  other  acts  as  may  be  necessary  for  the  convening  of  such  constitutional 
convention  in  manner  and  form  as  is  provided  by  the  terms  of  said  Senate  bill." 

On  June  3,  1889,  resolutions  of  the  above  character  having  been  received 
from  the  commissioners  of  a  majority  of  the  counties,  the  governor,  chief  justice 


and  secretary  of  the  territory  met  at  the  capitol  in  Cheyenne  and  divided  the 
territory  into  districts  for  delegates  to  a  constitutional  convention  in  accordance 
with  the  terms  of  the  Senate  bill,  viz.,  "upon  the  basis  of  the  votes  cast  for 
delegate  in  Congress  at  the  last  general  election,  in  each  of  which  districts  the 
number  of  delegates  apportioned  to  such  district  shall  be  elected.  *  *  *  The 
number  of  delegates  to  said  convention  shall  be  fifty-five.'' 

The  total  number  of  votes  cast  for  delegate  in  Congress  at  the  general 
election  in  1888  was  18.010.  Governor  Warren,  Chief  Justice  Maginnis  and 
Secretary  Shannon  divided  the  territory  into  ten  districts,  each  county  being 
made  a  district,  and  apportioned  the  number  of  delegates  to  each,  after  which 
Governor  Warren  issued   the    following 


"Whereas.  The  Territory  of  Wyoming  has  the  population,  material  resources, 
public  intelligence  and  morality  necessary  to  ensure  a  stable  local  government 
therein ;  and 

"Whereas.  It  has  never  been  deemed  a  violation  of  their  duties  as  loyal 
citizens  of  the  United  States,  for  the  people  of  a  territory  to  form  for  them- 
selves a  constitution  and  state  government  and  to  apply  to  Congress  for  admis- 
sion to  statehood ;  and 

"Whereas,  On  the  27th  day  of  February,  1889,  a  bill,  with  amendments, 
entitled  'A  bill  to  provide  for  the  formation  and  admission  into  the  Union  of 
the  State  of  W'yoming,  and  for  other  purposes,'  was  favorably  reported  to  the 
Senate  of  the  United  States  by  the  committee  on  territories;  and  a  bill  pro- 
viding, among  other  things,  for  the  admission  of  the  proposed  State  of  Wyoming, 
having  been  reported  favorably  to  the  House  of  Representatives  by  a  like  com- 
mittee;  and  many  members  of  the  house  and  Senate  having  expressed  opinions 
favorable  to  such  admission ;  and  it  thus  being  made  evident  that  Congress  i-; 
disposed  to  admit  Wyoming  as  a  state  whenever  a  suitable  constitution  is  adopted 
and  a  state  government  formed  preparatory  to  admission ;  and 

"Whereas,  By  the  general  expressions  of  the  citizens  thereof,  the  executive 
is  co'ivinced  that  a  very  large  majority  of  the  people  of  Wyoming  are'  desirous 
of  forming  for  themselves  a  constitution  and  state  government,  and  of  being 
admitted  into  the  Union,  and  of  exercising  the  rights  and  privileges  guaranteed 
to  a  free  and  loyal  people  under  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States ;  and 

"Whereas,  The  boards  of  county  commissioners  of  several  counties  in  the 
territory  have,  by  resolution,  requested  the  governor  to  call  a  constitutional  con- 
vention, and  have  requested  the  governor,  chief  justice  and  secretary  of  the 
territory  to  divide  the  territory  into  delegate  districts,  to  apportion  the  number 
of  delegates  among  the  several  districts,  and  to  do  such  other  acts  as  may  be 
necessary  for  the  convening  of  such  constitutional  convention  in  the  manner  and 
form  provided  by  the  terms  of  the  said  Senate  bill ;  and 

"Whereas,  The  governor,  chief  justice  and  secretary  of  the  territory,  on  this 
third  day  of  June,  1889,  did  convene  at  the  capitol  in  the  City  of  Cheyenne,  and 
did  apportion  the  number  of  delegates  among  the  several  districts  so  established, 
upon  the  basis  of  the  vote  cast  for  delegate  in  Congress  at  the  last  general  elec- 
tion, as  follows,  to  wit : 


"i.  The  County  of  Laramie  shall  constitute  the  First  District  and  shall  elect 
eleven  delegates. 

"2.  The  County  of  Albany  shall  constitute  the  Second  District  and  shall  elect 
eight  delegates. 

"3.  The  County  of  Carbon  shall  constitute  the  Third  District  and  shall  elect 
eight  delegates. 

"4.  The  County  of  Sweetwater  shall  constitute  the  Fourth  District  and  shall 
elect  five  delegates. 

"5.  The  County  of  Uinta  shall  constitute  the  Fifth  District  and  shall  elect 
six  delegates. 

"6.  The  County  of  Fremont  shall  constitute  the  Sixth  District  and  shall  elect 
three  delegates. 

"7.  The  County  of  Sheridan  shall  constitute  the  Seventh  District  and  shall 
elect  three  delegates. 

"8.  The  County  of  Johnson  shall  constitute  the  Eighth  District  and  shall 
elect  three  delegates. 

■■'9.  The  County  of  Crook  shall  constitute  the  Ninth  District  and  shall  elect 
four  delegates. 

"10.  The  County  of  Converse  shall  constitute  the  Tenth  District  and  shall 
elect  four  delegates. 

"Now,  Therefore,  recognizing  the  superior  and  material  advantages  of  a 
state  government  over  our  territorial  system,  and  being  desirous  of  carrying  into 
effect  the  will  of  the  people,  I,  Francis  E.  Warren,  governor  of  the  Territory  of 
Wyoming,  do  issue  this,  my  proclamation  to  the  people  of  the  territory,  recom- 
mending that  they  take  such  action  on  their  part  as  may  be  necessary  to  secure 
the  admission  of  Wyoming  into  the  Union  of  states ;  and  for  this  purpose  I  direct 
that  an  election  be  held  throughout  the  territory,  on  the  second  Monday  of  July, 
1S89,  for  the  election  of  delegates  to  a  constitutional  convention  to  convene  at 
Cheyenne,  the  capital  of  the  territory,  at  12  o'clock,  noon,  on  the  first  Monday 
of  September,  1889.  for  the  purpose  of  forming  a  constitution  for  the  State  of 
Wyoming,  and  for  the  purpose  of  submitting  such  constitution  to  the  people 
thereof,  for  their  ratification  or  rejection. 

"1  suggest  that,  in  organizing  a  state  government  preparatory  to  admission, 
the  provisions  of  the  aforesaid  Senate  bill  should  be  followed,  as  nearly  as  may  be 
possible,  and  in  pursuance  thereof  the  following  recommendations  are  hereby 
made : 

"First.  The  number  of  delegates  to  such  constitutional  convention  shall  be 
fifty-five,  apportioned  among  the  several  districts  as  hereinbefore  set  forth. 

"Second.  The  delegates  apportioned  to  each  district  shall  be  elected  exclu- 
sively in  that  district. 

"Third.  Persons  who  are  qualified  by  the  laws  of  the  territory  to  vote  for 
representatives  to  the  Legislative  Assembly  thereof  are  hereby  authorized  to  vote 
for  and  choose  delegates  to  such  constitutional  convention. 

"Fourth.  The  qualifications  for  delegates  to  such  constitutional  convention 
shall  be  such  as,  by  the  laws  of  the  territory,  persons  are  required  to  possess  to 
be  eligible  to  the  Legislative  Assembly  thereof. 

"Fifth.  Such  election  shall  be  conducted,  the  returns  made,  the  result  ascer- 
tained, and  the  certificates  to  persons  elected  to  such  convention  issued,  in  the 


same  manner  as  is  prescribed  by  the  laws  of  the  territory  regulating  elections 
therein  for  delegate  to  Congress. 

"Sixth.  Since  the  advantages  to  be  obtained  by  statehood  will  depend  some- 
what upon  the  judicious  action  of  the  constitutional  convention,  it  is  desirable 
that  the  delegates  should  be  representative  men,  of  character  and  ability,  whose 
work  will  be  satisfactory  to  Congress  and  beneficial  to  the  people  of  the  proposed 
State  of  Wyoming.  The  character  and  fitness  of  the  delegates  to  be  chosen  is 
in  fact  of  greater  importance  than  the  manner  of  their  selection,  and  if  the  citizens 
of  any  county  generally  prefer  to  elect  their  delegates  by  some  equitable  method 
other  than  that  hereinbefore  prescribed,  it  is  believed  that  the  delegates  so  chosen 
will  be  recognized  and  admitted  to  seats  in  the  convention. 

"Seventh.  The  constitution  formed  by  such  convention  shall  be  submitted 
to  the  people  of  the  territory  for  ratification  or  rejection  on  the  first  Tuesday 
in  November,  1889. 

"Eighth.  The  convention  should  fix  the  per  diem  and  mileage  of  its  mem- 
bers and  employees,  and  certificates  of  service  and  expenditure  should  be  made 
by  the  officers  of  the  convention  and  filed  with  the  secretary  of  the  territory,  as 
Congress  will,  without  doubt,  follow  its  own  precedents  in  providing  for  the 
payment  thereof. 

"In  testimony  whereof,  I  have  hereunto  set  my  hand  and  caused  the  Great 
Seal  of  the  Territory  of  Wyoming  to  be  affixed  at  Cheyenne,  at  the  capitol,  on 
this  third  day  of  June,  in  the  year  of  our  Lord,  one  thousand  eight  hundred  and 
eighty-nine,  and  of  the  Independence  of  the  United  States  of  America  the  one 
hundred  and  thirteenth. 


"By  the  Governor, 


"Secretary  of  Territory.'' 


The  election  for  delegates  to  the  constitutional  convention  was  held  accord- 
ing to  schedule  on  July  8,  1889,'  when  the  following  delegates  were  chosen  in 
the  several  counties  of  the  territory:  Albany — M.  C.  Brown,  William  E.  Chap- 
lin, S.  W.  Downey,  George  W.  Fox,  M.  N.  Grant.  John  W.  Hoyt,  John  AIcGill 
and  A.  L.  Sutherland.  Carbon— C.  W.  Burdick,  Robert  C.  Butler,  J.  A.  Casebeer, 
J.  C.  Davis,  George  Ferris,  George  C.  Smith,  W.  N.  Strobridge  and  Charles  L. 
Vagner.  Converse— M.  C.  Barrow.  J.  K.  Calkins,  W.  C.  Irvine  and  De  Forest 
Richards.  Crook — Frank  Meyer,  Thomas  H.  Moore,  R.  H.  Scott  and  Joseph 
L.  Stotts.  Fremont — Noyes  Baldwin,  D.  A.  Preston  and  H.  G.  Nick- 
erson.  Johnson — Charles  H.  Burritt,  H.  S.  Elliott  and  John  M.  ^IcCandlish. 
Laramie — George  W.  Baxter.  A.  C.  Campbell,  Henry  G.  Hay,  John  K.  Jeffrey, 
James  A.  Johnston,  E.  S.  N.  Morgan,  Caleb  P.  Organ,  Charles  N.  Potter.  Thomas 
R.  Reid,  John  A.  Riner  and  H.  E.  Teschemacher.  Sheridan — Cornelius  Boul- 
ware,  Henry  A.  Cofifeen  and  William  N.  Robinson.  Sweetwater — Asbury  B. 
Conaway,  Mark  Hopkins,  Herman  F.  Menough,  Louis  J.  Palmer  and  Edward  J. 
Morris.  Uinta— C.  D.  Clark,  C.  W.  Holden,  F.  M.  Foote,  Jonathan  Jones,  Jesse 
Knight  and  John  L.  Russell. 


The  convention  met  at  noon  on  Alonday,  September  2,  1889,  and  a  temporary 
organization  was  effected  by  the  election  of  Henry  S.  ElHott  of  Johnson  County, 
chairman,  and  John  K.  Jeffrey  of  Laramie  County,  secretary.  Melville  C.  Brown 
of  Albany  County  was  chosen  president  of  the  convention  and  John  K.  Jeffrey 
was  elected  permanent  secretary.  Governor  Warren's  suggestion  that  the  dele- 
gates ought  to  be  men  "of  character  and  ability"  seems  to  have  been  generally 
followed  by  the  districts  in  electing  delegates.  In  the  convention  were  two 
ex-governors,  one  ex-secretary  of  the  territory,  three  had  held  the  office  of 
United  States  attorney,  one  the  office  of  territorial  auditor,  one  was  afterward 
elected  governor  of  the  state,  one  became  United  States  senator,  and  four  occu- 
pied seats  upon  the  Supreme  bench  of  Wyoming. 

The  constitution  was  completed  on  the  last  day  of  September,  1889,  and  was 
signed  by  forty  of  the  delegates,  the  other  memljers  of  the  convention  having  been 
obliged  to  return  to  their  homes  before  the  final  adjournment.  John  A.  Riner, 
Clarence  D.  Clark,  John  W.  Hoyt,  Henry  S.  Elliott,  William  C.  Irvine,  Henry 
A.  Coffeen,  H.  G.  Nickerson,  J.  A.  Casebeer,  E.  S.  N.  Morgan  and  Louis  J. 
Palmer  were  appointed  a  committee  to  prepare  a  memorial  on  behalf  of  the 
convention  for  presentation  to  Congress,  urging  the  passage  of  an  act  admitting 
Wyoming  to  statehood.  On  November  5,  i88g,  at  an  election  held  for  the  pur- 
pose, the  constitution  was  submitted  to  the  people.  It  was  a  cold,  snowy  day 
and  a  light  vote  was  polled,  but  five-sixths  of  the  votes  cast  were  in  favor  of 
ratifying  the  constitution.  The  committee  appointed  by  the  convention  then  pre- 
pared a  memorial  setting  forth  all  the  facts  in  the  case,  which  memorial  was 
presented  to  Congress  by  Joseph  M.  Carey  at  the  beginning  of  the  ensuing  session 
in  December. 

In  the  meantime  the  constitution  had  been  favorably  commented  on  by  the 
press  of  the  country,  particularly  the  clause  giving  the  right  of  suffrage  to  women, 
and  it  had  received  encomiums  from  eminent  statesmen  and  publicists,  among 
whom  were  George  W.  Curtis,  editor  of  Harper's  Weekly,  and  William  E.  Glad- 
stone, at  that  time  Great  Britain's  premier.  Through  these  favorable  comments 
and  encomiums  the  members  of  Congress  were  generally  well  acquainted  with 
the  provisions  of  the  constitution  before  they  were  called  upon  to  act  in  their 
official  capacity  for  the  admission  of  the  new  state.  Joseph  M.  Carey,  then  the 
delegate  in  Congress,  worked  early  and  late  to  secure  the  passage  of  the  bill 
admitting  Wyoming  into  the  Union.  The  bill  finally  passed  both  houses  early 
in  July,  1890.  On  the  9th  of  that  month  S.  W.  Downey  and  H.  V.  S.  Groesbeck 
telegraphed  their  congratulations  to  Mr.  Carey  upon  the  successful  termination 
of  his  efforts,  and  the  following  day  they  received  this  reply : 

"Washington,  D.  C,  July   10,   1890. 

"Accept  thanks  for  congratulations.  The  people  of  Wyoming  have  won  a 
great  victory.     The  President  made  Wyoming  a  state  at  5  130  this  afternoon. 

"j.    M.    CAREY." 
.ACT   OK    .\DM1SSI0N 

The  act  approved  by  President  Harrison  at  3:30  P.  M.,  July  10,  1890.  under 
which  the  State  of  W'yoming  was  admitted  into  the  Union,  consists  of  twenty-one 
sections,  introduced  by  the  following  preamble : 


"Whereas,  The  people  of  the  Territory  of  Wyoming  did,  on  the  30th  day 
of  September,  1889,  by  a  convention  of  delegates  called  and  assembled  for  that 
purpose,  form  for  themselves  a  constitution,  which  constitution  was  ratified 
and  adopted  by  the  people  of  said  territory  at  the  election  held  therefor  on  the 
first  Tuesday  in  November,  1889,  which  constitution  is  republican  in  form  and 
is  in  confiirniity  with  the  Constitution  of  the  United  States;  and 

"W  licrras.  Said  convention  and  the  people  of  said  territory  have  asked  the 
admission  of  said  territory  into  the  Union  of  states  on  an  equal  footing  with  the 
original  states  in  all  respects  whatever ;  therefore,  be  it  enacted,"  etc. 

"Section  i.  That  the  State  of  Wyoming  is  hereby  declared  to  be  a  state 
of  the  United  States  of  America,  and  is  hereby  declared  admitted  into  the  Union 
on  an  equal  footing  with  the  original  states  in  all  respects  whatever;  and  that 
the  constitution  which  the  people  of  Wyoming  have  formed  for  themselves  be, 
and  the  same  is  hereby,  accepted,  ratified  and  confirmed." 

Section  2  defines  the  boundaries,  which  are  the  same  as  at  the  present  time ; 
section  3  fixes  the  representation  in  Congress  as  two  senators  and  one  member 
of  the  House  of  Representatives ;  section  4  sets  apart  the  sections  of  land  num- 
bered 16  and  36  in  each  township  for  the  support  of  a  pubHc  school  system; 
section  5  relates  to  the  same  subject ;  section  6  grants  "fifty  sections  of  the  unap- 
propriated public  lands  within  the  state  for  the  purpose  of  erecting  public  build- 
ings at  the  capital,"  etc. :  section  7  donates  5  per  cent  of  the  proceeds  of  all  sales 
of  public  lands  within  the  state  to  the  school  fund;  sections  8  to  11  relate  to  the 
land  grants  under  previous  acts  of  legislation,  for  the  penitentiary,  fish  hatchery 
and  agricultural  college,  etc.,  to-wit:  For  the  insane  asylum  in  Uinta  County, 
30,000  acres ;  for  the  penal,  reform  and  educational  institution  in  course  of 
construction  in  Carbon  County,  30,000  acres ;  for  the  penitentiary  in  Albany 
County,  30,000  acres ;  for  the  fish  hatchery  in  Albany  County,  5,000  acres ;  for 
the  deaf,  dumb  and  blind  asylum  in  Laramie  County,  30,000  acres :  for  the  poor 
farm  in  Fremont  County,  10,000  acres ;  for  the  miners'  hospital,  30,000  acres ; 
for  public  buildings  at  the  capital,  75,000  acres ;  and  for  the  state  charitable, 
penal  and  reformatory  institutions,  260,000  acres,  making  a  total  of  500,000 
acres  in  addition  to  the  specific  land  grants  already  mentioned.  The  act  also 
contains  a  provision  that  none  of  the  lands  granted  should  be  sold  for  less  than 
ten  dollars  an  acre. 

The  next  three  sections  prescribe  the  manner  in  which  all  lands  granted  to 
the  state  should  be  selected.  Section  15  appropriated  $3,000  to  defray  the  expenses 
of  the  constitutional  convention.  Sections  16,  17  and  18  provide  for  the  estab- 
lishment of  a  United  States  District  Court  for  Wyoming,  and  fix  the  time  and 
place  of  holding  terms  of  the  United  States  District  and  Circuit  courts.  Section  19 
relates  to  the  election  of  United  States  senators,  and  the  last  two  sections  authorize 
the  territorial  officials  to  remain  in  office  until  a  state  election  could  be  held,  and 
declare  that  the  laws  of  the  United  States  shall  apply  to  the  State  of  Wyoming. 


Almost  as  soon  as  news  of  the  passage  of  the  act  of  admission  reached  Chey- 
enne, preparations  were  commenced  for  a  proper  observation  of  the  victory 
that  had  been  gained  by  the  people  of  Wyoming.     July  23,   1890,  was  selected 

HISTORY  OF  WYOMIXG         .  193 

as  the  date,  and  invitations  were  sent  to  all  parts  of  the  state,  asking  the  citizens 
to  join  in  the  demonstration.  The  celebration  began  with  a  parade  at  2  o'clock 
in  the  afternoon.  At  the  head  of  the  procession  was  the  Seventeenth  Infantry 
IJanJ  and  a  detachment  of  troops  from  Fort  D.  A.  Russell.  The  second  division 
was  led  by  the  Union  Pacific  Band  and  the  Wyoming  National  Guard.  One  fea- 
ture of  the  parade  was  both  novel  and  instructive.  On  a  large  float,  handsomely 
decorated,  were  forty-two  young  women,  representing  the  forty-two  states  of 
the  Union.  Immediately  behind  the  float  came  a  small  carriage  draw^n  by  two 
diminutive  Shetland  ponies.  In  the  pony  carriage  were  three  little  girls — Grace 
Cowhick,  representing  the  Goddess  of  Liberty ;  Frankie  Warren,  representing 
the  State  of  Wyoming;  and  a  little  Miss  Elliott,  representing  the  State  of  Idaho. 
These  two  states  had  both  been  recognized  by  Congress,  but  had  not  yet  been 
vested  with  the  full  powers  of  statehood.  The  tableau  seemed  to  say  to  the 
occupants  of  the  float  in  front:  "You  may  look  down  upon  us  now,  but  we 
shall  be  on  the  big  wagon  by  and  by." 

In  front  of  the  capitol  a  grandstand  had  been  erected  and  here  Governor 
Warren  presided  over  the  exercises.  Mrs.  Theresa  A.  Jenkins  was  the  first 
speaker.  She  reviewed  the  struggle  in  behalf  of  woman  suffrage,  which  had 
teen  incorporated  in  the  constitution,  and  in  concluding  her  address  said :  "Bar- 
tholdi's  statue  of  Liberty  Enlightening  the  World  is  fashioned  in  the  form  of 
a  woman  and  placed  upon  a  pedestal  carved  from  the  everlasting  granite  of  the 
New  England  hills ;  but  the  women  of  Wyoming  have  been  placed  upon  a  firmer 
foundation  and  hold  aloft  a  more  brilliant  torch." 

At  the  conclusion  of  Mrs.  Jenkins'  address,  Mrs.  Esther  Morris,  who  has 
been  called  "the  mother  of  woman  suffrage  in  Wyoming,"  presented  to  the  State 
of  Wyoming  a  fine  flag,  bearing  forty-four  stars,  which  was  accepted  by  Governor 
Warren,  as  chief  executive,  in  a  few  well  chosen  words,  after  which  the  two 
bands  and  the  entire  audience  of  some  six  thousand  persons  joined  in  rendering 
"The  Star  Spangled  Banner." 

Mrs.  I.  S.  Bartlett  was  then  introduced  and  read  an  original  poem,  entitled 
■"The  True  Republic,"  which  is  here  reproduced  in  full. 


The  first  republic  of  the  world 
Now  greets  the  day,  its  flag  unfurled 

To  the  pure  mountain  air; 
On  plains,  in  canyon,  shop  and  mine. 
The  star  of  equal  rights  shall  shine 
From  its  blue  folds,  with  light  divine — 

A  symbol  bright  and  fair. 

The  flashing  presence  of  today 
Startles  our  ancient  dreams  away. 

Wrapped  in  her  shadows  dim 
Old  memory  flees;  with  vivid  glance 
Today  uplifts  her  shining  lance ; 
Her  arm  is  might,  her  brow  is  light, 

Her  voice  a  thrilling  hvmn. 

194  .         HISTORY  OF  WYO-MIXG 

Shine  on,  oh  star !     Xo  flag  of  old, 
No  standard  raised  by  warrior  bold 

In  all  the  days  of  yore, 
For  chivalric  or  kingly  claim, 
For  honor  bright  or  woman's  name, 
Has  ever  shone  with  brighter    flame 

Than  peerless  forty-four. 

Fair  state  of  honor — Freedom's  pride. 
There's  none  in  all  the  world  beside 

That  wears  so  rich  a  gem. 
A  commonwealth  where  all  are  free, 
Where  all  find  true  equality, 
First  in  the  world,  the  world  shall  see 

'Tis  Freedom's  diadem. 

The  battle's  fought,  the  battle's  won, 
With  thankful  hearts  we  say  "Well  done" 

To  all  our  champions  brave. 
Xo  carnage  marked  the  earnest  fight. 
But  souls  aflame  and  nerved  with  right 
Urged  on  the  conflict  day  and  night. 

Our  statehood  cause  to  save. 

God  bless  our  State ! 
Nature  rejoices,  too;  our  mountains  high 

Above  the  clouds  arc  touched  with  brighter  light ; 
A  new  charm  fills  the  overarching  sky 

And  thrills  earth's  denizens  with  visions  bright. 

God  bless  our  State ! 
The  geysers  throw  their  splendid  watery  plumes 

Still  higher  in  their  ancient  wonderland. 
The  restless  mountain  torrent  frets  and  fumes 

More  loudly  on  its  journey  to  the  strand. 

God  bless  our  State ! 
The  very  air  with  new,  fresh  life  is  stirred. 

The  free,  exultant  birds  more  sweetly  sing. 
And  Nature's  changing  voices  ever  heard 

Unto  our  souls  new  happiness  shall  bring. 

God  bless  our  State ! 
Where'er  her  mighty  rivers  swiftly  run, 

Where'er  her  mountain  peaks  shall  pierce  the  sky, 
Where'er  her  plains  sweep  to  the  rising  sun. 

And  peaceful  valleys  in  the  shadows  lie. 


God  bless  our  State ! 
Its  new  career  begun,  let  all  rejoice, 

And  man  and  woman,  hand  in  hand,  as  one 
With  energies  of  body,  heart  and  voice 

Make  it  a  happy  land  where  all  may  come. 

If  we  look  within  the  future,  our  prophetic  eyes  can  see 
Glorious  views  unfold  before  us,  of  joy,  wealth,  prosperity. 

We  can  see  the  sons  of  Science,  Alusic,  Poetry  and  Art 
Coming  to  our  grand  dominion,  in  our  growth  to  take  a  part. 

\\'e  can  see  the  iron  monster,  rushing  fiercely  to  and   fro, 
^^'e  can  see  the  sky  o'erspread  with  smoke  from  furnaces  below. 

We  can  see  Wyoming's  mountains  giving  up  their  hidden  stores, 
Tons  on  tons,  by  millions  pouring,  of  the  base  and  precious  ores. 

See  her  towns  and  cities  rising  where  the  bison  used  to  roam. 
And  along  her  streams  and  valleys  many  a  farmer's  peaceful  home. 

We  can  see  great  halls  of  learning,  well  endowed  and  nobly  planned, 
Monuments  of  taste  and  culture  for  the  children  of  our  land. 

We  can  see  the  spires  of  churches,  pointing  upward  to  our  gaze; 
Chiming  bells,  harmonious  sounding,  calling  us  to  prayer  and  praise. 

See  the  plains,  now  dry  and  barren,  where  the  sage  or  cactus  grows. 
Desert  plains,  no  longer  barren,  then  shall  "blossom  like  the  rose." 

Thirsty  lands,  no  longer  thirsty,  filled  with  moisture  wisely  stored. 
Bounteous  to  the  happy  farmer,  noble  har\ests  will  aft'ord. 

Happy  are  Wyoming's  peojjle,  happier  will  our  future  be. 
So  we  sing  today  with  gladness,  and  we  shout  for  victory. 

Let  the  bells  ring  out  more  loudly  and  the  deep-toned  cannon  roar. 
Giving  voice  to  our  thanksgiving,  such  as  never  rose  before. 

For  we  tread  enchanted  ground  today,  we're  glorious,  proud  and  great ; 
Our  independence  day  has  come — \\'yoming  is  a  State  ! 

Melville  C.  Brown,  who  had  been  president  of  the  constitutional  convention, 
then  came  forward  and  presented  Mrs,  Amelia  B.  Post,  "as  a  representative 
woman  of  Wyoming,"  with  a  copy  of  the  constitution.  Mrs.  Post  responded 
on  behalf  of  the  women  of  the  state,  thanking  Judge  Brown  and  the  convention 
for  giving  the  women  of  Wyoming  equal  civic  and  political  rights  with  men. 
Then  the  oration  of  the  day  was  delivered  by  Clarence  D.  Clark  of  Evanston, 


who  was  delegate  to  the  constitutional  convention  and  a  member  of  the  com- 
mittee which  presented  the  final  memorial  to  Congress  praying  for  the  admis- 
sion of  the  state.  The  celebration  came  to  an  end  with  a  display  of  fireworks 
and  grand  ball  in  the  evening. 

After  the  festivities,  the  people  of  Wyoming  settled  down  to  the  more  serious 
business  of  inaugurating  their  state  government.  The  first  election  for  state 
officers  was  held  on  Thursday,  September  ii.  1890.  and  resulted  in  the  choice 
of  the  following:  Francis  E.  Warren,  governor;  Amos  W.  Barber,  secretary  of 
state;  Otto  Gramm,  treasurer  of  state;  Charles  ^^'.  Burdick,  auditor  of  state; 
Stephen  T.  Farwell,  superintendent  of  public  instruction;  Willis  Van  Devanter, 
chief  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court;  Herman  \'.  S.  Groesbeck  and  Asbury  B. 
Conaway,  associate  justices ;  Clarence  D.  Clark,  representative  in  Congress.  On 
October  11,  1890,  the  state  officers  were  installed  in  their  respective  positions 
and  the  State  of  Wyoming  took  her  place  among  her  sister  states — the  forty- 
fourth  star  in  the  American  constellation. 









Wyoming  enjoys  the  unique  distinction  of  being  the  first  territory  and  state 
to  give  women  the  full  and  unqualified  right  of  suiTrage,  including  the  right  to 
hold  office.  In  the  "wild  and  woolly'  west,  the  territorial  republic  of  Wyoming 
in  the  first  session  of  its  legislature  in  December.  1869.  enacted  a  law,  which  was 
approved  by  the  governor,  and  which  reads  as  follows : 

"Every  woman  of  the  age  of  twenty-one  years  residing  in  this  territory,  may. 
at  every  election,  cast  her  vote ;  and  her  right  to  the  elective  franchise  and  to 
hold  office  under  the  election  laws  of  the  territory  shall  be  the  same  as  those  of 

Thus  from  our  primeval  mountains  and  plains  was  fired  the  first  shot  for  equal 
suffrage  "that  was  heard  around  the  world." 


When  the  brave  pioneers  and  empire  builders  of  the  territory  startled  the 
country  with  this  enactment,  Wyoming  had  less  than  cj,ooo  inhabitants.  It  was 
a  scene  of  "magnificent  distances"  between  human  habitations,  with  broad  plains, 
high  mountains  and  great  forests  intervening.  Bands  of  hostile  Indians  roamed 
over  much  of  the  territory.  The  buffalo  ranged  at  will,  and  thousands  of  antelope 
were  at  home  on  the  plains  and  foothills,  while  in  the  mountains,  immense  herds 
of  elk  were  everywhere  grazing,  as  near  neighbors  of  the  big  horn,  the  mountain 
lion  and  the  bear. 

The  adventurers  and  desperadoes  that  floated  in  with  the  incoming  settlers 
had  nothing  to  do  with  making  laws.  They  were  transients  and  pilgrims.  The 
real,  bona  fide  first  settlers  of  Wyoming  were  men  of  sterling  character,  of 
broad  vision  and  undoubted  courage.  They  were  largely  made  up  from  the  young 
veterans  of  the  South  who  fought  under  Lee  and  Jackson,  or  those  whose  mettle 


had  been  proved  in  battles  under  Grant  and   Sherman.     They  had  learned   by 
thrilling  experiences  the  lessons  of  liberty  and  equality.     They  were  unafraid. 


It  seems  to  be  the  destiny  of  new  states  to  work  out  the  problems  of  a  pro- 
gressive civilization.  The  fathers  who  made  the  American  Constitution,  which 
has  been  called  "the  greatest  human  document,"  were  pioneers  and  frontiers- 
men, nurtured  by  forest  and  stream  and  mountain,  sons  of  nature,  and  therefore 
sons  of  liberty.  This  enactment,  therefore,  was  not  the  result  of  an  idle  fancy. 
nor  as  has  sometimes  been  asserted,  "a  joke."  or  a  bid  for  notoriety.  Every  step 
in  its  passage  through  the  Legislature  shows  the  grim  determination  of  its  sup- 
porters, no  matter  how  much  ridicule  nor  how  many  quips  were  thrown  at  it 
by  its  opponents. 

It  was  the  serious  and  conscientious  expression  of  a  body  of  men  who  were 
animated  by  sentiments  of  lofty  respect  and  admiration  for  women,  and  -who 
believed  that  as  a  measure  of  common  justice  they  should  be  granted  the  same 
rights  and  privileges  that  were  given  to  men.  This  is  amply  proven  by  other 
enactments  presented  and  passed  by  the  same  Legislature,  as,  for  example.  "An 
act  to  protect  women  in  their  property  rights" ;  a  provision  inserted  in  the  bill 
establishing  a  school  system,  that  "Women  school  teachers  should  receive  the 
same  pay  as  men  for  the  same  service,"  and  a  resolution  "That  the  sergeant  at 
arms  be  required*to  assign  seats  within  the  bar  of  the  house  to  ladies  who  wished 
to  attend  the  deliberations  of  this  body."  Nobody  thought  there  was  anything 
jocose  or  sensational  about  these  propositions,  although  they  represent  a  senti- 
ment half  a  century  in  advance  of  the  old  states  at  that  time. 


The  proceedings  of  the  first  Legislature  of  Wyoming  Territory  will  always 
be  interesting  to  the  student  of  history  and  the  advocates  of  equal  suffrage. 
The  session  began  October  12  and  ended  December  11.  i86g. 

In  looking  over  the  house  journal,  one  wdll  find  in  the  proceedings  a  moving 
picture  the  wants  and  conditions  of  a  frontier  people.  For  instance,  a  bill  was 
introduced  to  build  a  road  south  from  Sherman  to  the  North  Park  gold  mines, 
and  a  road  north  from  the  Town  of  Wyoming  to  the  Last  Chance  gold  mines. 
This  shows  they  had  a  vision  of  the  need  of  good  roads  even  in  those  primitive 
days.  There  were  frequent  references  in  bills  to  Indian  raids  in  the  Wind  River 
\'alley  and  South  Pass.  A  memorial  to  Congress  was  passed  asking  the  removal 
of  the  headquarters  of  the  military  department  from  Omaha  to  Fort  Russell. 
These  propositions  are  all  evidence  of  the  enterprise,  public  spirit  and  farseeing 
statesmanship  of  the  noble  band  of  territorial  legislators  who  blazed  the  way  for 
woman's  suffrage  on  this  continent. 

The  organic  act  creating  Wyoming  Territory  was  passed  by  Congress  and 
approved  July  25.  186S.  The  first  governor  and  secretary  were  appointed  and 
qualified  April  15.  1869,  and  on  May  19.  1869.  the  judicial  officers  reported  for 
duty,  thus  completing  the  territorial  organization.  An  election  was  soon  ordered, 
resuhins  in  the  organization  of  the  Legislature  on  October  12,  1869. 

TABLET   PLACED  BY   THE   (  IIM  l,\ 
THE  D.  A.  R.  TO  lEARK  SITI     WIN 
OP    THE    FIRST    T1:RHIT()1;1  \L     L 
\VYOML\G       COXVEXEH,       Willi  II 
EXACTED    THE    FIRSF     \\()\l\\ 


The  governor  was  John  A.  Campbell ;  the  secretary,  Edward  M.  Lee ;  United 
States  attorney,  Joseph  M.  Carey;  United  States  marshal.  Church  Howe;  and  the 
delegate  to  Congress  was  Stephen  F.  Xuckolls.  The  names  of  the  legislators  were 
as   follows : 

Council — Fred  Laycock  and  J.  W.  Brady  of  Albany  County;  W.  H.  Bright 
and  G.  W.  Wardman  of  Carter  County;  J.  R.  Whitehead,  T.  D.  Murrin  and  T. 
W.  Poole  of  Laramie  County ;  George  Wilson  of  Carbon  County ;  and  William 
E.  Darby  at  large.     Nine  members.     W.  H.  Bright,  president. 

House — J.  C.  Abney,  Posey  S.  Wilson,  Howard  Sebree  and  Herman  Haas 
of  Laramie  County;  William  Herrick,  J.  N.  Douglas  and  Louis  Miller  of  Albany 
County;  James  W.  Menefee,  Ben  Sheeks  and  John  Holbrook  of  Carter  County; 
S.  M.  Curran  and  J.  M.  Freeman  of  Carbon  County;  J.  C.  Strong  at  large. 
Thirteen  members.     S.  M.  Curran,  speaker. 

The  woman's  suffrage  bill  was  introduced  November  27th.  by  W.  H.  Bright, 
president  of  the  council,  and  was  passed  in  that  body  and  sent  to  the  house 
November  30,  1869.  The  text  of  the  bill,  being  Council  Bill  No.  70,  was  as 
follows : 

"Every  woman  of  the  age  of  eighteen  years  residing  in  this  territory,  mav,  at 
every  election  cast  her  vote ;  and  her  right  to  the  elective  franchise  and  to  hold 
office  under  the  election  laws  of  the  territory  shall  be  the  same  as  those  ot 

Section  2  provided  that  "this  act  shall  take  efTect  from  and  after  its  passage." 


When  the  bill  reached  the  house,  November  30th,  it  was  taken  up  and  read 
the  first  time,  and  on  motion  of  Ben  Sheeks  the  rules  were  suspended  and  the 
bill  read  a  second  time  and  referred  to  a  committee  of  the  whole  house  and 
made  a  special  order  for  7  o'clock  that  evening.  This  action  was  rushing  the 
measure  beyond  ordinary  precedent.  At  the  evening  session,  Mr.  Douglas  moved 
that  the  house  reconsider  its  action  on  Council  Bill  No.  70,  "an  act  granting  the 
right  of  suffrage  to  the  women  of  Wyoming  Territory,"  made  special  order  for 
this  hour,  and  that  it  be  referred  to  a  special  committee.  This  was  carried  and 
the  speaker  named  Messrs.  Douglas,  Menefee  and  Abney  as  such  special  com- 
mittee.    On  December  4th  this  committee  made  the  following  report: 

"Your  special  committee  to  whom  was  referred  Council  Bill  No.  70,  'An  act 
to  give  the  women  of  Wyoming  the  right  of  sufTrage,'  have  had  the  same  under 
consideration  and  report  it  back  to  the  house  recommending  its  passage." 

"J.  W.  D0UGLA.S,  Chairman." 

This  report  having  the  unanimous  support  of  the  committee,  it  will  be  seen 
between  the  lines  that  all  its  supporters  were  in  earnest  in  favoring  the  bill 
and  they  used  the  best  parliamentary  strategy  in  taking  it  safely  through  its 
different  stages,  and  especially  in  having  it  referred  to  a  favorable  committee. 
When  the  report  of  the  committee  was  taken  up  the  same  day,  ^Ir.  Sheeks 
moved  to  postpone  the  consideration  of  the  bill  indefinitely.  This  was  lost,  and 
on  motion  of  Mr.  Douglas  the  bill  was  made  special  order  for  7  o'clock  P.  M. 
At  the  evening  session,  on  motion  of  Mr.  Strong,  the  house  resolved  itself  into 
a  committee  of  the  whole  for  consideration  of  the  bill.     JNIr.  Douglas,  a  warm 


supporter  of  the  bill,  was  called  to  the  chair.     After  a  free  and  lively  discussion 
of  the  measure,  the  committee  rose  and  made  the  following  report : 

"Mr.  Speaker,  the  committee  of  the  whole  have  had  Council  Liill  No.  70,  a 
bill  for  'An  act  to  Grant  the  Women  of  Wyoming  the  Right  of  Suffrage,'  under 
consideration  and  report  the  same  back  to  the  house." 

J.  \\'.  DouGL.vs,  Chairman. 

Air.  Wilson  moved  that  the  report  be  received.     Lost. 

Air.  Sheeks  mo\ed  to  adjourn.    Lost. 

Air.  Strong  moved  to  reconsider  the  vote  on  the  reception  of  the  report  of  the 
committee  of  the  whole  on  Council  Bill  No.  70.     Lost. 

Air.  Strong  appealed  from  the  decision  of  the  chair.    Appeal  not  sustained. 

The  house  then  proceeded  to  consider  other  business  and  left  the  committee's 
report  hanging  in  mid-air.  It  was  neither  accepted  nor  rejected — a  peculiar  par- 
liamentary situation. 

THE  R.\CY  DE1!.\TE 

The  bill  next  came  before  the  house  on  December  6th,  when  the  final  struggle 
for  its  passage  was  made.  The  speaker  called  Air.  Sebree  to  the  chair.  On  motion 
of  Mr.  Strong  a  call  of  the  house  was  had  and  absentees  sent  for.  They  were 
all  brought  in  but  two,  Freeman  and  Haas.  Sheeks  moved  to  take  a  recess.  Lost. 
From  this  time  on,  all  kinds  of  dilatory,  obstructive  and  ridiculous  motions  were 
made  by  the  opposition  and  were  promptly  voted  down.  Curran  moved,  that 
consideration  of  the  bill  be  postponed  until  July  4,  1870.  Lost.  Sheeks  moved 
to  postpone  action  on  the  bill  until  Saturday  next.  (That  time  was  after  the 
Legislature  had  adjourned.)  Lost.  Curran  moved  to  insert  in  section  2,  the 
words,  "Three  years  or  sooner  discharged."  Lost.  Sheeks  offered  an  amendment 
to  insert  the  words,  "all  colored  women  and  squaws"  in  section  2.  On  motion 
of  Aliller,  Sheeks'  amendment  was  laid  on  the  table.  Air.  Strong  oft'ered  an 
amendment  to  strike  out  the  word  "women'  and  insert  in  lieu  thereof  the  word 
"Ladies."  This  was  laid  on  the  table.  On  motion  of  Mr.  Sheeks  the  word 
"eighteen"  was  stricken  out  and  the  words  "twenty-one"  inserted  instead.  On 
motion  of  Air.  Nelson  the  rules  were  suspended,  the  bill  read  a  third  time  by  title 
,  and  put  upon  its  passage.  A  vote  was  then  taken  on  the  bill  which  passed  as 
follows : 

-Ayes — Alessrs.  Abney,  Douglas,  Herrick,  Aliller,  Alenefee,  Sebree  and  Wilson 


Nays — Alessrs.  Holbrook,    Sheeks,   Strong   and   Speaker   Curran — 4. 

In  order  to  clinch  the  passage  of  the  bill  and  prevent  any  further  filibustering. 
Air.  Wilson  moved  a  reconsideration  of  the  action  taken.  This  being  lost,  pre- 
vented any  other  member  from  making  such  a  motion. 


Judging  from  the  Journal  very  little  debate  occurred  on  the  suft'rage  bill  in  the 
Council.  The  measure  had  a  majority  from  the  first  and  at  no  time  did  the  opposi- 
tion develop  any  fighting  propensity  or  attempt  parliamentary  obstructions.  The 
fact  that  William  H.  Bright.  President  of  the  Council,  introduced  the  measure 


may  account  in  part  for  the  courtesy  with  which  its  opponents  treated  it,  at  dif- 
ferent stages  of  the  proceedings,  from  its  introduction  to  its  final  passage.. 

Mr.  Bright  gave  notice  on  November  12,  1869,  that  he  would  "introduce  a  bill 
for  "Woman's  Rights'  on  Monday,  or  some  subsequent  day.''  The  bill  however, 
did  not  appear  until  November  27th  at  the  opening  of  the  morning  session  when 
Mr.  Bright  is  recorded  as  introducing  a  bill,  "For  an  Act  giving  to  the  \\'omen  of 
Wyoming  the  Right  of  Suffrage." 

It  was  then  read  for  the  first  and  second  time  and  referred  to  the  Committee 
of  the  Whole.  During  the  forenoon  of  that  day  the  committee  held  a  session 
and  reported  the  bill  back  to  the  Council  with  the  recommendation  that  it  be 
passed.  It  was  filed  on  the  calendar  as  Bill  No.  70.  and  three  days  later,  on 
November  30th.  it  was  read  the  third  time  and  put  upon  its  final  passage,  and  was 
passed  by  the  following  vote : 

Yeas — Brady.  Laycock,  Murrin.  Poole,  Wilson  and  Mr.  President — 6. 
Nays — Rockwell  and  Whitehead — 2. 
Absent — i. 


The  bill  was  then  sent  to  the  House.  On  the  morning  session  of  December  6, 
1869,  the  Council  was  notified  by  a  message  from  the  chief  clerk  of  the  House, 
that  the  House  had  passed  Council  Bill  No.  70,  "An  Act  to  Grant  to  the  Women 
of  Wyoming  Territory  the  Right  of  Suffrage"  with  the  following  amendment: 
section  i,  second  line.  Strike  out  the  word  'Eighteen'  and  insert  the  words 
'Twenty-one.'  The  amendment  was  agreed  to  by  the  Council  by  a  vote  of  six 
to  three. 

Thus  the  bill  had  a  serene  and  uneventful  journey  through  the  Council.  Its 
passage  was  the  result  of  the  serious,  intelligent  judgment  of  that  body  and  the 
record  shows  there  were  no  factions  or  trifling  parliamentary  tactics  used  to  op- 
pose it. 


On  December  loth,  one  day  before  the  adjournment  of  the  Legislature  the  fol- 
lowing message  was  received  by  the  Council, 

"Executive  Department.   W.   T., 
"Cheyenne,  December  10,  1869. 

"To  the  Honorable  President  of  the  Council, 

"I  have  the  honor  to  inform  the  Council  that  I  have  approved  "An  act  to 
grant  to  the  Women  of  ^^'yoming  Territory  the  right  of  Suflfrage  and  to  hold 

"\'ery  respectfully 

"Your  obedient  servant, 

"J.  A.  Campbell. 




On  the  day  following  the  original  passage  of  the  act  in  1809  the  Cheyenne 
Leader  commented  editorially  as  follows: 

"Governor  Campbell  yesterday  approved  the  Female  Suffrage  Bill,  thus  making 
it  a  law  of  the  territory.  We  now  expect  at  once  quite  an  immigration  of  ladies 
to  Wyoming.  We  say  to  them,  Come  on !  There  is  room  for  a  great  many  here 
yet.  When  Wyoming  gets  tired  of  such  additions  we'll  agree  to  let  the  outside 
world  know  the  fact.  Won't  the  irrepressible  Anna  D.  (Dickinson)  come  out 
here  and  make  her  home?  We'll  even  give  her  more  than  the  right  to  vote — 
she  can  run  for  Congress." 


The  legislative  history  of  this  act  would  not  be  complete  without  noting  the 
fact  that  an  attempt  was  made  to  repeal  the  law  at  the  next  session  of  the  Legis- 
lature, two  years  later,  when  curiously  enough  the  alignment  of  the  two  parties 
was  reversed  on  the  proposition.  It  was  originally  passed  by  a  legislature  unani- 
mously democratic.  In  the  session  of  1871,  the  bill  to  repeal  the  act  was  supported 
by  democrats  and  opposed  by  republicans.  It  was  passed  by  both  houses  and 
sent  to  the  governor  who  vetoed  it  in  a  cogent  and  lengthy  message,  in  which  he 
argued  that  a  repeal  would  advertise  to  the  world  that  the  women  of  Wyoming 
in  their  use  of  the  franchise  had  not  justified  its  passage.  This,  he  declared  was 
an  entirely  false  imputation.  He  said  the  argument  that,  the  ability  to  perform 
'military  service  was  essential,  could  not  be  sustained,  as  a  large  part  of  male 
voters  were  exempt  from  such  service :  that  the  law  already  passed  permitting 
women  to  acquire  and  possess  property  and  be  taxed,  should  give  her  a  voice  in 
the  public  management  of  her  property ;  that  she  should  have  a  voice  in  the  man- 
agement of  our  public  schools  where  her  children  were  educated ;  that  the  act 
was  in  harmony  with  the  legislation  already  passed,  in  relation  to  the  property 
rights  of  women  and  the  law  agiiiiist  any  discrimination  in  pay  of  teachers  on  ac- 
count of  sex. 


r)utside  of  Cheyenne,  throughout  the  territory  there  seems  to  have  been  no 
agitation  and  not  much  discussion  in  regard  to  equal  suffrage,  and  there  was 
little,  if  any,  expectation  that  such  a  measure  would  be  passed  by  the  Legislature. 
It  has  been  said  "Tt  is  the  unexpected  that  happens,"  and  it  so  proved  in  this 
far-reaching  act  which  blazed  the  way  for  the  woman  suft'rage  campaigns  that 
were  waged  in  every  state  for  the  next  half  a  century. 

The  passage  of  the  act,  however,  created  a  decided  sensation  throughout  the 
United  States,  and  brought  out  all  kinds  of  comments  "from  grave  to  gay  and  from 
li\-ely  to  severe."  The  old  states  were  astonished  that  the  newest  and  smallest 
territorial  sovereignty  should  have  the  boldness  and  audacity  to  break  down  the 
walls  of  exclusiveness  and  conventionalism  and  march  forth  into  the  open  of 
freedom  and  equal  rights.  It  was  hailed  with  delight  by  true  reformers  and 
thoughtful  progressives  in  the  dift'erent  political  parties. 

204  HISTORY  OF  ^^•Y0.^11XG 

111  other  countries  this  legislation  did  not  seem  so  revolutionary  or  radical,  for 
women  have  enjoyed  partial  suffrage  in  many  lands.  In  Canada  they  may  vote  for 
municipal  officers  and  they  have  that  privilege  in  other  colonies  of  Great  Britain. 
In  France  women  teachers  may  vote  for  members  of  the  boards  of  education.  In 
Russia,  women  who  are  heads  of  households  may  vote  by  proxy  at  village  and 
municipal  elections.  In  Sweden  they  have  municipal  suffrage.  In  some  states 
women  property  holders  may  vote  on  questions  pertaining  to  assessments  of 

THE  .\D\-.\XCING   W.WE 

The  Wyoming  idea,  put  into  practical  operation  in  i86g.  is  now,  like  an  advanc- 
ing wave  submerging  the  governments  of  the  world.  When  states  like  New  York 
adopt  woman  suffrage,  the  nationalization  of  the  reform  will  soon  be  inevitable. 
England  will  no  doubt  soon  reward  the  splendid  work  and  noble  sacrifices  of  her 
women  in  the  present  world  war,  by  investing  them  with  full  suffrage  rights. 
When  we  look  back  to  the  act  of  Wyoming's  pioneers,  we  think,  "How  far  yon 
little  candle  throws  its  beams." 

Wyoming's  EXPERixrENT 

The  writer  was  a  visitor  at  his  old,  colonial  home  in  Massachusetts  in  1Q15 
when  the  question  of  woman  suft'rage  was  at  issue.  Being  requested  to  present 
^\'yoming's  view  and  experiences,  he  said  in  part: 

"There  is  an  old  saying.  'Proof  of  the  pudding  is  in  the  eating.'  Wyoming  has 
had  woman  suffrage  for  nearly  half  a  century.  Surely  that  is  long  enough  time  to 
test  its  practical  results,  as  to  the  individual  citizen,  the  family,  the  home  and  public 
affairs.  Our  experience  therefore  is  more  important  than  any  hypothetical  argu- 
ments or  conjectures  that  the  opponents  of  equal  suffrage  may  present. 

"A  recent  canvass  of  press  opinions  throughout  the  country  made  by  the 
Literary  Digest,  shows  that  every  one  of  the  twenty-six  editors  queried  in  Wyo- 
ming, declared  in  favor  of  full  female  suffrage.  It  must  certainly  be  admitted  that 
this  is  an  expression  of  intelligent  men  versed  in  public  affairs  and  governmental 
policies,  and  we  may  add.  in  the  consensus  of  public  opinion,  the  masses  of  the 
people  of  Wyoming  are  practically  unanimous  on  this  subject. 

"If  it  be  said  that  Wyoming  is  a  wild  west  state  of  cowboys,  sheep  herders 
and  range  riders,  I  answer  that  the  census  will  show  we  stand  in  the  front  rank 
of  states  in  general  education,  and  we  are  among  the  few  states  of  the  Union  that 
have  an  intelligence  qualification  in  granting  suffrage.  Under  our  constitution 
every  voter  must  be  able  to  read  the  state  constitution  in  English,  consequently 
we  can  have  no  illiterate  vote. 

"Wyoming  is  also  at  the  front  in  humane  legislation.  Kind  treatment  to 
animals  is  required  to  be  taught  in  the  public  schools.  Our  code  of  humane  laws 
is  far  in  advance  of  the  old  states  in  their  scope  and  efficiency,  as  our  Humane 
Bureau  is  a  state  institution,  maintained  by  the  state  appropriation  and  its  work 
is  supported  by  the  legal  authorities  of  every  town  and  county. 

"As  a  descendant  of  one  of  the  oldest  Colonial  families  of  Xew  England  I  wish 
you  to  note  this  fact,  our  'wild  west'  is  really  the  product  of  the  East — \\'yoming 


is  more  American  than  Massachusetts,  Cheyenne  is  more  American  than  Ames- 
bury.  Our  state  is  largely  made  up  of  people  from  the  Eastern  and  Southern 
states.  \'ery  few  were  born  here.  We  have  been  translated  from  the  narrow- 
confines  of  New  England  to  a  region  of  grand  possibilities — to  the  vast  plains 
and  lofty  mountains,  the  brilliant  sunshine  and  exhilarating  ozone  of  a  new 
land.  We  are  empire  builders,  both  men  and  women,  and  without  boasting,  I 
may  say  we  have  a  broader  vision  and  more  progressive  ideas  than  those  people 
of  Massachusetts  who  still  persist  in  traveling  in  the  old  ruts. 

"We  are  in  the  general  uplift,  socially,  physically  and  governmentally.  It  is 
the  destiny  of  the  new  states  to  work  out  the  newest  problems  of  a  progressive 
cvilization,  and  we  have  already  solved  the  problem  of  equal  suffrage,  in  a  most 
quiet  and  effective  manner,  and  we  know  it  to  be  not  only  a  privilege,  but  a  right 
for  our  women  to  participate  in.  our  government,  and  so  far  its  effect  has  been 
only  beneficial  in  every  way,  morally,  socially  and  politically.  Going  to  the  polls 
once  a  year  does  not  make  a  woman  less  motherly,  less  gentle  or  less  refined.  In 
all  the  state  of  \\'yoming  we  have  not  heard  of  a  single  home  being  broken  up  by 
women  voting,  or  a  single  divorce  being  caused  by  a  difference  of  political  opinions. 
There  have  been  no  revolutionary,  startling  or  spectacular  effects  from  woman's 
voting,  such  as  have  been  conjured  up  in  the  wild  and  excited  imaginations  of  its 


The  act  granting  suffrage  to  women  also  included  the  right  to  hold  office.  In 
the  month  of  March,  1870,  somebody  in  Laramie,  a  frontier  town,  tift}'  miles 
west  of  Cheyenne,  on  the  Union  Pacific  Railroad,  suggested  the  idea  that  women 
should  serve  as  jurors.  Laramie  had  a  population  then  of  about  2,000,  made  up 
largely  of  adventurers,  camp  followers,  and  with  what  is  termed  the  "tough" 
element  in  practical  control.  The  better  class  of  settlers  who  came  there  to  stay 
and  grow  up  with  the  country,  found  it  difficult  to  maintain  law  and  order.  The 
courts  were  not  effective,  juries  could  not  or  dared  not  convict  the  worst  offenders. 
It  was  reasoned  that  if  women  were  put  on  the  juries  it  could  not  be  any  worse 
and  might  result  in  improving  conditions.  The  whole  arrangement  seems  to  have 
been  agreed  to  by  court  officials  of  the  first  court  convening  soon  after  the  passage 
of  the  act,  the  term  commencing  in  ^larch,  1870. 

The  names  of  the  jurors  at  that  time  were  not  drawn,  but  were  selected  by 
court  officers  and  personally  summoned  by  the  sheriff'.  Both  the  grand  and  petit 
juries  of  that  court  contained  the  names  of  women. 


The  grand  jury  was  first  called  with  the  names  of  the  following  women : 
IMiss  Elisa  Stewart,  school  teacher;  Mrs.  Amelia  Hatcher,  a  widow;  Mrs.  G.  F. 
Hilton,  wife  01  a  physician;  Mrs.  Mary  Mackell,  wife  of  a  clerk  at  Fort  Sanders; 
IMrs.  Agnes  Baker,  wife  of  a  merchant ;  Mrs.  Sarah  ^^'.  Pease,  wife  of  the  deputy 
clerk  of  court.  Dr.  Grace  Raymond  Hebard  in  her  admirable  story  of  the 
"First  Woman  Jury"  appearing  in  the  Journal  of  American  History  in  1913, 


"\Mien  this  jury  had  been  empaneled,  sworn  and  charged,  the  excitement  in 
Laramie  was  intense,  and  the  material  facts,  together  with  the  judge's  charge 
were  telegraphed  all  over  the  world  by  the  associated  press  reporters  who  watched 
every  step  of  the  novel  scene  with  intense  interest." 

At  the  opening  of  the  court,  the  jury  being  in  their  seats,  the  judge  addressed 
them  as  "ladies  and  gentlemen  of  the  grand  jury."  He  assured  them  there  was  no 
impropriety  or  illegality  in  women  serving  as  jurors  and  that  they  would  receive 
the  full  consideration  and  protection  of  the  court.  As  the  judge  finished,  Stephen 
\\'.  Downey,  prosecuting  attorney,  arose  and  moved  to  quash  the  jury  panel  on 
the  ground  that  said  panel  was  not  composed  of  "male  citizens"  as  required  by 
law.  The  court  overruled  this  motion.  Associate  Justice  Kingman  concurring. 
In  fact  the  written  opinion  of  Chief  Justice  Howe  had  been  given  to  Mr.  Downey 
previous  to  the  assembling  of  the  court.  This  grand  jury  was  in  session  three 
weeks  and  investigated  many  cases  including  murders,  cattle  stealing,  illegal 
branding,  etc.  Whenever  a  true  bill  was  returned  it  commenced  with  these  words, 
"We,  good  and  lawful  male  and  female  jurors,  on  oath  do  say." 

The  petit  jury,  empaneled  after  the  grand  jury,  consisted  of  six  women  and 
six  men.  The  women  were:  Mrs.  Retta  J.  Burnham,  wife  of  a  contractor;  Miss 
Nellie  Hazen,  a  school  teacher;  Miss  Lizzie  A.  Spooner,  sister  of  a  hotel  keeper; 
Mrs.  Mary  Wilcox,  wife  cf  a  merchant;  Mrs.  J.  H.  Hayford,  wife  of  an  editor; 
Mrs.  J.  N.  Hartsough.  wife  of  the  ^Methodist  minister.  A  woman  bailiff,  IMrs. 
Mary  Boies,  was  appointed  to  attend  to  this  jury,  being  the  first  woman  bailiff 
known  to  American  history.  The  first  case  was  a  murder  trial,  and  as  no  decision 
was  reached  before  night,  the  jury  was  taken  to  the  Union  Pacific  Hotel  and  two 
rooms  engaged,  one  for  the  men  and  one  for  the  women,  a  man  bailifif  being  on  duty 
as  guard  of  the  men.  As  an  incident  of  their  deliberations,  the  minister's  wife 
asked  the  jurors  to  kneel  down  with  her  in  prayer  "that  they  might  ask  the  aid  of 
the  Great  Court  above  in  arriving  at  a  just  decision." 

After  several  ballots  in  the  murder  case  with  varying  results  the  jury  finally 
agreed  on  a  verdict  of  manslaughter.  During  the  term  many  civil  and  criminal 
cases  were  tried,  and  when  it  was  over,  the  universal  opinion  of  lawyers  and  all 
good  citizens,  was,  that  the  women  showed  ability,  good  sense  and  practical  judg- 
ment in  their  decisions  and  that  the  ends  of  justice  were  attained. 

Mrs.  Sarah  W.  Pease,  one  of  the  grand  jurors,  wrote  an  interesting  account  of 
their  jury  experiences  in  the  Wyoming  Historial  Collections  of  1897.  Of  the  pub- 
licity they  enjoyed  or  suft'ered,  she  says : 

"The  news  was  wired  far  and  near,  and  every  paper  in  the  country  made 
favorable  or  unfavorable  comment,  usually  the  latter.  In  due  time  letters  and 
telegrams  of  inquiry  came  pouring  in.  Newspaper  correspondents  came  flocking 
to  the  town  from  all  parts  of  the  country,  as  well  as  special  artists  from  leading 
illustrated  periodicals.  We  were  constantly  importuned  to  sit  for  our  pictures  in 
a  body,  but  we  steadfastly  refused,  although  great  pressure  was  brought  to  bear 
by  court  officials.  The  jury  was  obliged  to  go  to  the  court  room  once  each  day  and 
I  remember  we  went  closely  veiled  fearing  that  special  artists  would  make  hasty 
sketches  of  us.    Of  course  we  were  caricatured  in  the  most  hideous  manner.    Some 


of  us  were  represented  as  holding  babies  ni  our  laps,  and  a  threadbare  couplet 
appeared  in  many  newspapers  and  still  has  a  place  in  the  guide  books, 

'Baby,  baby,  don't  get  in  a  fury, 

Your  mamma's  gone  to  sit  on  the  jury.'  " 

One  woman,  she  says  gave  them  much  irritation  because  she  persisted  in  knit- 
ting while  in  the  jury  box.  Red  Cross  work  was  not  then  the  vogue.  During  three 
successive  terms  women  were  called  to  serve  on  juries.  When  Judge  Howe  re- 
signed, however,  the  practice  was  discontinued  by  his  successor  who  interpreted 
the  law  to  apply  only  to  "male  citizens.'' 


Mrs.  Esther  Morris  was  one  of  the  earliest  and  most  noted  of  "\\'yoming's 
I)lop.eer  women.  She  from  Illinois  to  \\'yoming  in  1869  and  joined  her 
husband  and  three  sons  at  South  Pass,  then  a  populous  gold  mining  settlement. 
W.  H.  Bright,  the  author  of  the  bill  giving  equal  suffrage  to  women,  was  a 
resident  of  that  camp,  and  as  Mrs.  Morris  was  a  warm  advocate  of  woman's 
rights,  it  is  thought  she  may  have  influenced  Mr.  Bright  in  proposing  the  measure. 
There  is  no  evidence  to  show  that  she  had  anything  to  do  with  the  passage  of  the 
bill,  but  shortly  after  the  Legislature  adjourned  she  was  appointed  justice  of  the 
peace  by  Edwin  M.  Lee,  acting  governor  of  the  territory,  and  filled  the  position 
with  great  credit  to  herself  and  to  the  satisfaction  of  the  people  of  South  Pass. 
She  held  court  in  a  lively  mining  camp  antl  was  obliged  to  hear  and  decide  many 
exciting  and  difficult  cases,  but  in  no  case  were  her  judgments  and  decisions  over- 
ruled. When  her  term  was  finished  The  South  Pass  Xews  of  December  12,  1870, 
made  the  following  comment : 

"Mrs.  Justice  Esther  Morris  retires  from  her  judicial  duties  today.  She  has 
filled  the  positioij  with  great  credit  to  herself  and  secured  the  good  opinion  of  all 
with  whom  she  transacted  any  official  business." 

An  article  in  the  Chicago  Tribune  of  June  17,  1895,  referring  to  her  selection 
as  one  of  the  delegates  to  the  Republican  National  Convention  held  at  Cleveland, 
Ohio,  says:  "Her  career  is  in  some  respects  remarkable,  especially  as  one  of  the 
early  pioneers  of  Illinois  and  Wyoming.  *  *  *  Few  women  of  any  period  have 
been  endowed  with  greater  gifts  than  Esther  Morris.  Her  originality,  wit  and  rare 
powers  of  conversation  would  have  gi\en  her  a  conspicuous  position  in  any 

Mrs.  Morris  was  a  woman  of  great  force  of  character,  natural  ability  and  inde- 
pendent convictions.  In  her  girlhood  days  in  Illinois  she  was  an  ardent  anti- 
slavery  worker.  Her  closing  years  were  spent  at  Cheyenne  with  her  son,  Hon. 
Robert  M.  Morris,  author  of  W'yoming  Historical  Collections.  She  died  in  April, 
1902,  at  the  age  of  90  years,  having  spent  a  serene,  old  age  with  "honor,  love, 
obedience  and  troops  of  friends." 


Although  at  a  later  date,  the  fact  should  be  mentioned  in  this  connection  that 
Wyoming  made  the  first  nomination    for  L'nited   States   Senator  by   legislative 


caucus,  that  was  ever  made  in  this  country.  This  honor  fell  to  Mrs.  I.  .S.  Bartlett. 
whose  interesting  biography  appears  in  another  part  of  this  history.  She  was  the 
unanimous  choice  of  the  people's  party  rejaresentatives  of  the  legislative  session 
of  1893,  when  a  deadlock  prevented  the  election  of  any  senator,  but  Mrs.  Bartlett 
was  so  much  admired  and  respected  by  all  parties  that  she  was  elected  to  the 
position  of  chief  enrolling  clerk  of  the  same  legislature. 


The  question  of  woman  suffrage  had  an  important  place  in  the  constitutional 
convention  which  convened  at  Cheyenne,  September  2,  1889,  for  the  purpose  of 
forming  a  constitution  to  be  submitted  to  Congress.  The  constitution  as  then 
framed,  under  the  head  of  suffrage,  included  this  provision; 

■'Sec.  1.  The  right  of  the  citizens  of  the  State  of  Wyoming  to  vote  and  hold 
office  shall  not  be  denied  or  abridged  on  account  of  sex.  Both  male  and  female 
citizens  of  this  state  shall  equally  enjoy  all  civil,  political  and  religious  rights  and 

The  question  of  submitting  this  as  a  separate  proposition  to  be  voted  upon 
gave  rise  to  a  very  interesting  debate  in  the  convention  and  very  able  speeches 
were  made  by  George  W.  Baxter,  A.  C.  Campbell,  M.  C.  Brown,  Henry  A.  Coffeen, 
lohn  W.  Hoyt,  Charles  H.  Burrit,  C.  W.  Holden  and  A.  B.  Conaway.  The  propo- 
sition for  a  separate  submission  of  this  clause  was  based  on  the  idea  that  Congress 
might  refuse  to  admit  the  state  with  such  a  provision  and  it  might  thus  cause  the 
rejecting  of  statehood.  Such  a  radical  and  tar  reaching  proposition  had  never  been 
put  up  to  Congress  and  the  desire  for  statehood  was  so  strong  and  insistent  that  a 
few  were  willing  to  surrender  their  convictions  on  suft'rage  in  order  to  achieve 
a  sure  admission. 

In  the  end,  however,  the  convention  overwhelmingly  voted  down  the  separation 
of  the  question  and  incorporated  woman  suft'rage  as  a  part  of  the  constitution, 
regardless  of  whether  Congress  liked  it.  or  not.  As  one  speaker  said  in  the 
debate  :  "Rather  than  surrender  that  right  we  will  remain  in  a  territorial  condition 
through  the  endless  cycles  of  time." 

However,  their  fears  were  soon  dispelled.  Through  the  able  and  untiring  efforts 
of  our  representative  in  Congress,  Judge  J.  M.  Carey,  assisted  by  some  of  the 
ablest  members  of  the  house  and  senate  the  admission  bill  was  passed  and  signed 
by  the  President  on  July  10,  1890. 


Col.  W.  H.  Bright,  who  was  president  of  the  territorial  council  when  he  intro- 
duced the  woman  suft'rage  bill,  came  to  Wyoming  from  Washington,  D.  C,  his 
paternal  home.  He  was  a  man  of  intelligence,  broad  minded,  and  independent 
in  his  convictions.  Mr.  Bright  was  a  democrat  and  he  reasoned  that  if  ignorant 
negroes  were  allowed  to  vote,  women  were  certainly  entitled  to  the  privilege. 
Before  the  adjournment  of  the  session,  the  Council  unanimously  passed  the 
following  resolution  commending  his  service  as  their  presiding  officer : 

"Resolved,  That  the  Council  does  hereby  recognize  in  Honorable  W.  H.  Bright, 
our  president,  an  able,  efficient  and  unpartial  officer,  and  that  the  thanks  of  the 


members  of  this  Council  are  hereby  extended  to  that  gentleman,  for  the  abihty 
and  impartiality  with  which  he  has  presided  over  the  deliberations  of  this  session." 

The  first  woman  who  voted  in  Wyoming  according  to  Miss  Hebard's  interesting 
account  in  the  Journal  of  American  History,  was  Mrs.  Eliza  A.  Swain,  a  lady 
seventy  years  of  age,  living  in  Laramie.    The  election  was  on  September  6,  1870. 

"Putting  on  a  clean,  fresh  apron,  she  walked  to  the  polls  early  in  the  morning 
carrying  a  little  bucket  for  yeast  to  be  bought  at  the  baker's  shop  on  her  return 
home."  She  put  in  her  vote  and  went  about  her  business  as  if  it  was  a  natural 
part  of  her  domestic  duties.     Her  picture  is  given  in  Miss  Hebard's  article. 

Some  of  the  highest  offices  in  the  state  have  been  held  by  women,  such  as  mem- 
bers of  legislatures,  state  superintendents  of  public  instruction,  county  superintend- 
ents of  schools,  county  treasurers  and  clerks,  trustees  of  the  State  University, 
judges  of  elections,  delegates  to  state  and  national  conventions,  etc. 

When  Governor  Warren  set  the  date  for  holding  the  Constitutional  Convention 
preparatory  to  statehood,  a  convention  of  the  women  of  the  territory  was  held 
at  Cheyenne  to  demonstrate  their  interest  in  the  government  of  the  state  and  insist 
on  the  preservation  of  their  right  of  suffrage.  This  convention  was  unanimous 
and  enthusiastic.  Mrs.  Amelia  Post  was  elected  chairman  and  a  committee  on 
resolutions  was  appointed  consisting  of  Mrs.  Hale,  widow  of  the  late  governor, 
Mrs.  Morgan,  wife  of  the  territorial  secretary  and  Grace  Raymond  Hebard.  The 
views  expressed  in  the  resolutions  were  practically  adopted  by  the  men. 

RILL  NVE's  humorous  REPORT 

The  story  of  the  adoption  of  woman  suffrage  in  Wyoming  would  not  be  com- 
plete without  giving.  Bill  Xye's  version  of  the  legislative  discussion  of  the  question. 
In  answer  to  a  question  from  a  well  known  editor  of  South  Dakota  as  to  what  he 
knew  of  the  legislative  proceedings  on  the  bill.  Nye  reproduces  some  imaginary 
speeches  made  during  its  discussion  in  the  legislature.  I\Ir.  Bigsby,  a  railroad 
man,  he  reports  as  making  the  following  speech : 

"Gentlemen,  this  is  a  pretty  important  move.  It's  a  kind  of  wild  train  on  a 
single  track,  and  we've  got  to  keep  our  eye  peeled  or  we'll  get  into  the  ditch. 
It's  a  new  conductor  making  his  first  run.  He  don't  know  the  stations  yet,  and 
he  feels  as  if  there  were  a  spotter  in  every  coach  besides.  Female  suffrage 
changes  the  management  of  the  whole  line,  and  may  put  the  entire  outfit  in  the 
hands  of  a  receiver  in  two  years.  We  can't  tell  when  Wyoming  Territory  may  be 
side-tracked  with  a  lot  of  female  conductors  and  superintendents  and  a  posse  of 
giddy  girls  at  the  brakes. 

"I  tell  you  we  want  to  consider  this  pretty  thorough.  Of  course,  we  members 
get  our  time  check  at  the  close  of  the  term,  and  we  don't  care  much,  but  if  the 
young  territory  gets  into  a  hot  box,  or  civilization  has  to  wait  a  few  years  because 
we  get  a  flat  wheel,  and  thus  block  the  track,  or  if  by  our  foolishness  we  telescope 
some  other  territory,  folks  will  point  us  out  and  say.  'there's  where  the  difficulty 
is.'  We  sent  a  choice  aggregation  of  railroad  men  and  miners  and  cattle  men 
down  there  to  Cheyenne,  thinking  we  had  a  carload  of  statesmen  for  to  work  up 
this  thing,  and  here  we  are  without  airy  law  or  airy  gospel  that  we  can  lay  our 
jaw  to  in  the  whole  domain.  However.  Mr.  Speaker.  I  claim  that  I've  got  my 
orders  and  I  shall  pull  out  in  favor  of  the  move.    If  you  boys  will  couple  onto  our 


train,  I  am  moderately  certain  that  we  will  make  no  mistake.  I  regard  it  as  a  pro- 
motion when  I  go  from  the  cattle  train  of  male  ward  politics  to  take  charge  of  a 
train  with  a  parlor  car  and  ladies  belonging  to  the  manifest."     (Applause.) 

The  next  speech  was  made  by  Unusual  Barries,  owner  of  Bar  G  brand  horse 
ranch  and  the  crop  mottle  and  key  Q  monkey-wrench  brand  cattle  ranch  on  the 
Upper  Chugwater.  He  said :  "Mr.  Chairman,  or  Speaker,  or  whatever  you  call 
yourself,  I  can  cut  out  a  steer  or  put  my  red-hot  monogram  on  a  maverick  the 
darkest  night  that  ever  blew,  but  I'm  poorly  put  up  to  paralyze  the  eager  throng 
with  matchless  eloquence.  I  tell  you,  talk  is  inexpensive,  anyhow.  It  is  rum  and 
hired  help  that  costs  money.  I  agree  with  the  chair  that  we  want  to  be  familiar 
with  the  range  before  we  stampede  and  go  wild  like  a  lot  of  Texas  cattle  just  off 
the  trail,  traveling  lOO  miles  a  day  and  filling  their  pelts  with  pizen  weed  and  other 
peculiar  vegetables.  We  want  to  consider  what  we're  about  and  act  with  some 
judgment.  When  we  turn  this  maverick  over  to  the  governor  to  be  branded,  we 
want  to  know  that  we  are  corralling  the  right  animal.  You  can't  lariat  a  broncho 
mule  with  a  morning  glory  vine.  Most  always,  and  after  we've  run  this  bill  into 
the  chute  and  twisted  its  tail  a  few  times,  we  might  want  to  pay  two  or  three  good 
men  to  help  us  let  loose  of  it.  However,  I  shall  vote  for  it  as  it  is,  and  take  the 
chances.  Passing  a  bill  is  like  buying  a  brand  of  cattle  on  the  range,  anyhow. 
You  may  tally  ahead,  and  you  may  get  everlastingly  left  with  a  little  withered 
bunch  of  Texas  frames  that  there  ain't  no  more  hopes  of  fattening  than  there 
would  be  of  putting  flesh  on  a  railroad  bridge." 

The  Legislature  now  took  a  recess,  and  after  a  little  quiet  talk  at  Col.  Luke 
Murrin's  place,  reassembled  to  listen  to  a  brief  speech  by  Buck  Bramel,  a  pros- 
pector, who  discovered  the  Pauper's  Dream  gold  mine.  Buck  said :  "Mr.  Cheers- 
man,  I  don't  know  what  kind  of  a  fist  the  women  will  make  of  politics,  but  I'm 
prepared  to  invest  with  surface  indications.  The  law  may  develop  a  true  fissure 
vein  of  prosperity  and  progress,  or  a  heart-breaking  slide  of  the  mountain.  We 
cannot  tell  till  we  go  down  on  it.  All  we  can  do  is  to  prospect  around  and  drift 
and  develop  and  comply  with  the  L'uited  States  laws  in  such  cases  made  and 
provided.  Then  two  years  more  will  show  whether  we've  got  'mineral  in  place' 
or  not.  If  it  works,  all  right,  the  next  shift  that  comes  to  the  legislature  can 
drift  and  stope  and  stump  and  timber  the  blamed  measure  so  as  to  make  a  good 
investment  of  it  for  future  history.  We  don't  expect  to  declare  a  dividend  the  first 
year.  It'll  take  time  to  show  what  there  is  in  it.  My  opinion  is  that  women  can 
give  this  territory  a  boom  that  will  make  her  the  bonanza  of  all  creation. 

"We've  got  mighty  pretty  blossom  rock  already  in  the  intelligence  and  brains 
of  our  women ;  let  us  be  the  means  of  her  advancement  and  thus  shame  the  old 
and  mossy  civilization  of  other  lands.  Thus  in  time  we  may  be  able  to  send 
missionaries  to  Xew  England.  I  cannot  think  of  anything  more  enjoyable  than 
that  would  be.  I  was  in  California  years  ago.  up  in  the  hills,  looking  for  a  place, 
and  I  ran  into  a  camp  in  a  gulch  there,  where  the  soft  foot-fall  of  women  had 
never  mashed  the  violet  or  squoze  the  fragrance  from  the  wild  columbine.  At  first 
the  boys  thought  it  was  real  nice.  Everything  was  so  quiet  and  life  was  like  a 
dream.  Men  wore  their  whiskers  flowing,  with  burdock  burrs  in  them.  They 
got  down  at  the  heel.  They  got  so  depraved  that  they  neglected  their  manicure 
sets  for  days  at  a  time  and  killed  each  other  thoughtlessly  at  times.  They  also 
wore  their  clothes  a  long  time  without  shame.     They  also  bet  their  dust  foolishly. 


and  the  rum  pathologist  of  the  Little  Xasal  Dye  Works  got  the  wages  of  the  whole 
crew,  live  and  bye  Yankee  school  marms  and  their  brothers  came  up  here,  and 
everything  was  lovely ;  the  boys  braced  up  and  had  some  style  about  'em.  It  was  a 
big  stroke  of  good  luck  to  the  camp. 

'■I  believe  that  the  mother  of  a  statesman  is  better  calculated  to  vote  than  a 
man  that  can't  read  or  write.  I  may  be  a  little  peculiar  but  I  think  that  when  a 
woman  has  marched  a  ban;l  of  hostile  boys  all  the  way  up  to  manhood  and  give 
'em  a  good  start  and  made  good  citizens  out  of  'em,  with  this  wicked  world  to 
buck  agin  all  the  time,  she  can  vote  all  day,  so  far  as  I'm  concerned,  in  preference 
to  the  man  who  don  t  know  whether  Michigan  is  in  Missouri  or  St.  Louis.  I  am  in 
favor  of  making  the  location  and  going  ahead  with  our  assessment  work,  and  I'll 
bet  my  pile  that  there  hain't  been  a  measure  passed  by  our  august  body  this  winter 
that  will  show  more  mineral  on  the  dump  in  five  years  than  this  one." 

The  closing  speech  was  made  by  Elias  Kilgore,  a  retired  stage  driver,  he  also 
favored  the  bill,  and  spoke  as  follows: 

"Mr.  Speaker — The  bill  that's  before  us,  it  strikes  me,  is  where  the  road  forks. 
One  is  the  old  guv'ment  road  that  has  been  the  style  for  a  good  while,  and  the 
other  is  the  cut-otT.  It's  a  new^  road  but  with  a  little  work  on  it,  I  reckon  it's  going 
to  be  the  best  road.  You  men  that  opposes  the  l)ill  has  got  ezzication — some  of 
you — some  of  you  ain't.  You  that  has  it  got  it  at  your  mother's  knee.  Second, 
the  more  Godlike  we  get,  gentlemen,  the  more  rights  we  will  give  women.  The 
closter  you  get  to  the  cannibals  the  more  apt  a  woman  is  to  do  chores  and  get 
choked  for  her  opinions.  I  don't  say  that  a  woman  has  got  to  vote  because  she 
has  the  right,  no  more  than  our  local  vigilance  committee  has  got  to  hang  the 
member  from  Sweetwater  County  because  it  has  a  right  to,  but  it  is  a  good,  whole- 
some brake  on  society  in  case  you  bust  a  hold-back  or  tear  oft  a  harness  strap  when 
you  are  on  a  steep  grade.  The  member  from  Sweetwater  County  says  we  ort  to 
restrik  the  vote  privilege  instead  of  enlarging  it.  He  goes  on  to  say  that  too  many 
folks  is  already  'ntiled  to  vote.  That  inay  be.  Too  many  maudlin  drunkards  that 
thinks  with  fungus  growth  and  reasons  with  a  little  fatty  degeneration  which  they 
calls  Ijrains  till  they  runs  against  an  autopsy,  too  many  folks  with  no  voting  cjuali- 
fication  but  talk  and  trowsiz.  is  allowed  to  vote,  not  only  at  the  polls,  but  to  even 
.represent  a  big  and  beautiful  county  like  Sweetwater  in  the  Legislature. 

"So  we  are  to  restrik  the  vote,  I  admit,  in  that  direction  and  enlarge  it  in  the 
direction  of  decency  and  sense.  Mr.  Speaker,  men  is  too  much  stuck  on  them- 
selves. Becuz  they  was  made  first,  they  seem  to  be  checked  too  high.  The  fact  is 
that  God  made  the  muskeeter  and  bedbug  before  he  made  man.  He  also  made  the 
mud-turtle,  the  jackass  and  baboon.  When  he  had  all  the  experience  he  wanted 
in  creating,  he  made  man.  Then  he  made  woman.  He  done  a  good  job.  She 
suits  me.  She  fooled  herself  once,  but  why  was  it?  It  was  Monday.  She  had 
a  picked-up  dinner.  Adam  wanted  something  to  finish  off  with.  Eve  suggested 
a  cottage  pudding.  'Oh,  blow  your  cottage  pudding,'  says  Ad.  'How  would 
you  like  a  little  currant  jell?'  says  she.  'No  currant  jell,  if  you  will  excuse  me,' 
says  Ad.  'Well,  say  a  saucerful  of  "tipsy  parson,"  with  a  little  coftee  and  a 
Rhode  Island  pudding?'  'Don't  talk  to  me  about  Rhode  Island  gravies,'  says  Ad. 
'You  make  me  tired.  Wash-day  here,  is  worse  than  the  fodder  we  had  at  the  Gem 
City  liouse  on  our  wedding  tower.  I  haven't  had  a  thing  to  eat  yet  that  was  fit 
to  feed  to  a  shingle  mill.     Give  me  a  fillet  of  elephant's  veal.     Kill  that  little  fat 


elepliant  that  eats  the  blackberries  night-.  Fix  up  a  httle  Roman  salad.'  he  said, 
'and  put  a  quart  of  Royal  Berton  see  on  ice  for  me.  I  will  take  a  little  plum 
duff  and  one  of  those  apples  that  the  Lord  told  us  not  to  pick.  Do  that  for 
next  wash-day,  Evie,'  says  Ad,  'and  draw  on  me.' 

'"These  was  Adam's  words  as  regular  as  if  he  had  been  reported,  I  reckon, 
and  that's  how  sin  come  into  the  world.  That's  why  man  earns  his  bread  by  the 
sweat  of  his  brow,  and  the  tooth  of  the  serpent  bruises  the  woman's  heel.  Eve 
rustled  around  the  ranch  to  get  a  little  fresh  fruit  for  Ad,  and  lo !  the  Deluge  and 
Crucifixion  and  the  Revelation  and  the  Rebellion  has  growed  out  of  it. 

"Proud  man,  with  nothing  but  an  appetite  and  side-whiskers,  lays  out  to  own 
the  earth  because  Eve  overdrawed  her  account  in  order  to  please  him.  And  now, 
because  man  claims  he  was  created  first  and  did  not  sin  to  amount  to  anything,  he 
thinks  that  he  has  got  the  brains  of  the  civilized  world  and  practically  owns  the 

"I  talk  withottt  prejudice,  Mr.  Speaker,  because  I  have  no  wife.  I  don't  expect 
to  have  any.  I  have  had  one.  She  is  in  heaven  now.  She  belonged  there  before 
I  married  her,  but  for  some  reason  that  I  can't  find  out  she  was  thrown  in  my  way 
for  a  few  years,  and  that  recollection  puts  a  lump  in  my  throat  yet  as  I  stand  here. 
I  imposed  on  her  because  she  had  been  taught  to  obey  her  husband,  no  matter 
how  much  of  a  dam  phool  he  might  be.  That  was  Laura's  idea  of  Christianity. 
Slie  is  dead  now.  I  drive  the  stage  and  think.  God  help  the  feller  that  has  to 
think  when  he's  got  nothing  to  think  of  but  an  angel  in  the  sky  that  he  ain't  got 
no  claim  on. 

"I've  been  held  up  four  times,  and  I  drove  right  along  past  the  road  agents. 
Drove  rather  slow,  hoping  that  they'd  shoot,  but  they  seemed  kind  of  rattled,  and 
so  waited  for  the  next  stage. 

"It's  d — d  funny  to  me  that  woman  who  suffers  most  in  order  that  man  may 
come  into  the  world,  the  one.  ^Ir.  Speaker,  that  is  first  to  find  and  last  to  forsake 
Him,  first  to  hush  the  cry  of  a  baby  Savior  in  a  Jim  Crow  livery  stable  in  Bethle- 
hem and  last  to  leave  the  cross,  first  at  the  sepulchre  and  last  to  doubt  the  Lord, 
should  be  interested  with  the  souls  and  bodies  of  generations  and  yet  not  know 
enough  to  vote."'     (Applause.) 








Soon  after  the  passage  of  the  bill  by  Congress,  admitting  Wyoming  into  the 
Union,  Governor  Francis  E.  Warren,  then  governor  of  the  territory,  issued  a  proc- 
lamation calling  an  election  for  state  officers  on  Thursday,  September  ii,  1890,  and 
politicians  began  to  gird  on  their  armor  for  the  fray.  Republican  and  democratic 
conventions  were  held  in  Cheyenne  on  the  nth  of  August. 

The  republican  convention  nominated  Francis  E.  Warren  for  governor ;  Amos 
W.  Barber,  secretary  of  state ;  Charles  W.  Burdick,  auditor  of  state ;  Otto  Gramm, 
treasurer  of  state ;  Stephen  T.  Farwell,  superintendent  of  public  instruction ; 
Willis  \'an  Devanter,  Herman  V.  S.  Groesbeck  and  Asbury  B.  Conaway,  justices 
of  the  Supreme  Court ;  Clarence  D.  Clark,  representative  in  Congress. 

George  W' .  Baxter  was  nominated  for  governor  by  the  democratic  convention ; 
John  S.  Harper,  secretary  of  state;  George  S.  Campbell,  auditor  of  state;  Isaac 
C.  Miller,  treasurer  of  state;  Anthony  V.  Quinn,  superintendent  of  public  in- 
struction; Samuel  T.  Corn,  P.  Gad  Bryan  and  Henry  S.  Elliott,  justices  of  the 
Supreme  Court;  George  T.  Beck,  representative  in  Congress. 

Both  conventions  also  nominated  judges  for  the  three  judicial  districts,  viz. : 
Republican— Richard  H.  Scott,  of  Crook  County,  First  District ;  John  \\'.  Blake, 
of  Albany  County,  Second  District;  Jesse  Knight,  of  Uinta  County,  Third  Dis- 
trict. Democratic — Frederick  H.  Harvey,  of  Converse  County,  First  District; 
Micah  C.  Saufley,  of  Albany  County,  Second  District;  Douglas  A.  Preston,  of 
Fremont  County,  Third  District. 

The  campaign  that  followed  the  nomination  of  these  tickets  was  enlivened  by 
a  series  of  joint  debates  between  George  W.  Baxter,  the  democratic  candidate  for 
governor,  and  Joseph  M.  Carey,  former  delegate  in  Congress.  Baxter  had 
challenged  Governor  Warren  to  discuss  the  issues  of  the  campaign  in  joint  debate, 
but  the  governor's  health  was  in  such  a  state  that  his  friends  deemed  it  inadvisable 
for  him  to  accept  the  challenge,  and  Mr.  Carey  volunteered  to  become  his  substi- 
tute. At  the  election  the  entire  republican  ticket  was  victorious.  For  governor, 
Warren  received  8.879  votes  and  Baxter  received  7,153.  The  other  candidates 


on  the  ticket  were  elected  by  substantially  the  same  vote.  Governor  Warren  and 
the  three  justices  of  the  Supreme  Court  took  the  oath  of  office  a  few  minutes  before 
midnight  on  Saturday,  October  ii,  1890.  The  reason  for  the  lateness  of  the 
hour  was  that  Mr.  ^^'arren  was  absent  from  the  city  and  arrived  on  a  belated 
train  from  the  west  at  1 1  40  P.  M.  He  was  met  at  the  station  with  a  carriage  and 
hurried  to  the  capitol,  where  he  qualified  as  the  first  state  governor  of  Wyoming. 
The  vote  had  been  canvassed  earlier  in  the  day  by  Judge  Willis  \'an  Devanter, 
of  the  Supreme  Court ;  John  W.  Meldrum,  territorial  secretary ;  and  Melville 
C.  Brown,  the  last  named  as  president  of  the  constitutional  convention. 


Governor  Warren,  immediately  after  his  inauguration,  issued  a  proclamation 
convening  the  Legislature  of  the  State  of  Wyoming  at  Cheyenne  on  Wednesday, 
November  12,  1890.  The  Senate  in  the  first  State  Legislature  was  composed  of 
the  following  members :  Albany  County — John  McGill  and  Robert  E.  Fitch ; 
Carbon — Fenimore  Chatterton  and  Frank  H.  ^^'illiams ;  Converse — Albert  D. 
•Chamberlin;  Fremont — J.  D.  Woodruff;  Johnson — John  X.  Tisdale  ;  Laramie — 
Leopold  Kabis,  William  A.  Robins  and  W.  R.  Schnitger ;  Sheridan — John  Mc- 
Cormick ;  Sweetwater — Edward  W.  Griffiths  and  James  B.  Keenan :  Uinta — 
Oliver  D.  Marx  and  John  L.  Russell ;  Weston — Frank  W.  Mondell. 

The  members  of  the  House  of  Representatives,  by  counties,  were :  Albany — 
George  Gebhardt,  Ora  Haley,  Herman  Langhelett,  Charles  H.  Reals  and  A.  L. 
Sutherland ;  Carbon — Louis  G.  Davis,  John  F.  Hittle,  Louis  Johnson  and  A.  M. 
Startzell;  Converse — Frank  Merrill.  Xat  Baker  and  Charles  E.  Clay;  Crook — 
Oliver  P.  Kellogg  and  Henry  B.  Folsom ;  Fremont — Robert  H.  Hall  and  E.  Amor- 
etti;  Johnson — A.  L.  Coleman  and  H.  W.  Davis;  Laramie — Hugo  E.  Buechner, 
Frank  Bond,  George  East,  Samuel  Merrill,  \\'illiam  H.  Richardson  and  Charles 
W.  Sweet ;  Natrona — W.  E.  Dunn ;  Sheridan — Harrison  Fulmer  and  William 
Brown ;  Sweetwater — Archibald  Blair,  John  S.  Davis  and  Edward  Thorp ;  Uinta — 
Otto  Arnold,  George  M.  Griffin  and  Alma  Peterson.  The  Senate  organized  by 
electing  W.  R.  Schnitger,  of  Cheyenne,  president,  and  Oliver  P.  Kellogg,  of 
Sundance,  was  elected  speaker  of  the  House. 

One  of  the  chief  duties  devolving  upon  this  first  Legislature  was  the  election 
of  two  LTnited  States  senators.  On  November  14,  1890,  Joseph  M.  Carey  was 
elected,  George  W.  Baxter  receiving  the  vote  of  every  democratic  member  of  the 
Legislative  Assembly.  Governor  Warren  was  a  candidate  for  LTnited  Stales  sena- 
tor, but  considerable  opposition  developed  among  the  republican  members  of 
the  Legislature  and  for  a  time  it  looked  as  though  he  might  be  defeated.  The 
fact  that  Warren  and  Carey  both  lived  in  the  City  of  Cheyenne  was  the  cause 
of  some  of  the  opposition,  and  others  claimed  that  Warren  had  promised  when 
a  candidate  for  the  office  of  governor  that  if  elected  he  would  not  be  a  candidate 
for  senator.  Six  ballots  were  taken  from  day  to  day  without  an  election,  but  on 
the  seventh  ballot,  about  2:45  P-  M-.  November  19,  1890,  Warren  received 
twenty-nine  votes,  four  more  than  the  necessary  majority,  and  was  declared 

During  the  session  the  following  acts  were  passed:  Fixing  the  terms  of  the 
Supreme  Court  and  regulating  the  procedure  and  practice  therein;  defining  the 


judicial  districts  and  the  time  of  holding  court  in  each  county  in  the  state;  de- 
claring the  revised  statutes  and  the  session  laws  of  1888  and  1890  to  be  the  laws 
of  the  state  until  repealed.;  authorizing  cities  and  towns  to  borrow  money  and  issue 
bonds  for  the  construction  and  maintenance  of  waterworks;  granting  railroad 
companies  the  right  of  way  over  school  sections  and  other  state  lands;  creating 
the  office  of  inspector  of  coal  mines  and  defining  his  duties;  establishing  a  hospital 
for  miners  as  a  state  charitable  institution ;  and  creating  a  state  board  of  charities 
and  reform. 

After  the  state  election  of  September  11,  1890,  some  question  as  to  its  legality 
arose.  The  election  had  been  called  by  the  governor  and  the  several  boards  of 
county  commissioners,  whose  authority  to  do  so  was  called  into  dispute.  To 
settle  the  matter,  the  Legislature  passed  an  act  declaring  the  election  legal,  which 
act  was  approved  on  December  23,  1890. 

By  the  act  of  January  10,  1891,  a  board  of  commissioners  for  the  World's 
Columbian  Exposition,  to  be  held  at  Chicago  in  1893,  was  authorized.  The  board, 
to  be  known  as  the  "World's  Fair  Managers  of  Wyoming,"  was  to  consist  of  five 
members,  one  of  whom  should  be  the  state  engineer,  one  already  appointed  in  the 
northern  part  of  the  state,  and  the  other  three  were  to  be  appointed  by  the 
governor.  The  sum  of  $30,000  was  appropriated  to  defray  the  expenses  of 
making  an  exhibit  of  Wyoming's  products  and  progress  at  the  fair. 

Section  6.  article  I\',  of  the  constitution  of  Wyoming  provides  that  "If  the 
governor  be  impeached,  displaced,  resign  or  die,  or  from  mental  or  physical 
disease  or  otherwise  become  incapable  of  performing  the  duties  of  his  office,  or 
be  absent  from  the  state,  the  secretary  of  state  shall  act  as  governor  until  the 
vacancy  is  filled  or  the  disability  removed." 

The  election  of  Governor  Warren  to  the  United  States  Senate,  with  his  resig- 
nation and  consequent  vacancy  in  the  office  of  governor,  brought  this  subject 
prominently  before  the  Legislature.  Members  asked  themselves  the  question. 
"What  if  the  secretary  of  state  should  also  become  unable,  through  some  cause, 
to  perform  the  duties  of  governor?"  By  the  act  of  December  24,  1890,  ample 
provision  was  made  for  such  a  contingency,  should  it  ever  arise.  This  act  provides 
that  the  duties  and  responsibilities  of  the  office  of  governor  shall  be  exercised 
and  assumed  by  the  secretary  of  state,  as  set  forth  in  the  constitution,  and  after 
him,  successively,  by  the  president  of  the  Senate,  the  speaker  of  the  House  (at  the 
last  session) ,  the  auditor  of  state  and  the  treasurer  of  state. 

At  the  conclusion  of  the  session  on  January  10,  1891,  Representative  Baker, 
of  Converse  County,  presented  Speaker  Kellogg  with  a  handsome  gavel,  upon 
which  was  inscribed:  "Presented  to  O.  P.  Kellogg,  Speaker  of  the  first  Wyoming 
Legislature,  1890."  Representative  Frank  Bond,  of  Laramie  County,  presented 
Mr.  Kellogg  with  a  group  picture  of  all  the  members  of  the  House. 

barber's  .\dministration 

Governor  \\'arren  resigned  from  the  office  of  governor  on  November  24,  1890, 
five  days  after  he  was  elected  United  States  senator  by  the  Legislature,  and  the 
same  day  Amos  W.  Barber,  secretary  of  state,  became  acting  governor. 

Amos  W.  Barber  was  born  at  Doylestown,  Bucks  County,  Pennsylvania,  April 
26.    1861.     He  graduated   in  both  the   literary   and  medical   departments  of   the 


University  of  Pennsylvania  in  1883  and  about  two  years  later  came  to  \\'yoming 
as  surgeon  in  charge  of  the  military  hospital  at  Fort  Fetterman.  Soon  after  his 
arrival  at  Fort  Fetterman  he  was  made  acting  assistant  surgeon  in  the  United  States 
army  and  accompanied  General  Crook's  expedition  to  Arizona.  He  was  then  as- 
signed to  duty  at  Fort  D.  A.  Russell.  After  a  short  service  there  he  resigned  from 
the  army  and  engaged  in  the  practice  of  medicine  at  Cheyenne.  As  a  republican 
Doctor  Barber  took  an  active  part  in  political  afifairs  and  in  1890  he  was  nominated 
by  his  party  for  secretary  of  state.  Fie  was  elected  at  the  first  state  election  on 
Sejitember  11,  1890,  and  when  Governor  Warren  resigned  to  accept  a  seat  in  the 
United  States  Senate  he  became  acting  governor.  He  served  in  that  capacity 
until  the  inauguration  of  Gov.  John  E.  Osborne  on  January  2,  1893.  While  acting 
as  governor  of  the  state  he  married,  in  1892,  Miss  Amelia  Kent,  daughter  of 
Thomas  A.  Kent  of  Cheyenne.  In  the  Spanish-American  war  he  again  served  as 
assistant  surgeon  in  the  United  States  army,  after  which  he  practiced  in  Cheyenne 
until  his  death  in  191 5.  Governor  Barber  was  a  thirty-second  degree  ]\Iason,  a 
Knight  Templar  and  a  member  of  the  Cheyenne  Lodge  of  Elks. 


Upon  Governor  Barber  devolved  the  duty  of  fully  inaugurating  the  state 
government.  Numerous  appointments  were  to  be  made  and,- being  a  republican  and 
a  partisan,  the  acting  governor  naturally  selected  such  men  for  his  appointees 
as  would  strengthen  the  position  of  his  party.  In  such  cases  there  is  always  likely 
to  be  some  grumbling,  but  in  the  main  everything  proceeded  without  serious  fric- 
tion until  the  close  of  the  campaign  of  1892. 

In  that  campaign  the  democrats  "opened  the  ball''  by  holding  a  state  convention 
at  Rock  Springs  on  ^^'ednesday,  July  27th,  and  nominating  the  following  candi- 
dates for  the  state  offices,  etc..  John  E.  Osborne,  for  governor;  Henry  A.  ColTeen, 
for  congressman ;  Gibson  Clark,  for  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court ;  Samuel  T.  Corn. 
John  T.  Norton  and  P.  J.  Ouealy,  for  presidential  electors. 

The  republican  state  convention  was  seld  at  Laramie  on  Wednesday,  Septem- 
ber 14,  1892.  Edward  Ivinson  was  nominated  for  governor  on  the  tenth  ballot; 
Clarence  D.  Clark  was  renominated  for  congressman ;  Carroll  H.  Pannelee.  for 
justice  of  the  Supreme  Court;  John  H.  Barron,  John  C.  Dyer  and  William  H. 
Kilpatrick,  for  presidential  electors. 

In  1892  the  people's  party,  or  "populists,"  as  they  were  commonly  called,  was 
particularly  active  in  several  of  the  western  states.  Just  a  week  after  the  repub- 
lican state  convention,  the  populists  met  at  Douglas  for  the  purpose  of  nominating 
a  state  ticket.  Some  of  the  democratic  leaders  in  the  state  proposed  a  fusion 
ticket,  agreeing  that  if  the  people's  party  would  make  no  nominations  for  the  state 
ofifices  the  democratic  party  would  withdraw  its  candidates  for  presidental  electors 
and  substitute  those  selected  by  the  Douglas  convention.  The  arrangement  was 
consummated  and  the  democratic  electors  gave  way  to  S.  E.  Seeley,  William 
Hinton  and  William  R.  Richardson.  On  the  other  hand  the  populists  supported 
the  democratic  state  ticket,  which  insured  the  election  of  Governor  Osborne. 

The  prohibitionists  nominated  William  Brown  for  governor;  Ella  G.  Becker, 
Oscar  S.  Jackson  and  A.  N.  Page,  presidential  electors,  but  made  no  nominations 
for  representative  in  Congress  and  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court.     The  election 


was  held  on  November  8,  1892,  and  resulted  in  the  election  of  the  fusion  candi- 
dates. Osborne's  majority  for  governor  was  1,781,  that  of  Clark  and  CotYeen  for 
justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  and  representative  in  Congress  was  slightly  less. 

The  defeat  of  the  republican  ticket  through  the  coalition  of  the  democrats 
and  populists  engendered  some  ill  feeling  on  the  part  of  the  leaders  of  the  republi- 
can party  in  Wyoming,  and  when  a  delay  of  a  month  occurred,  immediately 
following  the  election,  without  the  vote  being  canvassed  and  the  result  announced, 
charges  were  made  that  fraud  was  about  to  be  perpetrated  upon  the  people 
of  the  state.  About  half  past  eight  o'clock  on  the  morning  of  December  2,  1892, 
Governor-elect  Osborne,  accompanied  by  Daniel  W.  Gill,  a  notary  public,  pro- 
ceeded to  the  capitol,  where  ]\Ir.  Gill  administered  the  oath  prescribed  by  the 
constitution  and  declared  John  E.  Osborne  duly  qualified  as  governor  of  the 
State  of  Wyoming.  He  then  tendered  a  copy  of  the  oath  to  the  clerk  in  office  of 
the  secretary  of  state,  John  W.  Meldrum,  but  Mr.  IMeldrum  refused  to  accept  it 
and  Mr.  Gill  left  it  lying  upon  the  desk. 

After  taking  the  oath,  ]\Ir.  Osborne  took  possession  of  the  governor's  office 
without  opposition,  and  immediately  issued  the  following  proclamation : 

"In  obedience  to  the  constitution  and  laws  of  the  State  of  Wyoming,  I,  John 
E.  Osborne,  do  hereby  make  proclamation  that,  having  been  duly  elected  by  the 
qualified  voters  of  the  State  of  Wyoming  to  the  office  of  governor  of  the  state 
to  fill  the  vacancy  occasioned  by  the  resignation  of  Francis  E.  \\'arren,  heretofore 
elected  and  qualified  as  governor,  and  there  being  no  board  of  state  canvassers 
authorized  to  canvass  the  returns  and  declare  the  result  of  said  election  for  gover- 
nor, and  the  returns  from  the  several  boards  of  county  canvassers  now  on  file  in 
the  office  of  the  secretary  of  state  showing  that  I  have  been  unquestionably  elected 
to  the  office  of  governor,  I  have  duly  and  legally  qualified  as  governor  of  the  state 
and  am  now  said  governor,  and  I  do  call  upon  all  true  and  loyal  citizens  of  the 
state  to  respect  my  authority  as  to  such  office  and  to  aid  me  in  enforcing  the  laws 
and  seeing  that  justice  in  all  things  is  done. 

"Done  at  the  office  of  the  governor,  at  Cheyenne,  capital  of  the  state,  on  the 
2d  day  of  December,  A.  D.  1892. 

"John  E.  Osborne, 
"Governor  of  the  State  of  Wyoming." 
To  say  that  the  proclamation  caused  some  excitement  in  political  circles  is  but 
a  simple  statement  of  fact,  as  no  such  move  on  the  part  of  the  governor-elect  had 
been  anticipated.  \Mien  Acting  Governor  Barber  arrived  at  the  capitol  he  found 
Mr.  Osborne  installed  in  the  office  set  apart  for  the  use  of  the  governor,  ap- 
parently with  no  intention  of  vacating  it.  That  afternoon  Mr.  Barber  issued  his 
proclamation,  declaring  the  constitution  of  the  state  made  it  his  duty  to  act  as  gov- 
ernor until  the  vacancy  was  filled  by  an  election ;  that  the  election  held  on  Novem- 
ber 8,  1892,  was  not  completed  until  the  vote  had  been  legally  canvassed  by  lawful 
authority  and  the  result  declared  in  the  manner  provided  by  law.  He  then  quoted 
the  law  on  the  subject,  to  wit : 

"When  the  state  canvassing  board  shall  have  canvassed  the  vote  of  the  election, 
as  aforesaid,  and  in  the  manner  provided  by  law  declared  a  person  of  such  election 
to  be  elected  as  governor,  such  person  shall  within  thirty  days  after  such  canvass, 
or  as  soon  thereafter  as  possible,  quahfy  and  assume  the  duties  and  powers  of 


The  proclamation  then  went  on  to  say  the  returns  of  Converse  and  Fremont 
counties  had  not  been  received  by  the  state  board  of  canvassers  and  declared  John 
E.  Osborne  to  be  a  usurper. 

Mr.  Osborne  then  sent  notices  in  writing  to  Amos  W.  Barber,  secretary  of 
state;  Charles  W.  Burdick,  auditor  of  state;  and  Otto  Gramm,  treasurer  of  state, 
to  meet  in  the  governor's  ofifice  at  lO  o'clock  A.  M.  on  Monday,  December  5,  1892, 
for  the  purpose  of  canvassing  the  vote.  This  order  was  ignored  by  the  state 
officials,  who  fixed  upon  Thursday,  December  8th  for  the  canvass  and  so  notified 
the  chairman  of  the  republican  and  democratic  state  central  committees. 

Toward  evening  on  December  2,  1892,  following  the  taking  of  the  oath  of 
office  by  Governor  Osborne,  some  of  his  friends  carried  his  supper  to  him  in  the 
governor's  office,  and,  as  the  capitol  building  was  not  then  lighted  by  electricity 
as  at  present,  a  supply  of  candles  was  also  provided  that  the  rooms  might  be  kept 
lighted  during  the  night.  Mayor  Bresnahan,  of  Cheyenne,  detailed  two  policemen 
to  remain  on  guard  at  the  capitol  during  the  night,  to  prevent  disorder  or  violence. 
Nothing  unusual  occurred  during  the  night  and  Saturday  morning  dawned  with 
i\Ir.  Osborne  still  in  possession  of  the  governor's  rooms  in  the  capitol. 

That  day  ^Ir.  Osborne  issued  a  second  proclamation  to  the  people  of  Wyo-. 
ming,  in  which  he  set  forth  that  Amos  W.  Barber,  as  secretary  of  state  claimed 
that  Osborne's  action  had  been  contrary  to  law ;  that  the  said  Barber  had  persist- 
ently refused  to  act  with  the  other  state  officials  in  canvassing  the  vote;  that  there 
was  in  fact  no  statute  providing  for  the  canvass  of  the  vote  for  governor,  etc.  In 
this  proclamation  Mr.  Osborne  used  some  rather  strong  language,  when  he  said : 

"There  is  ample  evidence  to  convince  me  that  a  conspiracy  has  been  entered 
into  between  a  certain  aspirant  for  the  United  States  Senate  and  certain  of  the 
county  clerks  in  the  State  of  Wyoming  to  deprive  lawfully  elected  members  of  the 
Legislature  of  the  offices  to  which  they  were  elected,  and  it  is  necessary  for  the 
full  success  of  such  conspiracy  that  a  person  friendly  to  it  shall  hold  the  office 
of  governor  at  the  time  the  canvass  is  made,"  etc. 

He  referred  to  Barber  as  a  usurper  and  again  called  upon  the  people  of  the 
state  to  assist  in  enforcing  the  laws,  pledging  himself  "that  the  power  vested  in 
the  governor  shall  only  be  exercised  by  me  to  execute  faithfully  the  laws,  to  defeat 
attempted  frauds  upon  the  people  and  to  maintain  the  honor,  dignity  and  peace 
of  the  state." 


The  state  officers — Barber,  Burdick  and  Gramm — began  the  canvass  of  the 
vote  on  Thursday,  December  8th,  according  to  the  notices  sent  to  the  chairmen 
of  the  state  central  committees.  When  Carbon  County  was  reached  it  was  found 
that  two  sets  of  returns  had  been  made,  one  by  the  county  clerk  and  the  other 
by  the  two  justices  who  constituted  the  majority  of  the  county  board  of  can- 
vassers. The  state  board  of  canvassers  voted  to  accept  the  returns  of  the  county 
clerk  and  reject  the  report  of  the  justices.  On  December  10.  1892,  .\.  C.  Camp- 
bell and  T.  :\I.  Patterson,  attorneys  for  S.  B.  Bennett  and  Harry  A.  Chapman, 
two  candidates  for  representatives  from  Carbon  County  who  were  thus  rejected 
bv  the  state  board,  went  before  Chief  Justice  Groesbeck  and  asked  for  a  writ 


of   alternative  mandamus   to   compel   the   state   officials   to   canvass   the    returns 
submitted  by  the  majority  of  the  county  board. 

Judge  Groesbeck  at  first  took  the  view  that  the  court  had  no  power  to  grant 
such  a  writ  during  vacation,  but  it  was  finally  issued  and  made  returnable  at 
2  o'clock  P.  M.  on  the  15th.  The  case  was  then  argued  by  Campbell  and  Patter- 
son, and  on  the  31st  Judge  Conaway  rendered  the  decision  granting  the  writ  of 
mandamus.  Bennett  and  Chapman  were  thus  gi\en  their  seats  in  the  House 
of  Representatives  in  the  legislative  session  which  began  on  January  10,  1893. 


There  was  still  another  complication  growing  out  of  the  dispute  over  the 
governorship  and  the  canvass  of  the  votes  cast  at  the  state  election.  On  December 
28,  1892,  Acting  Governor  Barber  granted  a  pardon  to  James  Moore,  who  had 
been  convicted  of  grand  larceny  in  May,  1892,  and  sentenced  to  serve  three  years 
in  the  penitentiary.  George  L.  Briggs,  warden  of  the  penitentiary,  refused  to 
recognize  the  pardon,  on  the  grounds  that  Barber  was  not  the  lawful  governor 
of  the  state  and  had  no  authority  to  grant  pardons.  Habeas  corpus  proceedings 
were  then  brought  by  Moore's  lawyers  to  compel  Briggs  to  release  the  prisoner, 
and  the  Supreme  Court  decided  in  their  favor.  This  recognition  of  Barber 
as  the  governor  of  the  state  resulted  in  Governor  Osborne  again  taking  the  oath 
of  office  on  January  2,  1893,  when  he  was  permitted  to  take  possession  of  the 
governor's  office  without  opposition.  Gibson  Clark  was  sworn  in  as  associate 
justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  at  the  same  time. 

THE  cattlemen's  RAID 

Acting  Governor  Barber's  administration  was  made  memorable  by  the  most 
regrettable  event  in  Wyoming  history — the  notorious  "Cattlemen's  Raid" — the 
details  of  which  are  given  in  another  chapter  of  this  work.  This  episode  so 
aroused  the  citizens  of  Wyoming  that  its  immediate  efifect  was  to  revolutionize 
the  politics  of  the  state.  Although  this  lawless  expedition  was  in  no  sense  polit- 
ical, the  fact  that  it  was  approved  and  abetted  by  a  republican  administration 
led  to  the  electoral  complications  described  in  connection  with  the  election  of 
Governor  Osborne  and  the  unpleasant  events  immediately  following  that  election. 

Osborne's  .\dmini.stration 

John  E.  Osborne,  second  governor  of  the  State  of  Wyoming,  was  born  at 
\\'estport,  X.  Y.,  June  9,  1858.  He  received  a  high  school  education  and  was 
then  apprenticed  to  a  druggist  in  \'ermont.  While  employed  in  the  drug  store 
he  began  the  study  of  medicine  and  in  1880  he  received  the  degree  of  M.  D. 
from  the  medical  department  of  the  University  of  Vermont.  Soon  after  receiving 
his  degree  he  decided  to  follow  Horace  Greeley's  advice  and  "Go  W'est."  Select- 
ing Rawlins,  Wyo.,  as  his  location,  he  there  entered  upon  the  general  practice 
of  medicine  and  was  appointed  assistant  surgeon  of  the  Union  Pacific  Railroad. 
In  1882  he  established  a  wholesale  and  retail  drug  house.  Two  years  later  he 
embarked  in  the  live  stock  business  and  in  a  few  years  had  the  reputation  of  being 
the  largest  individual  sheep  owner  in  the  state. 


It  was  not  long  after  he  located  at  Rawlins  until  ]\Ir.  Osborne  came  to  be 
recognized  as  one  of  the  leaders  of  the  democratic  party  in  the  state.  He  was 
elected  as  the  second  mayor  of  Rawlins  after  the  city  was  incorporated;  served 
a  term  in  the  Territorial  Legislature;  was  one  of  the  penitentiary  commissioners 
in  1888;  was  chosen  an  alternate  delegate  to  the  democratic  national  convention 
in  1892,  and  the  same  year  was  nominated  by  his  party  for  governor  of  Wyoming. 
At  the  close  of  his  term  as  governor  he  declined  a  renomination  and  in  1896 
was  elected  representative  in  Congress,  defeating  Frank  W.  Mondell.  In  1898 
he  was  made  vice  chairman  of  the  democratic  national  Congressional  committee 
and  had  charge  of  the  national  campaign  in  that  year.  Since  1900  he  has  been 
Wyoming's  member  of  the  democratic  national  committee,  making  him  one  of 
the  oldest  members  in  point  of  service  on  that  committee.  He  was  chairman 
of  the  democratic  state  committee  in  1910,  which  conducted  the  campaign  that 
resulted  in  the  election  of  Joseph  M.  Carey  as  governor  and  Frank  L.  Houx  as 
secretary  of  state.  In  March,  1913,  President  Wilson  appointed  ]Mr.  Osborne 
first  assistant  secretary  of  state,  which  position  he  held  during  Mr.  Wilson's 
first  term,  when  he  resigned  to  give  his  attention  to  his  large  business  interests, 
particularly  the  Osborne  Live  Stock  Company,  of  which  he  is  president.  One 
of  the  leading  republican  newspapers  of  W'yoming  recently  said  of  Governor 
Osborne  : 

"There  are  few  things  in  this  world  finer  than  consistency — and  few  so  rare 
in  politics.  That  is  why  any  reference  to  Hon.  John  E.  Osborne  of  Rawlins 
must  be  a  refreshing  one,  for  in  spite  of  Mr.  Osborne's  long  and  highly  useful 
career  in  many  public  ofifices  and  the  faithful  service  he  had  done  his  nation  and 
his  state  in  the  discharge  of  the  duties  of  these  offices — in  spite  of  all  these,  any 
reference  to  Mr.  Osborne  at  once  calls  to  mind  his  unswerving  steadfastness  to 
the  democratic  party ;  the  sterling  loyalty  he  has  shown  in  the  times  and  the 
years  when  democracy  was  not  in  the  ascendency." 


The  second  State  Legislature  was  convened  at  Cheyenne  on  Tuesday,  January 
10,  1893.  Frank  W.  Mondell  of  Newcastle  was  elected  president  of  the  Senate 
and  L.  C.  Tidball  of  Sheridan  was  chosen  speaker  of  the  House.  In  his  mes- 
sage Governor  Osborne  recommended  a  thorough  revision  of  the  election  laws ; 
some  "systematic  and  organized  effort,  under  the  official  sanction  of  the  state,  to 
encourage  immigration" ;  more  stringent  laws  for  the  protection  of  game  animals 
and  birds;  the  completion  of  the  penitentiary  at  Rawlins,  upon  which  nearly 
thirty-two  thousand  dollars  had  already  been  expended;  and  a  change  in  the 
description  of  the  state  seal  by  substituting  the  words  "live  stock''  for  "cattle." 
In  discussing  the  necessity  for  better  game  laws  and  their  more  rigid  enforce- 
ment, he  said :  "I  am  informed  that  50,000  ^jounds  of  deer,  elk  and  antelope 
were  shipped  from  Rawlins  alone  during  the  past  year." 


A  "Great  Seal  of  State"  for  Wyoming  was  first  authorized  by  an  act  passed 
at  the  first  session  of  the  State  Legislature,  approved  on  January  10,  1891.     It 


provided  for  a  circle  2}^  inches  in  diameter,  in  the  lower  half  of  which  was 
represented  a  valley  in  the  center,  with  cattle  drinking  at  a  stream;  a  range  of 
mountains  on  the  left  and  an  oil  derrick  on  the  right ;  the  whole  surrounded 
by  a  ribbon  scroll,  on  the  top  of  which  was  a  platform;  on  the  platform  was 
the  figure  of  a  woman,  with  her  right  arm  extended  pointing  to  a  star  within 
which  were  the  figures  "44,"  indicating  that  Wyoming  was  the  forty-fourth 
state  to  be  admitted  into  the  Union.  Upon  the  left  of  the  woman  were  the  figures 
1869,  and  on  the  right  the  date  of  admission,  1890. 

Several  designs  were  submitted  and  the  one  presented  by  Hugo  E.  Buechner, 
representative  from  Laramie  County,  was  selected.  The  first  seal  was  com- 
pleted and  turned  over  to  the  state  about  the  ist  of  March,  1891.  It  was  evi- 
dently unsatisfactory,  judging  from  the  following  sarcastic  editorial  which 
appeared  in  the  Cheyenne  Leader  of  March  5.  1891  : 

"Well,  there's  considerable  of  an  uproar.  The  female  figure  which  was 
selected  to  adorn  the  new  state  seal  has  lost  her  clothes.  She  stands  upon  what 
is  intended  to  represent  a  platform,  it  is  believed,  but  in  reality  resembles  a  large 
shallow  pan  or  beer  vat,  in  which  the  lady  might,  without  much  stretch  of  the 
imagination,  be  credited  with  soaking  her  corns.  From  each  wrist  depends  \vhat 
at  first  glance  appears  to  be  several  links  of  sausage,  which  critics  say  are  the 
broken  links  of  a  chain." 

The  figure  represented  upon  the  design  submitted  by  Representative  Buechner 
was  draped  in  classic  robes.  That  he  was  greatly  dissatisfied  with  the  seal  as 
it  appeared  when  finished  goes  without  saying.  When  Governor  Osborne  recom- 
mended the  slight  change  in  his  message  to  the  second  Legislature,  that  body 
took  advantage  of  the  opportunity  to  create  practically  a  new  seal.  This  time 
the  description  was  made  so  plain  in  the  act  that  there  was  slight  possibility  of 
repeating  the  mistake.  The  act,  which  was  approved  on  February  8,  1893,  reads 
as  follows : 

"Section  i.  There  shall  be  a  great  seal  of  the  State  of  Wyoming,  which  shall 
be  of  the  following  design,  viz.:  A  circle  2]/^  inches  in  diameter,  on  the  outer 
rim  or  edge  of  which  shall  be  engraven  the  words,  'Great  Seal  of  the  State  of 
Wyoming,'  and  the  design  shall  conform  substantially  to  the  following  description: 

"A  pedestal  showing  on  the  front  thereof  an  eagle  resting  upon  a  shield, 
said  shield  to  have  engraven  thereon  a  star  and  the  figures  '44,'  being  the  num- 
ber of  Wyoming  in  the  order  of  admission  to  statehood.  Standing  upon  the 
pedestal  shall  be  the  draped  figure  of  a  woman,  modeled  after  the  statue  of  the 
'Victory'  in  the  Louvre,  from  whose  wrists  shall  hang  links  of  a  broken  chain, 
and  holding  in  her  right  hand  a  staff,  from  the  top  of  which  shall  float  a  banner 
with  the  words  'Equal  Rights'  thereon,  all  suggesting  the  political  position  of 
w^oman  in  this  state.  On  either  side  of  the  pedestal,  and  standing  at  the  base 
thereof,  shall  be  male  figures  typifying  the  live  stock  and  mining  industries  of 
Wyoming.  Behind  the  pedestal,  and  in  the  background,  shall  be  two  pillars, 
each  supporting  a  lighted  lamp,  signifying  the  light  of  knowledge.  Around 
each  pillar  shall  be  a  scroll  with  the  following  words  thereon :  On  the  right  of 
the  central  figure  the  words  'Live  Stock'  and  'Grain.'  and  on  the  left  the  words 
'Alines'  and  'Oil.'  At  the  base  of  the  pedestal,  and  in  front  shall  appear  the 
figures  '1869-1890,"  the  former  date  signifying  the  organization  of  the  Territory 


of  \\'yoniing,  and  the  latter  the  date  of  its  admission  to  statehood.  A  fac  simile 
of  the  abo\e  described  seal  is  here  represented  and  is  made  a  part  of  this  act. 

"Section  2.  This  act  shall  take  effect  and  be  in  force  from  and  after  its 

The  seal  authorized  by  this  act  is  still  in  use  by  the  state.  Among  the  other 
acts  passed  at  the  second  session  was  one  redistricting  the  state  for  judicial 
purposes :  another  authorized  the  completion  of  the  penitentiary  at  Rawlins ; 
and  a  memorial  to  Congress  asked  that  body  to  pass  an  act  remonetizing  silver. 


When  Joseph  AI.  Carey  and  Francis  E.  Warren  were  elected  United  States 
senators  in  1890,  the  latter  drew  the  short  term  and  the  election  of  his  successor 
formed  part  of  the  duty  of  the  Legislature  of  1893.  Twenty-five  votes  were 
required  to  elect,  and  the  political  complexion  of  the  Legislature  was  such  that 
no  party  could  count  on  a  clear  majority  of  the  votes.  Senator  Warren  was  a 
candidate  for  reelection,  but  there  was  some  opposition  to  him  within  the  lines 
of  his  own  party.  The  several  populists  in  the  Legislature  tried  to  control  the 
balance  of  power  and  force  the  election  of  a  member  of  that  party  to  the  Senate. 
The  first  ballot  was  taken  on  January  24,  1893,  when  sixteen  candidates  were 
voted  for.  ^^'arren  (republican)  receiving  eight  votes;  Kuykendall  (democrat), 
se^•en  votes;  and  Tidball  (populist),  six  votes,  the  other  candidates  receiving 
each  a  smaller  number. 

On  the  26th  Warren  received  thirteen  votes,  the  highest  number  he  received 
at  any  time  during  the  session,  the  balloting  continuing  from  day  to  day  without 
results.  New  candidates  were  introduced  from  time  to  time,  in  the  hope  that 
a  "dark  horse"  might  win  the  race.  The  populist  members  of  the  Legislature 
held  a  caucus  and  unanimously  nominated  Mrs.  I.  S.  Bartlett  as  their  candidate, 
this  being  the  first  time  in  the  history  of  the  L^nited  States  that  a  woman  was 
nominated  by  a  legislative  caucus  for  United  States  senator.  Throughout  the 
deadlock  the  populists  gave  Mrs.  Bartlett  their  united  vote.  On  February  8th 
Stephen  W.  Downey  received  twenty-one  votes,  and  on  the  15th  Gen.  J.  C. 
Thompson  received  twenty-four,  only  one  short  of  the  necessary  majority.  This 
vote  was  followed  immediately  by  an  adjournment  of  the  joint  session,  and  before 
the  next  ballot  was  taken  soine  sort  of  a  combination  was  formed  to  prevent 
Thompson's  election.  The  Legislature  adjourned  without  electing  a  senator,  and 
on  February  23,  1893,  Governor  Osborne  appointed  Asahel  C.  Beckwith  of 
Uinta  County  for  the  term  beginning  on  March  4,  1893,  or  until  the  Legislature 
sliould  elect.  The  United  States  Senate  refused  to  recognize  the  appointment, 
however,  and  Wyoming  had  but  one  senator  in  Congress  until  the  next  session 
cf  the  Legislature. 


As  already  stated,  the  Legislature  of  1891  authorized  the  appointment  of  a 
board  of  World's  Fair  managers  and  appropriated  $30,000  for  an  exhibit  of 
Wyoming's  products  and  resources  at  Chicago  in  1893.  El  wood  Mead,  state 
engineer,  was  made  a  member  of  the  board,  ex-officio,  and  the  other  members 


appointed  by  the  governor  were :  John  ]\IcCormick,  of  Sheridan ;  Frank  O. 
Williams,  of  Saratoga;  Louis  D.  Ricketts,  of  Cheyenne;  and  John  S.  Harper, 
of  Sundance.  The  national  commissioners  from  Wyoming  were  A.  C.  Beckwith 
and  Henry  G.  Hay,  with  John  McCormick  and  Asa  S.  Mercer  as  alternates. 

Mrs.  I.  S.  Bartlett,  of  Cheyenne,  was  appointed  a  member  of  the  board  of 
lady  managers  by  the  United  States,  and  the  members  of  the  board  appointed 
by  the  state  commissioners  were :  Mrs.  F.  H.  Harrison,  Mrs.  Frances  E.  Hale, 
Mrs.  Elizabeth  A.  Stone  and  Mrs.  G.  M.  Huntington. 

At  the  exposition  the  state  made  its  greatest  effort  in  the  department  of 
mining,  showing  samples  of  gold  and  silver  ore.  lead,  oil,  asphalt,  iron,  coal  and 
mica.  In  the  exhibit  was  a  solid  block  of  asphalt  as  large  as  an  ordinary  freight 
car.  An  interesting  feature  of  the  Wyoming  exhibit  was  an  illustration  of  the 
method  of  placer  mining,  using  gold-bearing  gravel  taken  from  the  placers  of 
the  state.  A  fine  collection  of  the  fossil  remains  of  the  state — fossils  of  birds, 
reptiles,  etc. — was  also  shown,  as  well  as  petrifactions  from  the  submerged  forest 
near  Rawlins. 

Thirty-two  prizes  were  awarded  the  state  on  its  mineral  display,  and  in  the 
agricultural  exhibit  highest  mention  was  given  to  wheat  and  potatoes,  besides 
the  twenty-two  medals  awarded  on  wheat,  barley,  buckwheat,  flax,  native  grasses, 
etc.     In  his  message  to  the  Legislature  of  1897,  Governor  Richards  said: 

"The  display  of  mineral  and  agricultural  products  made  by  \\'yoming  at  the 
World's  Columbian  Exposition  was  in  every  way  creditable  to  the  state.  The 
handsome  photographs  of  scenery  have  been  distributed  in  the  various  offices 
of  the  state  capitol,  while  a  large  portion  of  the  mineral  exhibit  has  been  stored 
away  in  the  basement  of  the  statehouse.  The  principal  part  of  the  agricultural 
exhibit  was  turned  over  to  the  authorities  of  the  State  L'niversity,  with  the 
agreement  that  it  should  be  carefully  preserved  until  such  time  as  the  Legislature 
should  make  arrangements  for  its  final  disposition.'' 

Considering  that  Wyoming  was  a  state  only  three  years  old.  with  its  natural 
resources  practically  untouched,  the  exhibit  was  one  that  attracted  wide  attention 
and  it  served  a  good  purpose  in  rendering  the  rest  of  the  world  acquainted  with 
the  vast  mineral  and  agricultural  possibilities  of  a  region  that  only  a  few  years 
before  had  been  marked  on  the  maps  of  the  l"nited  States  as  the  "Great  American 


The  political  campaign  of  1894  was  opened  by  the  republican  party,  which 
held  its  state  convention  at  Casper  on  the  first  day  of  August.  \\'illiam  A. 
Richards,  of  Red  Bank,  was  nominated  for  governor;  Charles  W.  Burdick.  of 
Saratoga,  secretary  of  state;  William  O.  Owen,  of  Laramie,  auditor  of  state; 
Henry  G.  Hay,  of  Cheyenne,  treasurer  of  state  ;  Charles  X.  Potter,  of  Cheyenne, 
justice  of  the  Supreme  Court;  Estelle  Reel,  of  Cheyenne,  superintendent  of  public 
instruction ;  Frank  W.  Mondell,  of  Newcastle,  representative  in  Congress. 

The  platform  indorsed  the  McKinley  taritT  bill ;  declared  allegiance  to  the  cardi- 
nal principles  of  the  party ;  favored  liberal  pensions  to  veterans  of  the 
Civil  war,  and  the  establishment  of  compulsory  courts  of  arbitration ;  urged  the 
free  coinage  of  both  gold  and  silver  at  the  ratio  of  sixteen  to  one  ;  and  declared 


that  "the  history  of  the  last  nineteen  months  has  again  demonstrated  the  unfitness 
of  the  democratic  party  to  administer  the  affairs  of  the  nation,"  etc. 

On  August  8,  1894,  the  democratic  state  convention  met  at  Cheyenne  and 
nominated  the  following  ticket:  W.  H.  Holiday,  of  Laramie,  governor;  Daniel 
^^^  Cill,  of  Cheyenne,  secretary  of  state ;  James  M.  Fenwick,  of^  Albany  County, 
auditor  of  state;  John  Stone,  of  Evanston,  treasurer  of  state;  Samuel  T.  Corn, 
justice  of  the  Supreme  Court :  A.  J.  Matthews,  of  Rock  Springs,  superintendent 
of  public  instruction;  and  H.  A.  Coffeen  was  nominated  for  representati\-e  in 

The  democratic  platform  adopted  by  the  convention  indorsed  the  national 
platform  of  1892;  expressed  confidence  in  President  Cleveland  and  indorsed 
his  administration;  declared  in  favor  of  a  further  reduction  in  duties  upon  im- 
ports; recommended  legislation  authorizing  the  election  of  United  States  senators 
bs'  popular  vote ;  commended  the  administration  of  Governor  Osborne ;  favored 
a  "thorough  overhauling  of  the  assessment  and  revenue  system  and  the  equaliza- 
tion of  taxes ;"  and  declared  in  favor  of  the  remonetization  of  silver  on  the  old 
ratio  of  sixteen  to  one. 

This  Acar  the  populists  and  democrats  failed  to  unite  on  a  fusion  ticket.  A 
populist  cnn\ention  assembled  at  Casper  on  August  9,  1894,  and  nominated  L. 
C.  Tidball,  of  Sheridan,  for  governor;  D.  \V.  Elliott,  of  Laramie  County,  secre- 
tary of  state;  J.  F.  Pierce,  of  Sweetwater  County,  auditor  of  state;  W.  F.  Wil- 
liams, of  Johnson  County,  treasurer  of  state ;  W.  T.  O'Connor,  of  Laramie 
County,  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court;  Mrs.  J.  R.  Rollman,  of  Carbon  County, 
.superintendent  of  public  instruction  ;  S.  E.  Seeley,  of  .\lbany  County,  representa- 
tive in  Congress. 

The  principal  planks  in  the  populist  platform  were  those  declaring  in  favor 
of  the  free  coinage  of  both  gold  and  silver  at  the  ratio  of  sixteen  to  one,  and  the 
denunciation  of  the  use  of  Federal  troops  in  the  strike  of  the  American  Railway 
Union  in  the  summer  of  1894. 

The  election  was  held  on  November  6,  1894,  and  resulted  in  the  election  of  the 
entire  republican  ticket.  Miss  Reel's  plurality  for  superintendent  of  public  in- 
struction was  4,458,  the  largest  received  by  any  candidate.  Governor  Richards' 
plurality  was  3,184,  and  the  Legislature  contained  forty-eight  republicans,  six 
democrats  and  one  populist.  Governor  Richards  was  inaugurated  on  January 
7,  189s,  and  the  administration  of  Governor  Osborne  came  to  an  end. 









William  A.  Richards,  who  was  elected  governor  of  Wyoming  in  1894.  was 
born  at  Hazel  Green,  Wis..  March  9,  1849.  He  was  educated  in  the  schools 
of  his  native  state  and  at  Galena,  111.  In  1889  he  was  appointed  surveyor- 
general  of  Wyoming  and  held  the  position  until  1893.  The  next  year  he  was 
nominated  for  governor  by  the  republican  party  and  was  elected  on  November 
6,  1894.  His  administration  began  on  January  7,  1895,  and  lasted  until  January 
2,  1899.  \\'hile  he  was  governor  the  Spanish-American  war  occurred  and  in  the 
summer  of  1898  Governor  Richards  spent  some  time  at  San  Francisco,  Cal., 
looking  after  the  interest  and  welfare  of  the  Wyoming  troops  before 
their  departure  for  the  Philippine  Islands.  An  account  of  Wyoming's  participa- 
tion in  this  war  is  given  in  another  chapter.  On  March  4,  1899,  about  two 
months  after  the  conclusion  of  his  term  as  governor,  Mr.  Richards  was  appointed 
assistant  commissioner  of  the  L'nited  States  general  land  office  and  removed  to 
Washington.  D.  C. 


The  third  State  Legislature  convened  at  Cheyenne  on  January  8,  1895.  the 
day  following  the  inauguration  of  Governor  William  A.  Richards.  In  his  message, 
the  governor  reviewed  the  condition  of  the  state  and  among  other  things  gave 
the  value  of  public  buildings  as  follows : 

State    Capitol,    Cheyenne    $295,649.59 

State    University,    Laramie    80,753.95 

Insane    Asylum,    Evanston    66,667.66 

Poor   Farm,    Lander    5.053-39 



Deaf,  Dumb  and  Blind  Asylum,   Cheyenne    7,919.30 

Penitentiary,     Rawlins    56,875.35 

Penitentiary,    Laramie    2,170.49 

Fish    Hatchery,    Laramie    7,279.90 

[Miners'  Hospital,  Rock  Springs   24,267.58 

Total     $546,637.21 

Among  the  recommendations  of  the  governor  was  one  for  the  establishment 
of  a  soldiers'  home,  and  in  response  an  act  was  passed  providing  for  the  appoint- 
ment of  a  board  of  commissioners,  authorized  to  establish  and  maintain  the 
Wyoming  Soldiers'  and  Sailors'  Home,  for  the  support  of  which  30,000  acres  of 
land  were  appropriated. 

On  February  14,  1895,  Governor  Richards  approved  the  act  accepting  the 
conditions  imposed  by  the  act  of  Congress,  approved  on  August  18,  1894,  grant- 
ing large  tracts  of  arid  lands  to  the  states,  with  the  stipulation  that  they  be 
irrigated  by  the  states.  The  act  of  Congress  is  known  as  the  "Carey  Act,"  its 
author  having  been  Senator  Joseph  M.  Carey,  of  Wyoming.  (See  chapter  on 
Irrigation,  etc.) 

Another  act  of  the  third  Legislature  was  the  one  dividing  the  counties  of  the 
state  into  four  classes.  All  having  an  assessment  of  $5,000,000  or  over  were 
designated  counties  of  the  first  class,  those  having  a  valuation  of  from  $2,000,000 
to  $5,000,000  constituted  the  second  class ;  the  third  class  were  composed  of  the 
counties  having  an  assessed  valuation  of  from  $1,100,000  to  $2,000,000,  and  all 
in  which  the  valuation  of  property  was  less  than  $1,100,000  were  designated 
as  fourth  class  counties.  In  all  except  the  first  class  the  offices  of  county  clerk 
and  clerk  of  the  courts  were  consolidated,  and  the  county  treasurer  was  also 
made  the  county  assessor. 

An  act  fixing  the  fees  and  salaries  of  county  officers  was  passed  at  this 
session,  and  also  one  providing  that  all  state  officers  should  be  paid  monthly. 
Other  acts  of  the  session  provided  for  the  recording  of  live  stock  brands:  for 
the  organization  of  the  Wyoming  National  Guard ;  to  prevent  the  killing  of  buffalo 
within  the  state  limits  ;  authorizing  the  payment  of  one  dollar  bounty  on  each 
coyote  killed  in  the  state  and  three  dollars  for  each  gray  or  black  wolf,  and 
appropriating  $25,000,  "or  so  much  thereof  as  might  be  necessary"  for  the  pay- 
ment of  said  bounties ;  enlarging  the  powers  of  incorporated  towns  by  authorizing 
them  to  grant  franchises  and  make  contracts  for  telephone  service,  lighting  the 
streets  with  gas  or  electricity,  and  to  grant  franchises  for  street  railways  operated 
by  horse,  cable  or  electric  power. 


By  an  act  passed  at  the  third  session  of  the  State  Legislature  the  governor 
was  authorized  and  required  to  "appoint  three  persons  learned  in  the  law  as  a 
committee  to  revise,  simplify,  arrange,  consolidate  and  prepare  for  publication 
all  the  statutes  of  the  state."  Governor  Richards  appointed  J.  A.  Van  Orsdel, 
Clarence  C.  Hamlin  and  Hugo  Donzelmann,  who  presented  their  report  to  the  next 
session,  but  the  Legislature  refused  to  accept  it  and  the  justices  of  the  Supreme 
Court  then  went  over  the  work  and  the  laws  were  published  by  authority  of  the 


Legislature   of    1899  as  the   "Revised   Statutes   of   Wyoming,"   the   first   revised 
laws  ever  published  by  authority  of  the  state. 


The  Legislature  of  1S95  created  the  Wyoming  State  Historical  Society  and 
made  an  annual  appropriation  of  $250  for  its  support.  The  governor,  secretary 
of  state  and  the  state  librarian  were  constituted  an  executive  board  to  have 
charge  of  the  expenditure  of  the  appropriation  in  the  purchase  of  books,  maps, 
charts,  documents,  etc.,  illustrative  of  the  history  of  the  Northwest,  and  particu- 
larly of  the  State  of  Wyoming.  The  executive  board  was  also  authorized  to 
procure  and  bind  files  of  Wyoming  newspapers  and  was  required  to  report 
biennially  to  the  Legislature.  Robert  C.  Morris  was  chosen  as  the  first  secretary 
of  the  society  and  under  his  direction  a  volume  of  historical  collections  was 
published  in  1897. 


In  1895  a  majority  of  the  people  of  the  states  west  of  the  ^lissouri  River, 
irrespective  of  party  affiliations,  were  in  favor  of  the  free  coinage  of  both 
gold  and  silver  at  the  ratio  of  sixteen  to  one.  On  February  11,  1895,  Governor 
Richards  approved  a  memorial  to  Congress  protesting  against  the  proposed  issue 
of  bonds  by  the  Federal  Government  "as  a  movement  in  the  East,  on  the  part  of 
New  York  bankers  to  force  the  country  to  a  gold  basis."  Copies  of  the  memorial 
were  sent  to  Senator  Joseph  M.  Carey  and  to  Representative  Henry  A.  Coffeen, 
with  instructions  to  use  their  influence  in  opposition  to  the  bond  issue. 

Another  memorial  asked  Congress  to  set  apart  a  region  included  in  a  certain 
number  of  townships  within  ranges  113  to  119,  as  a  national  park.  The  district 
embraced  within  those  boundaries  includes  the  upper  waters  of  the  Snake  River,  the 
Teton  Mountains  and  Jackson  Lake,  in  what  is  now  the  northern  part  of  Lincoln 
County.  Congress  failed- to  grant  the  request,  however,  chiefly  for  the  reason 
that  the  proposed  park  would  be  too  close  to  the  Yellowstone  National  Park  al- 
ready established. 

Memorials  asking  for  the  acquisition  of  a  tract  twenty  miles  square  from  the 
Wind  River  reservation,  to  include  the  Big  Llorn  Hot  Springs ;  for  the  passage 
of  an  act  by  Congress  submitting  to  the  states  a  constitutional  amendment  pro- 
viding for  the  election  of  L'nited  States  senators  by  popular  vote ;  for  the  restric- 
tion of  foreign  immigration,  and  to  permit  the  State  of  Wyoming  to  sell  the  lands 
granted  by  the  act  of  admission  for  less  than  ten  dollars  per  acre,  were  also 
adopted  by  the  Legislature,  approved  by  the  governor  and  forwarded  to  Congress. 

The  deadlock  in  the  election  of  United  States  senator  in  1893  left  Wyoming 
with  but  one  senator,  and  as  Joseph  M.  Carey's  term  expired  on  March  4,  1895, 
the  Legislature  of  that  year  was  called  upon  to  elect  two  senators.  The  choice 
fell  upon  Francis  E.  Warren  and  Clarence  D.  Clark,  who  took  office  upon  March 
4,  1895- 

r0LITIC.\L  CAMPAIGN  OF   1 896 

The  year  1896  was  a  "Presidential  year,"  the  only  state  officers  to  be  elected 
in  Wyoming  being  a  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  and  a  representative  in  Con- 


gress.  Interest  in  the  national  campaign  centered  upon  the  money  question.  The 
repubhcan  national  convention  was  held  in  St.  Louis  and  nominated  William 
McKinley.  of  Ohio,  for  President,  and  Garret  A.  Hobart,  of  New  Jersey  for 
\'ice  President.  The  platform  indorsed  the  act  of  1873  demonetizing  silver  and 
declared  in  fa\  or  of  the  gold  dollar  as  the  standard  unit  of  value.  The  democratic 
national  coinention  met  in  Chicago.  William  J.  Bryan,  of  Nebraska,  and  Arthur 
Sewall.  of  Maine,  were  nominated  for  President  and  \'ice  President,  respectively, 
upon  a  platform  declaring  in  favor  of  the  free  and  unlimited  coinage  of  both 
siKer  and  gold  as  primary  money  at  the  ratio  of  sixteen  to  one. 

In  \\'yoming  the  two  state  conventions  indorsed  the  action  of  the  national 
conventions.  The  republicans  nominated  H.  \'.  S.  Groesbeck,  former  chief 
justice,  for  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  and  Frank  W.  Mondell  was  renominated 
for  Congress.  The  democratic  state  convention  named  Samuel  T.  Corn  for 
justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  and  ex-Governor  John  E.  Osborne  for  representa- 
tive in  Congress.  The  people's  party  made  no  nomination  for  Supreme  Court 
justice  but  William  Brown  was  the  candidate  of  that  party  for  Congress. 

At  the  election  on  November  3,  1896,  the  democratic  presidential  electors — 
John  A.  Martin.  Patrick  J.  Ouealy  and  Daniel  L.  \'an  Meter — carried  the  state 
by  a  plurality  of  303  ;  Samuel  T.  Corn  received  10,461  votes  for  justice  of  the 
Supreme  Court  to  9,985  for  Judge  Groesbeck;  and  John  E.  Osborne  defeated 
Frank  W.  Mondell  for  Congress  by  a  vote  of  10,310  to  10,044.  William  Brown, 
the  populist  candidate  for  Congress,  received  628  votes  in  the  state.  Although 
the  democrats  elected  the  state  officers,  the  Legislature  elected  in  1896  was  com- 
posed of  thirty-seven  republicans  and  twenty  democrats  on  joint  ballot. 


On  January  12,  1897,  the  fourth  State  Legislature,  and  the  second  un,-ler 
Gov.  William  .\.  Richards'  administration,  assembled  at  Cheyenne.  The  senate 
organized  by  electing  George  E.  Abbott,  of  Cheyenne,  president,  and  A.  D.  Kelley, 
of  Cheyenne,  was  chosen  speaker  of  the  house.  In  his  biennial  message  Governor 
Richards  announced  that  the  assessment  of  the  property  in  the  state  was  $30,- 
028,694.65.  He  also  called  the  attention  of  the  Legislature  to  the  deficit  of 
$56,454.70  in  the  state  funds,  due  to  the  suspension  of  T.  A.  Kent's  bank  on 
July  20.  1893.  The  governor  closed  that  part  of  his  message  relating  to  the 
financial  condition  of  the  state  as  follows :  "The  credit  of  Wyoming  is  very 
good,  judging  from  the  value  of  our  bonds.  In  December,  1896,  state  bonds 
bearing  6  per  cent  interest  were  quoted  on  the  New  York  market  at  a  figure  net- 
ting the  investor  3.75  per  cent.  But  one  state  west  of  the  Missouri  River  is 
rated  higher  than  Wyoming." 

On  the  subject  of  irrigation  of  state  lands  he  said:  "The  most  important 
measure  enacted  by  the  third  State  Legislature  was  the  law  providing  for  the 
reclamation  and  settlement  of  the  land  granted  the  state  under  the  Carey  Act. 
As  Wyoming  was  the  first  state  to  accept  the  trust,  and  is  the  only  state  where 
lands  have  been  segregated  and  contracts  made  for  their  reclamation,  it  is  the 
only  state  where  the  success  or  failure  of  state  control  can  be  studied.' 

He  announced  that  during  the  year  i8q6  a  total  of  482  irrigating  ditches  had 
been  siir\-eyed,  and  that  the  average  length  of  these  ditches  was  about  one  mile. 


or  a  total  of  480  miles,  and  predicted  an  era  of  prosperity  for  Wyoming  when 
her  irrigating  systems  should  be  completed. 

The  Wyoming  General  Hospital,  located  at  Rock  Springs,  was  seriously 
damaged  by  fire  on  January  4,  1897,  and  on  February  8th  Governor  Richards 
approved  an  act  of  the  Legislature  appropriating  all  the  money  received  as  in- 
demnity from  insurance  companies  (not  exceeding  fifteen  thousand  dollars)  for 
rebuilding  the  institution.  An  appropriation  was  also  made  for  completing  the 
penitentiary  at  Rawlins. 

To  encourage  the  production  of  sugar  beets  and  the  manufacture  of  beet 
sugar  in  the  state,  an  act  was  passed  at  this  session  exempting  from  taxation  for 
a  period  of  ten  years  all  property  employed  in  the  production  of  sugar. 

By  the  act  of  February  24,  1897,  the  state  accepted  the  grant  of  one  mile 
square  of  land  in  the  northeastern  part  of  the  Shoshone  Indian  reservation,  upon 
which  are  located  the  Big  Horn  Hot  Springs,  with  all  the  conditions  imposed 
by  the  act  of  Congress  granting  the  said  land  to  the  State  of  Wyoming. 


In  the  latter  part  of  November,  1895,  the  second  Trans-Mississippi  Congress 
met  in  Omaha,  the  first  having  been  held  in  St.  Louis  in  the  fall  of  the  preceding 
year.  At  the  Omaha  meeting  a  committee  of  five  was  appointed  to  prepare 
resolutions.  William  J.  Bryan,  as  chairman  of  that  committee  reported  a  resolu- 
tion, among  others,  "That  the  United  States  Congress  be  requested  to  take  such 
steps  as  may  be  necessary  to  hold  a  Trans-Mississippi  Exposition  at  Omaha 
during  the  months  of  August,  September  and  October,  in  the  year  1898.  and  that 
the  representatives  of  such  states  and  territories  in  Congress  be  requested  to 
favor  an  appropriation  as  is  usual  in  such  cases  to  assist  in  carrying  out  this 

That  resolution  was  the  first  move  toward  the  exposition  that  wa^;  i-,i.-k!  in 
Omaha  from  June  to  November,  1898.  During  the  month  of  P'ebruary,  1897, 
the  department  of  promotion  sent  excursions  to  the  capital  cities  of  several  of 
the  Trans-Mississippi  states  to  present  the  matter  of  the  exposition  project  to 
the  state  officials  and  such  state  legislatures  as  might  then  be  in  session.  One  of 
these  excursions  visited  various  cities  in  Wyoming  and  the  adjacent  states.  The 
Wyoming  Legislature  of  that  year  adjourned  without  making  any  appropriation 
for  an  exhibit  of  the  state's  products  at  the  fair.  An  attempt  was  made  to  raise 
a  fund  of  $7,000  by  asking  each  county  in  the  state  to  appropriate  its  part  in 
proportion  to  the  assessed  valuation  of  the  property  of  the  county.  This  plan 
failed  and  a  committee,  composed  of  Elwood  Mead,  state  engineer,  Frank  P. 
Graves  of  the  State  University,  and  Governor  Richards,  was  chosen  to  solicit 
and  receive  private  donations  to  a  fund  for  an  exhibit  at  Omaha. 

This  committee  went  to  Omaha  and  selected  space  for  an  exhibit  and  the 
railroad  companies  operating  in  Wyoming  agreed  to  transport  all  the  articles  of  the 
display  free  of  charge.  Several  thousand  dollars  were  contributed  by  the  citizens 
of  the  state,  several  of  whom  also  had  private  exhibits  of  their  products  at  the 
exposition.  Dr.  David  T.  Day,  director  of  the  Government  mining  exhibit, 
Prof.  W.  C.  Knight  and  J.  T.  Crawford,  state  land  appraiser,  arranged  the  \\'yo- 
ming  exhibit,  which  was  in  charge  of  Mr.  Crawford,  who  received  nothing  for  his 


services  except  his  actual  expenses.  Although  the  display  was  not  as  complete 
as  the  one  made  at  the  Columbian  Exposition  five  years  before,  Wyoming  took 
two  gold  medals,  five  silver  medals  and  one  bronze  medal  upon  the  mineral 
and  agricultural  products  exhibited.  The  actual  expense  (not  including  the 
cost  of  the  floor  space  and  the  expenses  of  Mr.  Crawford)  was  less  than  one 
thousand  dollars. 

C.\MP.\IGN    OF    1898 

In  i8q8  a  full  complement  of  state  officers  was  to  be  elected  and  three  tickets 
were  placed  in  the  field.  'The  republicans  nominated  De  Forest  Richards  for 
governor;  Fenimore  Chatterton,  secretary  of  state;  LeRoy  Grant,  auditor  of 
state ;  George  E.  Abbott,  treasurer  of  state ;  Thomas  T.  Tynan,  superintendent  of 
public  instruction;  Jesse  Knight,  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court;  Frank  W.  Mon- 
dell,  representative  in  Congress. 

The  democratic  candidates  were:  Horace  C.  Alger,  governor;  David  Miller, 
secretary  of  state ;  Charles  H.  Priest,  auditor  of  state ;  Luke  \'oorhees.  treasurer 
of  state ;  Jerome  F.  Brown,  superintendent  of  public  instruction ;  Charles  E. 
Blydenburgh,  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court;  Constantine  P.  Arnold,  representa- 
tive in  Congress. 

E.  B.  Viall  was  nominated  for  governor  by  the  people's  party:  Shakespeare 
E.  Seeley,  for  secretary  of  state:  J.  F.  Pierce,  for  auditor  of  state;  John  M. 
Rouser,  for  treasurer  of  state;  Mrs.  M.  A.  Stocks,  for  superintendent  of  public 
instruction ;  William  Brown,  for  representative  in  Congress.  No  nomination  was 
made  by  this  party  for  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court. 

The  election  was  held  on  Tuesday.  November  8.  1898,  and  it  resulted  in  a 
victory  for  the  entire  republican  ticket.  Governor  Richards'  plurality  was  1,394. 
and  the  other  republican  candidates  were  elected  by  substantially  the  same  vote. 


De  Forest  Richards,  fourth  governor  of  the  State  of  Wyoming,  was  born 
at  Charlestown,  New  Hampshire,  August  6,  1846.  He  was  educated  at  the 
Kimball  Union  Academy,  Meriden,  New  Hampshire,  and  at  Phillips'  Andover 
Academy.  Shortly  after  the  close  of  the  Civil  war  he  went  to  Alabama,  where  in 
1868  he  was  elected  to  the  Legislature.  From  186S  to  1871  he  was  sheriff  of 
Wilcox  County,  Alabama,  and  he  was  then  elected  county  treasurer  for  two 
terms.  He  continued  in  business  at  Camden,  .\labama  until  1885,  when  he  re- 
moved to  Chadron,  Nebraska,  and  engaged  in  the  banking  business.  In  1886  the 
First  National  Bank  of  Douglas,  Wyoming,  was  organized  and  IMr.  Richards  was 
elected  president.  He  then  became  a  resident  of  Douglas;  remained  at  the  head 
of  the  bank  until  his  death;  was  actively  engaged  in  mercantile  and  live  stock 
operations,  and  also  took  a  commendable  interest  in  public  affairs.  He  was 
elected  a  delegate  to  the  constitutional  convention  in  18S9;  was  mayor  of  Douglas 
from  i8gi  to  1894;  was  elected  to  the  state  senate  by  the  republicans  of  his 
district  in  1892;  was  nominated  and  elected  governor  of  the  state  in  1898;  and 
was  re-elected  in  1902.  He  did  not  live  to  complete  his  second  terni,  his  death 
occurring  on  .Xjjril  28,  1903.     Governor  Richards  was  prominent  in  the  Alasonic 


fraternity,  having  attained  to  the  thirty-second  degree,  and  he  was  also  a  member 
of  the  Shrine.  At  one  time  he  was  grand  master  of  the  Wyoming  Grand  Lodge. 
He  took  the  oath  of  office  on  January  2,  1899,  and  the  other  state  officers  elected 
in  the  preceding  Xovember  were  installed  in  their  respective  offices  on  the  same 


The  fifth  session  of  the  State  Legislature  commenced  at  Cheyenne  on  Janu- 
ary JO,  189Q.  John  IMcGill.  of  Albany  County,  was  elected  president  of  the 
Senate,  and  Levi  R.  Davis,  of  Weston  County,  was  chosen  speaker  of  the  House. 
The  message  of  Governor  Richards  was  very  brief.  After  referring  to  the 
constitutional  provision  making  it  the  duty  of  the  governor  to  communicate  to 
the  Legislature  at  the  beginning  of  each  session  information  concerning  the 
state,  he  said:  "It  naturally  follows  that  the  information  to  be  conveyed  to  you 
should  be  of  a  practical  nature,  based  on  experience  rather  than  theory,  and 
therefore,  after  a  conference  between  ex-Gov.  W.  A.  Richards  and  myself,  he. 
impelled  by  the  deep  interest  he  feels  in  the  welfare  of  the  state  that  he  has 
served  so  faithfully  and  well,  has  volunteered  to  prepare  a  message,  which  I  here- 
with transmit,  making  it  a  part  and  parcel  of  this  document,"  etc. 

The  message  prepared  by  the  retiring  governor  was  replete  with  information 
regarding  the  finances  and  institutions  of  Wyoming.  It  gave  detailed  accounts 
of  the  rebuilding  of  the  General  Hospital  at  Rock  Springs,  the  Fort  McKinney 
reservation,  which  was  given  to  the  state  by  act  of  Congress  in  1895,  the  part 
taken  by  Wyoming  in  the  Trans-Mississippi  Exposition  at  Omaha  in  1898  and 
the  awards  taken' by  the  state,  complete  information  as  to  the  part  taken  by  the 
state  in  the  Spanish-American  war  up  to  that  time,  and  announced  that  the  state 
treasury  showed  a  balance  on  hand  of  $103,785.69  at  the  conclusion  of  the  year 

By  the  act  of  February  17,  1899,  the  Big  Horn  Hot  Springs,  which  had 
previously  been  granted  to  \Vyoming  by  act  of  Congress,  were  "placed  under  the 
control  of  the  state  board  of  charities  and  reform  and  forever  set  aside  for  the 
treatment  and  care  of  diseases  for  sanitary  and  charitable  purposes."  The  board 
was  authorized  by  the  act  to  lease  the  lands  and  water  privileges,  with  the 
stipulation  that  all  buildings  erected  upon  the  reservation  should  be  according 
to  plans  furnished  or  approved  by  the  board.  It  was  further  provided  that 
gambling  and  the  sale  of  liquor  should  be  strictly  prohibited,  and  the  board  was 
required  to  appoint  a  superintendent  to  see  that  the  provisions  of  the  act  were 
carried  out  and  the  regulations  of  the  board  properly  observed. 

Among  the  appropriations  made  by  this  Legislature  was  one  of  $789.15  to 
reimburse  ex-Gov.  William  A.  Richards  for  money  advanced  on  account  of  the 
Trans-Mississippi  Exposition  at  Omaha  in  1898,  and  one  of  $1,000  for  the  purpose 
of  establishing  a  branch  of  the  state  fish  hatchery  at  Sundance,  Crook  County. 

One  important  act  of  the  fifth  Legislature  was  that  declaring  county  com- 
missioners to  be  a  county  board  of  health,  the  mayor  and  council  in  incorporated 
cities,  and  the  president  and  trustees  in  incorporated  towns  to  be  boards  of  health 
in  their  respective  munici]i;ilities.  Each  of  these  local  boards  of  health  was 
authorized  to  appoint  a  health  officer,  who  should  be  a  regularly  licensed  and 
practicing  physician,  to  act  as  an  adviser  to  the  board.     The  county  and  numici- 


pal  board  of  health  were  empowereu  to  adopt  and  promulgate  rules  and  regula- 
tions to  be  observed  in  times  of  epidemic  of  contagious  diseases;  to  provide  for 
quarantine  and  the  isolation  of  persons  affected  by  such  epidemic ;  to  adopt  such 
means  as  they  might  deem  necessary  for  the  abatement  of  nuisances,  the  cleaning 
up  of  unsanitary  premises,  etc.,  in  the  interest  of  the  general  health  and  comfort 
of  the  community. 


In  the  spring  of  1899  a  train  robbery  was  committed  near  the  little  station 
of  Wilcox,  in  the  western  part  of  Albany  County,  and  the  robbers  escaped  to  the 
mountainous  districts  farther  north.  In  June  Sheriff  Hazen,  of  Converse  County, 
was  killed  while  in  pursuit  of  the  train  robbers,  who  then  found  a  refuge  in  the 
wild  parts  of  Johnson  County.  Governor  Richards  was  asked  to  send  assistance 
to  capture  the  outlaws.  He  ordered  a  detachment  of  Company  C,  of  Buffalo, 
of  the  Wyoming  National  Guard,  to  report  to  the  sheriff  of  Johnson  County, 
and  in  his  message  to  the  Legislature  of  1901  he  reported  the  expenses  of  this 
action  to  be  $963.30. 

About  the  same  time  the  governor  of  Utah  called  upon  Governor  Richards 
to  aid  in  the  capture  of  some  bandits  who  had  killed  some  of  the  officials  of  that 
state  who  were  trying  to  arrest  them.  The  governor  directed  Sheriff  Swanson,  of 
Sweetwater  County,  to  organize  a  posse  and  render  what  assistance  he  could 
in  arresting  the  bandits.  Although  no  funds  were  available  for  such  purposes. 
Sheriff'  Swanson  raised  a  posse  and  at  the  commencement  of  the  next  session 
Governor  Richards  recommended  an  appropriation  to  reimburse  that  official.  "It 
gives  me  pleasure,"  said  the  governor  in  his  message,  "to  report  that  organized 
outlawry'  has  ceased  to  exist  in  this  state  and  that  the  notorious  'Hole-in-the- 
Wall  gang'  and  kindred  organizations  have  been  practically  broken  up.  The 
state  is  undoubtedly  more  free  from  the  depredations  of  such  criminals  than 
ever  before  in  its  history." 


In  the  presidential  campaign  of  1900,  the  republicans  renominated  William 
McKinley,  of  Ohio,  for  President,  and  Theodore  Roosevelt,  of  New  York,  for 
Vice  President.  William  J.  Bryan,  of  Nebraska,  was  again  nominated  by  the 
democrats  for  President,  and  Adlai  E.  Stevenson,  of  Illinois,  was  named  for  \"\ct 
President.  This  was  a  republican  year  in  Wyoming.  The  republican  presidential 
electors — Bryant  B.  Brooks,  A.  E.  Bradbury  and  Ervin  F.  Cheney — received  14.- 
482  votes,  while  the  highest  number  received  by  any  of  the  democratic  electors 
was  10,164.  ^>'o  state  officers  were  elected  in  Wyoming  this  year.  Frank  ^\'. 
Mondell,  the  republican  candidate  for  representative  in  Congress,  defeated 
J.  C.  Thompson  by  a  vote  of  14.539  to  10.017. 


Wyoming's  sixth  State  Legislature  began  its  session  at  Cheyenne  on  Tues- 
day, January  8,  1901.  In  organizing  the  two  branches  for  the  transaction  of 
business,  Edward  W.  Stone,  of  Laramie  County,  was  elected  president  of  the 
senate,  and  Jerome  S.  Atherly,  of  Albany  County,  speaker  of  the  house.     On 


January  23,  igoi.  the  two  houses  met  in  joint  session  for  the  purpose  of  electing 
a  United  States  senator.  Francis  E.  Warren  received  fifty-two  votes  and  John 
E.  Osborne  received  three  votes.  Mr.  Warren  was  therefore  declared  elected 
United  States  senator  for  a  term  of  six  years,  beginning  on  March  4,  1901. 

By  an  act  passed  at  this  session,  the  governor  was  authorized  to  appoint 
three  persons,  one  of  whom  should  be  a  physician,  as  a  state  board  of  health,  the 
physician  to  be  the  secretary  of  the  board.  The  state  board  of  health  thus  created 
was  given  power  to  investigate  the  pollution  of  streams,  to  obtain  analyses  of  the 
water  used  for  domestic  purposes  by  incorporated  towns  and  cities  and  to  recom- 
mend improvement  of  waterworks  systems,  to  cooperate  with  the  local  boards  of 
health,  to  have  the  management  or  oversight  of  hospitals,  to  examine  public 
buildings  and  report  upon  their  sanitary  condition,  and  to  make  quarantine  regu- 
lations for  the  suppression  of  epidemics  of  infectious  diseases. 

The  question  of  the  permanent  location  of  the  seat  of  government,  the  state 
university,  the  insane  asylum  and  the  state  penitentiary  was  ordered  "to  be 
submitted  to  and  determined  by  the  qualified  electors  of  the  state  at  the  general 
election  to  be  held  on  Tuesday  next  after  the  first  ^londay  in  November,  in  the 
year  1904."  The  act  also  provided  that  every  city,  town  and  village  should  be 
eligible,  that  said  towns,  cities  and  villages  should  be  nominated  in  the  same 
manner  as  that  provided  by  law  for  the  nomination  of  candidates  by  petition 
and  the  names  of  cities,  towns  and  villages  should  be  printed  on  the  ballots. 
Each  voter  could  vote  for  one  place  for  the  location  of  each' of  the  institutions 
named  in  the  act. 

By  an  act  approved  by  Go\ernor  Richards  on  February  14,  1901,  the  name  of 
the  Stinking  Water  River,  in  Bighorn  County,  was  changed  to  the  Shoshone 
River,  and  it  was  directed  that  the  latter  name  be  used  by  all  state  officials  and 
employees  when  referring  to  the  stream. 

goverxor's  residence 

On  February  16,  1901,  Governor  Richards  affixed  his  signature  to  an  act 
authorizing  and  requiring  the  county  commissioners  of  the  several  counties  in  the 
state  to  levy  a  tax  of  one-eighth  of  a  mill  on  each  dollar's  worth  of  taxable 
property,  for  the  purpose  of  building  a  residence  for  the  governor  of  Wyoming. 
The  capitol  commission  was  directed  to  obtain  a  site  and  supervise  the  erection  of 
the  building,  which,  when  completed,  should  be  the  property  of  the  state. 

Shortly  after  the  adjournment  of  the  Legislature,  the  capitol  commission 
purchased  a  site  on  the  corner  of  Twenty-first  and  House  streets  for  $3,000  and 
as  soon  as  the  fund  resulting  from  the  tax  levied  was  sufficient,  work  was  com- 
menced on  the  building.  The  first  governor  to  occupy  the  residence  was  Bryant 
B.  Brooks,  who  in  his  message  to  the  Legislature  on  January  11,  1905,  announced 
the  completion  of  the  building  and  gave  the  cost  to  the  state  as  follows : 

Site     $  3,000,00 

Building     23,717.29 

Furniture      4,500.00 

Improving  the  grounds    2,036.00 

Total $33,253.29 


Further  improvements,  garage,  outbuildings,  etc.,  that  have  since  been  made 
have  brought  the  total  up  to  $42,600.  Prior  to  the  erection  of  this  residence,  the 
governors  of  Wyoming  were  compelled  to  rent  or  lease  a  house  to  live  in  during 
their  respective  terms  of  ofifice,  something  not  always  easy  to  accomplish.  With  the 
completion  of  the  state  mansion,  the  governor  has  been  situated  so  that  he  could 
entertain  his  visitors  in  a  manner  befitting  the  dignity  of  his  office. 


During  the  summer  of  1901  the  Pan-American  Exposition  was  held  at 
Buffalo,  New  York.  Wyoming  prepared  no  exhibit,  but  before  the  opening  of 
the  fair  the  management  requested  Governor  Richards  to  appoint  representative 
citizens  of  the  state  to  serve  on  the  boards  connected  with  the  exposition.  In 
response  to  this  request,  the  governor  appointed  Joseph  M.  Carey  and  J.  L.  Torrey 
as  honorary  vice  presidents,  and  ^Irs.  Francis  E.  Warren  and  Mrs.  Clarence  D. 
Clark  as  honorary  members  of  the  board  of  lady  managers. 

ELECTION   OK    I902 

In  1902  the  republicans  renominated  all  the  state  officers,  except  the  state 
treasurer,  for  which  office  Henry  G.  Hay  was  nominated.  Charles  N.  Potter  for 
justice  of  the  Supreme  Court,  and  Frank  W.  Mondell  for  representative  in 
Congress.  At  the  election,  which  was  held  on  November  4th.  the  entire  republican 
ticket  was  elected.  Richards'  plurality  over  George  T.  Beck,  the  democratic 
candidate  for  governor,  was  4,466.  Frank  W.  Mondell  defeated  Charles  P.  Clem- 
mons  for  representative  in  Congress  by  a  vote  of  15,808  to  8,892.  This  year,  for 
the  first  time  in  Wyoming,  the  socialist  party  had  a  ticket  in  the  field,  their  candi- 
date for  governor  receiving  552  votes. 


Gov.  De  Forest  Richards'  second  term  began  with  the  opening  of  the  se\-enth 
State  Legislature  on  January  13,  1903.  His  message  to  the  Legislature  at  the 
commencement  of  the  session  was  an  exhaustive  account  of  the  condition  of  the 
state  institutions  and  finances,  with  suggestions  and  recommendations  for  their 

This  session  of  the  Legislature  appropriated  $100,000  to  the  state  board  of 
charities  and  reform,  for  the  support  and  maintenance  of  the  penitentiary,  the 
insane  asylum,  the  Wyoming  General  Hospital,  the  deaf,  dumb  and  blind  asylum, 
etc.  The  board,  by  another  act,  was  required  to  establish  a  home  for  soldiers  and 
sailors  on  the  old  Fort  McKinney  reser\-ation  in  Johnson  County  and  an  appro- 
priation of  $2,500  was  made  for  putting  the  buildings  in  repair  and  removing  the 
soldiers   in   the   temporary   home   at   Cheyenne   to   their  new   quarters. 

On  February  21,  1903,  the  governor  approved  the  act  to  tax  gifts,  legacies 
and  inheritances.  By  the  provision  of  this  act  all  inheritances  descending  to 
parents,  husband,  wife,  children,  brothers  and  sisters,  amounting  to  ten  thousand 
dollars  or  more,  are  taxed  two  per  cent.    To  all  other  beneficiaries,  five  per  cent. 

Tax   levies    were    ordered    for   building    an    addition   to    the    penitentiary    at 


Rawlins,  and  for  the  establishment  of  a  branch  of  the  Wyoming  General  Hos- 
pital at  Sheridan.  For  the  latter  institution  the  proceeds  derived  from  the  tax 
levy  to  an  amount  not  exceeding  twenty-two  thousand  five  hundred  dollars  were 
placed  at  the  disposal  of  the  state  board  of  charities  and  reform,  which  was 
authorized  to  obtain  a  suitable  site,  by  donation  of  otherwise,  and  to  superintend 
the  erection  of  the  buildings. 

Other  acts  passed  at  this  session  were  those  appropriating  the  sum  of  $3,000 
for  a  branch  fish  hatchery  at  Saratoga ;  requiring  the  school  trustees  in  the 
various  school  districts  of  the  state  to  cause  the  American  flag  to  be  displayed 
upon  each  school  house,  flagstaff  or  tower  during  the  hours  school  is  in  session ; 
throwing  open  mineral  lands  to  exploration,  occupation  or  purchase  under  the 
same  rules  governing  the  location  of  mining  claims ;  providing  for  the  sale  of 
pure  and  unadulterated  foods  and  appointing  a  state  chemist:  and  authorizing 
county  commissioners  to  offer  bounties  for  the  destruction  of  predator\-  wild 


On  February  2^.  up^.  Governor  Richards  approved  an  act  of  the  Legislature 
authorizing  him  to  appoint  seven  commissioners  to  take  charge  of  the  work  of 
collecting  and  arranging  an  exhibit  of  \\'yoming's  products  at  St.  Louis.  Missouri, 
in  1904,  at  the  exposition  celebrating  the  centennial  of  the  Louisiana  Purchase, 
and  appropriating  the  sum  of  $25,000  to  defray  the  expenses  of  such  exhibit. 
Pursuant  to  the  provisions  of  the  act.  Governor  Richards  appointed  as  the  com- 
missioners Clarence  B.  Richardson,  Robert  B.  Homer,  Bryant  B.  Brooks,  Willis 
G.  Emerson,  George  E.  Pexton,  Charles  A.  Badgette  and  William  C.  Deming. 

The  commissioners  met  at  the  state  capitol  on  March  20,  1903.  and  organized 
by  the  election  of  Robert  B.  Homer,  president ;  Bryant  B.  Brooks,  vice  president ; 
William  C.  Deming,  secretary.  Mr.  Homer  resigned  soon  after  his  election  and 
Mr.  Brooks  was  elected  in  his  place.  J.  L.  Baird  was  appointed  to  the  vacancy 
on  the  board  caused  by  the  resignation  of  Mr.  Homer,  and  W.  H.  Holliday  was 
appointed  to  fill  the  vacancy  caused  by  the  death  of  Charles  A.  Badgette. 

The  agricultural  exhibit  was  prepared  under  the  direction  of  Prof.  B.  C, 
Buffum,  of  the  State  L'niversity  :  John  H.  Gordon,  of  Cheyenne,  was  employed 
to  prepare  for  exhibition  a  collection  of  Wyoming  woods  and  such  minerals  as 
might  be  available  in  the  state  museum ;  State  Geologist  H.  C.  Beeler  gave  valu- 
able assistance  in  the  arrangement  of  the  mineral  display;  and  the  educational 
exhibit  was  prepared  under  the  supervision  of  Thomas  T.  Tynan,  superintendent 
of  public  instruction.  As  far  as  it  was  practicable,  the  commission  tried  to  show 
not  only  the  raw  material,  but  also  some  finished  article  manufactured  from  it. 
The  railroad  companies  operating  in  the  state  agreed  to  transport  materials  for 
the  various  exhibits  free  of  charge.  Through  this  generous  cooperation  and  the 
energy  of  the  commission,  Wyoming  was  one  of  the  comparatively  few  states 
that  had  its  entire  display  in  place  on  the  opening  day  of  the  fair. 

Monday,  July  11.  1904,  was  "Wyoming  Day"  at  the  exposition.  On  that  day 
Acting-Governor  Chatterton  and  his  staff  were  present  and  a  large  number  of 
Wyoming  people  were  in  attendance  to  celebrate  in  a  proper  manner  the  four- 
teenth anniversary  of  the  state's  admission  into  the  L'nion.     The  exercises  were 


held  in  the  Hall  of  Congresses.  Music  was  furnished  by  a  band  belonging  to  a 
regiment  of  the  Illinois  National  Guard  and  the  Indian  band  from  the  Indian 
school  in  Wyoming.  David  R.  Francis,  president  of  the  e.xposition  commission, 
delivered  an  address  of  welcome  and  the  response  was  made  by  Bryant  B.  Brooks, 
president  of  the  Wyoming  commission.  Addresses  were  made  by  Samuel  T. 
Corn  of  the  Wyoming  Supreme  Court,  Joseph  M.  Carey  and  Henry  A.  Coffeen. 
Wyoming  took  124  prizes  upon  the  state's  displays  and  private  exhibits. 
These  awards  consisted  of  four  grand  prizes,  thirty-three  gold  medals,  forty- 
seven  silver  medals  and  forty  bronze  medals.  Over  hfty  thousand  pamphlets 
giving  information  concerning  the  resources  of  Wyoming.  Two  thousand  Wyo- 
ming people  visited  the  exposition  while  it  was  in  progress,  and  at  the  close  the 
state  commission  turned  back  into  the  treasury  $5,658.23  as  an  unexpended 
balance  of  the  original  appropriation  of  $25.cxx). 

C  H  .\TTERTO  N  "s    .\D.M  I X I  STR.\TIO  N 

The  death  of  Governor  De  Forest  Richards  occurred  on  April  28,  1903,  and  on 
the  same  day  Fenimore  Chatterton,  who  had  been  elected  secretary  of  state  at  the 
preceding  general  election,  became  acting-governor  to  serve  until  the  election  in 
November,  1904. 

F^enimore  Chatterton  was  born  in  Oswego,  New  York,  July  21,  i860.  While 
he  was  still  in  his  childhood  his  parents  removed  to  Washington,  D.  C,  where  he 
attended  Columbiana  College  and  studied  law.  In  1878  he  came  to  Wyoming 
as  a  clerk  in  the  post  store  at  Fort  Steele,  of  which  he  later  became  the  proprietor. 
I'his  store  he  sold  in  1888,  when  he  was  elected  treasurer  of  Carbon  County  and 
probate  judge.  Two  years  later  he  was  elected  to  the  first  state  senate  of  Wyo- 
ming and  was  twice  reelected,  serving  three  consecutive  terms.  In  1892  he 
entered  the  law  department  of  the  University  of  Michigan,  where  he  graduated 
the  next  year  and  began  practice  at  Rawlins.  In  1894  and  again  in  1896  he  was 
elected  county  attorney  of  Carbon  County  and  in  1898  was  elected  secretary  of 
state.  At  the  close  of  his  first  term  in  this  office  he  was  again  elected  and  upon 
the  death  of  Governor  Richards  became  acting-governor.  From  1894  to  1896 
he  was  grand  master  of  the  \^'yoming  Grand  Lodge  of  Free  and  -Accepted 
Masons,  in  which  order  he  has  received  the  thirty-second  degree,  and  in  iC)oo  he 
was  one  of  the  organizers  of  the  Kurtz  &  Chatterton  Mining  Company.  When 
Bryant  B.  Brooks  was  elected  governor  in  1904,  for  the  unexpired  term  of 
Governor  Richards,  Mr.  Chatterton  continued  as  secretary  of  state  until  succeeded 
in  January,  1907,  by  W.  R.  Schnitger. 


In  1904  the  republican  candidates  for  President  and  \'ice  President  were 
Theodore  Roosevelt,  of  New  York,  and  Charles  W.  Fairbanks,  of  Indiana.  The 
democrats  nominated  Alton  B.  Parker,  of  New  York,  for  President,  and  Henry 
G.  Davis,  of  West  Virginia,  for  \'ice  President.  The  candidates  of  the  peoples 
party  were  Thomas  E.  Watson,  of  Georgia,  and  Thomas  H.  Tibbies,  of  Ne- 
braska, for  President  and  \'ice  President,  respectively.  Silas  C.  Swallow,  of 
Pennsylvania,  was  nominated  by  the  prohibitionists  for   President,   and   George 


W.  Carroll,  of  Texas,  for  \'ice  President,  and  the  socialist  candidates  were 
Eugene  \'.  Debs,  of  Indiana,  for  President,  and  Benjamin  Hanford,  of  New 
York,  for  Vice  President. 

The  republican  candidates  for  presidential  electors  in  Wyoming  were :  Ora 
Haley,  James  M.  Wilson  and  Atwood  C.  Thomas.  The  democrats  nominated 
George  T.  Beck,  A.  L.  Murray  and  A.  ^^  Ouinn,  and  the  people's  party,  Peter 
Esperson,  John  Gaiselman  and  William  W.  Paterson.  These  were  the  three 
leading  political  organizations  in  the  state  at  that  time. 

\'acancies  were  to  be  filled  in  the  offices  of  governor  and  treasurer  of  state, 
due  to  the  death  of  Gov.  De  Forest  Richards  and  the  resignation  of  Henry  G. 
Hay.  The  republicans  nominated  the  following  ticket:  For  governor,  Bryant 
B.  Brooks;  treasurer  of  state,  William  C.  Irvine;  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court. 
Cyrus  Beard ;   representative  in  Congress,  Frank  W.   Mondell. 

The  democratic  candidates  were:  John  E.  Osborne,  for  governor:  H.  C. 
Alger,  for  treasurer  of  state;  Samuel  T.  Corn,  for  justice  of  the  Supreme 
Court;  T..S.  Taliaferro,  Jr.,  for  representative  in  Congress. 

James  W.  Gates  was  the  candidate  of  the  people's  party  for  governor ;  Frank 
Ketchum,  for  treasurer  of  state ;  Herman  \'.  S.  Groesbeck,  for  justice  of  the 
Supreme  Court;  and  William  Brown,  for  representative  in  Congress.  The 
socialists  made  no  nomination  for  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court,  but  named 
George  W.  Blain  for  governor;  David  Gordon  for  treasurer  of  state,  and 
Lemuel  L.  Laughlin  for  representative  in  Congress. 

The  election  was  held  on  Xovember  8,  1904.  The  republican  presidential 
electors  carried  the  state  by  a  plurality  of  11,559,  having  a  clear  majority  over 
all  the  electors  nominated  by  the  other  parties.  For  governor.  Brooks  received 
17.765  votes  to  12,137  cast  for  Osborne,  and  for  representative  in  Congress, 
Mondell  defeated  Taliaferro  by  a  vote  of  19,862  to  9,803. 

It  will  be  remembered  that  the  Legislature  of  1901  provided  for  submitting 
to  the  voters  at  the  general  election  of  1904  the  question  of  permanently  locating 
the  seat  of  government,  the  State  University,  the  insane  asylum  and  the  peni- 
tentiary. For  the  seat  of  government  Cheyenne  received  11,781  votes;  Lander, 
8,667;  and  Casper,  3,610,  with  a  scattering  vote  given  in  small  numbers  to  several 
other  cities  and  towns.  The  State  University  was  located  at  Laramie,  which  city 
received  12,697  votes.  Evanston  received  12,593  votes  as  the  site  of  the  insane 
asylum,  and  the  penitentiary  was  located  at  Rawlins  by  a  vote  of  12,042. 

brooks'  administration 

Bryant  B.  Brooks,  who  was  elected  governor  of  \\'yoming  in  1904.  was  liorn 
at  Bernardston,  Massachusetts,  February  5,  1861,  a  son  of  Silas  X.  and  ^Melissa 
M.  (Burrows)  Brooks.  When  he  was  about  ten  years  of  age  his  parents  removed 
to  Chicago,  where  he  was  educated,  graduating  in  the  Chicago  High  School  in 
1878.  The  next  year  he  attended  a  business  college  in  Chicago,  after  which  he 
went  to  Nebraska,  where  he  became  interested  in  the  cattle  business.  From  1880 
to  1883  he  "rode  the  range"  in  Wyoming,  and  in  the  latter  year  he  organized  the 
cattle  firm  of  B.  B.  Brooks  &  Company,  with  headquarters  on  the  Big  Muddy 
Creek  eighteen  miles  southeast  of  Casper,  making  a  business  of  raising  high 
grade  cattle  on  a  ranch  of  some  seven  thousand  acres,  a  large  part  of  which 


was  under  irrrigation.  The  company  also  raised  sheep  and  horses.  Mr.  Brooks 
became  actively  identified  with  the  republican  party  soon  after  coming  into  the 
state.  In  1892  he  was  elected  to  the  Lower  House  of  the  State  Legislature ;  was  a 
delegate  to  the  republican  national  conventions  of  1896,  1904  and  1908;  and 
was  elected  governor  of  Wyoming  in  1904  for  the  unexpired  term  of  Governor  De 
Forest  Richards.  In  1906  he  was  elected  for  a  full  term  of  four  years.  Mr. 
Brooks  is  prominent  in  fraternal  circles,  being  a  thirty-third  degree  Mason,  an 
Odd  Fellow  and  an  Elk.  Since  retiring  from  the  office  of  governor  he  has  devoted 
his  time  and  attention  to  his  large  business  interests  at  Casper. 


The  eighth  session  of  the  State  Legislature  began  at  Cheyenne  on  Tuesday, 
January  10,  1905.  E.  E.  Levers,  of  Uinta  County,  was  chosen  president  of  the 
Senate,  and  Lyman  B.  Cooper,  of  Converse  County,  speaker  of  the  House.  In 
his  message  to  the  Legislature,  Governor  Brooks  congratulated  the  people  of 
Wyoming  upon  the  increase  of  farms,  the  mineral  output  of  the  mines,  and  the 
valuation  of  live  stock,  all  good  evidences  of  the  prosperity  of  the  inhabitants. 

One  of  the  principal  laws  enacted  at  this  session  is  that  known  as  the  "Negoti- 
able Instrument  Act,"  the  main  purpose  of  which  was  to  establish  a  law  in  uni- 
formity with  the  laws  of  other  states  on  that  subject.  The  act  contains  198 
sections,  being  one  of  the  longest  ever  passed  by  a  Wyoming  Legislature,  and 
covers  every  form  of  negotiable  instrument. 

The  State  Board  of  Horticulture  was  created  bv  the  eighth  Legislature.  The 
act  creating  it  provides  that  the  governor  of  the  state,  the  professor  of  botany 
and  the  professor  of  zoology  in  the  State  University  shall  be  ex-officio  members, 
and  the  other  four  members  to  be  appointed  by  the  governor,  one  from  each  of 
the  four  water  districts  of  the  state.  The  duties  of  the  board  were  defined  to 
be  as  follows.  To  collect  and  disseminate  infomiation  on  the  subject  of  horti- 
culture, especially  the  diseases  of  fruit  trees  and  the  manner  of  getting  rid  of 
insect  pests,  and  to  report  biennially  on  the  work  done  and  the  results  ac- 

On  February  16,  1903,  two  days  before  the  final  adjournment,  a  joint  session 
of  the  two  houses  was  convened  "for  the  consideration  of  resolutions  com- 
memorative of  the  distinguished  public  services,  life  and  character  of  the  late 
De  Forest  Richards,  former  governor  of  Wyoming."  Short  addresses  were  made 
by  Governor  Brooks,  Secretary  of  State  Chatterton,  Speaker  Cooper,  and  others 
and  the  resolutions  adopted  were  ordered  to  be  recorded  in  the  journals  of  the 
Senate  and  House. 


By  an  act  of  the  Legislature,  approved  on  February  15,  1905,  a  commission 
of  six  persons  was  created  for  the  purpose  of  preparing  a  collection  of  Wyo- 
ming's resources  and  products  for  exhibition  at  the  Lewis  and  Clark  Exposition 
to  be  held  at  Portland,  Oregon,  in  the  summer  of  1905.  The  governor  was  made 
a  member  of  the  commission,  ex-officio,  and  was  authorized  by  the  act  to  appoint 


the  other  five  members.  Governor  Brooks  appointed  Clarence  B.  Richardson, 
George  E.  Pexton,  John  L.  Baird,  B.  C.  Buffum  and  WilHam  C.  Deming. 

The  act  creating  the  commission  appropriated  $10,000  in  addition  to  the 
unexpended  balance  of  $5,658.23  of  the  appropriation  made  for  the  Louisiana 
Purchase  Exposition  of  the  preceding  year,  making  a  total  appropriation  of 
$15,658.23  for  the  Lewis  and  Clark  Exposition.  The  board  organized  on  IMarch 
7,  1905,  by  the  election  of  Governor  Brooks  as  president;  George  E.  Pexton, 
vice  president;  William  C.  Deming,  secretary.  The  Chicago  &  Northwestern 
Railroad  Company  made  a  donation  of  $2,500  and  the  Union  Pacific  Railroad 
Company  furnished  free  transportation  of  the  exhibits  to  and  from  the  expo- 

A  large  part  of  the  exhibit  from  the  Louisiana  Purchase  Exposition  was 
taken  to  Portland.  In  their  final  report  the  commissioners  say:  "In  the  Mines 
Building  \\\oming  occupied  3,000  square  feet  of  floor  space  and  1,700  feet  of 
wall  space.  While  verj'  compact,  Wyoming's  exhibit  in  the  Mines  Building 
was  varied  and  attractive.  *  *  *  The  agricultural  exhibit  was  equally  com- 
plete. In  this  building  Wyoming  was  in  competition  with  some  of  the  greatest 
agricultural  states  in  the  Union,  and  the  large  number  of  awards  received  proves 
very  conclusively  that  our  state  did  not  suffer  by  comparison.  In  this  handsome 
building  \Vyoming  occupied  3,200  square  feet  of  floor  space  and  2,250  square 
feet  of  wall  space.  This  exhibit  was  installed  under  the  personal  direction  of 
Professor  Bufifum  and  consisted  of  about  twelve  hundred  classified  exhibits." 

Among  the  minerals  shown  were  oil,  soda,  copper,  iron,  coal,  gold,  building 
stone,  onyx,  clays,  asbestos,  fossil  fish,  moss  agates,  petrified  woods,  stalactites 
and  a  large  number  of  semi-precious  stones,  making  one  of  the  most  varied 
and  extensive  exhibits  of  this  class  at  the  exposition. 

July  10,  1905,  was  Wyoming  Day.  Governor  Brooks  and  his  staff,  the  mem- 
bers of  the  commission  and  a  large  number  of  Wyoming  people  were  present 
at  the  exercises,  which  were  held  in  the  great  Auditorium.  The  program  included 
music  by  the  exposition  band;  an  address  of  welcome  by  H.  W.  Goode,  president 
of  the  exposition;  response  by  Clarence  B.  Richardson,  Wyoming's  commissioner- 
in-chief  ;  the  song  "Wyoming"  by  a  quartet  (the  words  of  this  song  were  by  C.  E. 
Winter  and  the  music  by  E.  A.  Clemmons)  ;  and  addresses  by  Harry  Lane,  mayor 
of  Portland,  Governor  Brooks  and  Judge  J.  A.  \'an  Orsdel. 

The  exhibits  of  the  state  and  individual  exhibitors  were  awarded  146  medals — 
83  gold,  31  silver  and  ^2  bronze — and  twenty-si.x  other  individual  exhibits  received 
honorable  mention.  At  the  conclusion  of  the  exposition  the  commissioners 
reported  a  balance  of  $6,306.80,  with  a  few  unpaid  bills  still  outstanding,  which 
would  reduce  the  balance  to  $5,500. 

ELECTION    OF    I906 

In  the  campaign  of  1906  the  republicans  nominated  Bryant  B.  Brooks  for 
governor;  A\'illiam  R.  Schnitger,  for  secretary  of  state:  LeRoy  Grant,  for  auditor 
of  state :  Edward  Gillette,  for  treasurer  of  state ;  Archibald  D.  Cook,  for  super- 
intendent of  public  instruction:  Richard  H.  Scott,  for  justice  of  the  Supreme 
Court;  and  Frank  W.  Mondell,  for  representative  in  Congress. 

The  democratic  state  convention  nominated  for  governor,  Stephen  A.  D.  Keis- 

•       HISTORY  OF  WYOMING  241 

ter;  for  secretary  of  state,  Daniel  W.  Gill ;  for  auditor  of  state,  Thomas  J.  Dayton; 
for  treasurer  of  state.  James  M.  Labban ;  for  superintendent  of  public  instruction, 
May  Hamilton;  for  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court,  H.  \'.  S.  Groesbeck:  for  rep- 
resentative in  Congress,  John  C.  Hamm. 

William  L.  O'Neill  was  the  candidate  of  the  people's  party  for  governor ; 
William  W.  Paterson,  secretary  of  state;  Albert  J.  Vagner,  auditor  of  state; 
M.  O.  Kangas,  treasurer  of  state ;  C.  E.  Cronk,  superintendent  of  public  instruc- 
tion ;  William  Brown,  representative  in  Congress.  No  nomination  was  made 
by  this  party  for  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court. 

The  vote  for  governor  on  November  6,  1906,  was  16,396  for  Brooks,  9,483 
for  Keister,  1,310  for  O'Neill,  and  140  for  George  W.  Blain,  the  candidate  of 
the  socialist  party.  All  the  candidates  upon  the  republican  ticket  were  elected 
by  approximately  the  same  plurality  as  the  governor. 







Governor  Brooks  took  the  oath  of  office  for  the  beginning  of  his  second  term 
on  January  7,  1907,  and  the  next  day  witnessed  the  assembling  of  the 


At  the  opening  of  this  session,  O.  H.  Brown,  of  Uinta  County,  was  elected 
president  of  the  Senate,  and  Scott  K.  Snively,  of  Sheridan  County,  was  chosen 
speaker  of  the  House.  In  his  message  at  the  beginning  of  the  session.  Governor 
Brooks  advocated  the  passage  of  a  primary  election  law,  and  on  the  subject  of 
taxation  he  said :  '"Two  years  ago,  in  my  message  to  the  Legislature,  I  called 
attention  to  the  fact  that  tlje  mileage  valuations  placed  upon  railroad  property 
in  this  state  for  taxation  purposes  have  remained  practically  unchanged  for  a 
number  of  years.  It  is  generally  believed  among  our  people  that  railroads  do 
not  pay  their  just  proportion  of  taxes.  In  order  to  bring  this  subject  fairly  before 
the  Legislature,  I  some  time  ago  requested  the  attorney-general  to  investigate  the 
matter  thoroughly,  particularly  in  regard  to  the  taxes  levied  in  surrounding  states, 
and  submit  a  report  to  my  office  upon  the  subject." 

The  report  of  the  attorney-general,  which  was  submitted  as  part  of  the  gov- 
ernor's message,  showed  that  in  Nebraska  and  Utah  the  Union  Pacific  was  taxed 
on  a  valuation  of  $11,000  per  mile,  and  in  Wyoming,  $8,000;  the  Chicago,  Bur- 
lington &  Quincy  was  taxed  on  a  valuation  of  $7,600  per  mile  in  Nebraska  and 
only  $4,100  in  Wyoming,  and  in  the  case  of  the  Oregon  Short  Line,  the  State  of 
Idaho  placed  a  valuation  upon  it  of  $10,300,  while  Wyoming's  valuation  was  but 
$8,000.  Commenting  on  these  figures,  the  governor  announced  that  the  average 
railroad  tax  of  $163  per  mile  in  Wyoming  was  from  $45  to  $125  lower  than  any 
of  the  adjacent  states  except  South  Dakota.  Notwithstanding  the  emphasis  the 


governor  placed  upon  this  subject,  the  Legislature  failed  to  pass  a  law  providing 
for  a  higher  rate  of  assessment  of  railroad  property. 

By  an  act  approved  February  9,  1907,  the  premises  and  property  of  the  state 
deaf  and  dumb  and  blind  asylum  at  Cheyenne  were  assigned  for  use  as  military 
headquarters,  the  office  of  the  adjutant-general,  and  for  the  storage  and  care  of 
military  supplies.  And  on  the  same  day  the  governor  approved  the  act  trans- 
ferring the  penitentiary  at  Laramie  and  the  land  upon  which  it  is  located  to  the 
State  L^niversity  for  the  use  of  the  Agricultural  College  and  experiment  station. 
This  act  carried  with  it  an  appropriation  of  $5,000  for  the  repair  of  the  building. 

The  sum  of  $50,000  was  appropriated  for  the  erection  of  a  new  building  for 
the  accommodation  of  female  patients  at  the  Wyoming  State  Hospital  for  the 
Insane  at  Evanston,  and  a  tax  levy  sufficient  to  raise  $25,000  a  year  for  two 
years  was  authorized  to  provide  the  necessary  funds  for  that  purpose.  An  appro- 
priation of  $25,000  was  also  made  for  building  a  girls'  dormitory  at  the  State 

The  old  law  relating  to  compulsory  education  was  repealed  and  a  new  one 
enacted.  Another  act  of  this  session  provided  for  regulating  deposits  in  banks 
and  the  safekeeping  of  the  public  funds.  By  this  act  the  governor,  secretary  and 
treasurer  of  state  were  created  a  "board  of  deposit,"  and  banks  in  which  the 
state  funds  were  to  be  deposited  were  required  to  deposit  approved  securities  or 
give  bond  in  some  responsible  surety  company. 


Xo  state  officers  were  to  be  elected  in  Wyoming  in  1908  and  the  entire  interest 
centered  upon  the  presidential  campaign.  The  republican  national  convention 
was  held  in  Chicago  on  June  i6th.  William  H.  Taft,  of  Ohio,  was  nominated 
for  President,  and  James  S.  Sherman,  of  Xew  York,  for  Vice  President.  On 
July  /th  the  democratic  national  convention  assembled  in  Denver,  Colorado.  Wil- 
liam J.  Bryan,  of  Nebraska,  and  John  W.  Kern,  of  Indiana,  were  named  for 
President  and  Vice  President,  respectively.  The  populist  candidates  were  Thomas 
E.  Watson,  of  Georgia,  and  Samuel  Williams,  of  Indiana,  and  the  socialists  renom- 
inated their  candidate  of  1904  {Eugene  V.  Debs,  of  Indiana)  for  President,  and 
Emil  Seidel,  of  Wisconsin,  for  Vice  President. 

In  Wyoming  the  republicans  nominated  for  presidential  electors  John  W.  Hay, 
Fred  Waegle  and  Thomas  A.  Cosgriff ;  the  democratic  candidates  were  Andrew 
McMicken,  John  Howard  and  Barnett  G.  Rogers;  the  popuhst  candidates  were 
Thomas  Crosbie,  William  W.  Paterson  and  John  T.  Hawkins.  At  the  election 
of  November  3.  1908,  the  republican  electors  received  20,846  votes;  the  demo- 
cratic electors,  14,918;  and  the  populist  electors,  1,715.  A  few  votes  were  cast 
for  the  socialist  and  prohibition  candidates.  For  representative  in  Congress, 
Frank  W.  Mondell,  the  republican  candidate,  received  21,431  votes  to  13,643  cast 
for  Hayden  M.  White,  democrat,  and  2,486  for  James  Morgan,  the  candidate  of 
the  people's  party. 


The  tenth  session  of  the  Wyoming  State  Legislature  commenced  at  Cheyenne 
on  January   12,   1909.     The  Senate  organized  by  electing  Edward  T.  Clark,  of 


Laramie  County,  president,  and  the  House  selected  as  speaker  C.  E.  Hayden.  of 
Bighorn  County. 

During  the  closing  years  of  President  Roosevelt's  administration  the  subject 
of  conserving  the  natural  resources  of  the  nation  w-as  one  of  considerable  interest. 
In  May.  1908,  a  meeting  of  the  governors  of  the  several  states  was  held  in  Wash- 
ington, upon  the  President's  invitation,  to  exchange  ideas  and  views  upon  this 
question.  Governor  Brooks,  in  his  message  to  the  Legislature  in  1909,  referred 
to  this  congress  of  governors  and  gave  his  opinions  upon  the  subject  of  conser- 
vation. He  began  this  part  of  his  message  by  referring  to  the  constitutional 
provision  that:  "The  water  of  all  natural  streams,  springs,  lakes  or  other  col- 
lections of  still  water,  within  the  boundaries  of  the  state,  are  hereby  declared 
to  be  the  property  of  the  state." 

"Our  water  power  resources."  said  the  governor,  "have  an  enormous  value 
and  should  be  developed  for  the  benefit  of  the  whole  state,  rather  than  made  a 
means  of  taxing  the  state  for  the  enrichment  of  outside  corporations.  There 
should  be  no  possible  loophole  whereby  wealthy  syndicates  can  acquire,  free  of 
cost,  water  rights  that  in  future  years  can  only  be  extinguished  by  condemnation. 
There  is  no  reason  in  economics  or  good  government  why  any  state  should  give 
away  property  of  such  inestimable  vakie,  and  this  is  not  done  in  any  enlightened 
country  on  earth  except  our  own.  Every  power  privilege  granted  in  Wyoming 
should  be  in  the  nature  of  a  license,  subject  to  an  annual  license  fee  and  future 
regulation  of  charges  whenever  the  Legislature  sees  fit. 

"Unfortunately,  the  present  policy  relative  to  the  conservation  of  this,  like 
other  natural  resources,  seems  to  be  to  accomplish  all  reforms  through  Federal 
agencies.  The  limelight  is  all  on  the  national  stage.  Reforms  and  good  policies 
are  not  to  be  struggled  for  at  home,  but  are  to  be  placed  in  the  hands  of  Federal 
departments,  whose  chiefs  are  overanxious  to  strengthen  their  departments,  and 
as  they  are  not  acquainted  with  local  conditions,  their  meddlesome  activity  fre- 
quently acts  as  a  hindrance  to  our  development,  and  hence  irritates  our  people. 

"Reforms,  in  a  great  measure,  ought  to  be  left  to  the  virtue  and  patriotism  of 
the  state  and  county,  and  local  control  in  these  matters  will  bring  far  better  and 
more  satisfactory  results.  To  say  the  state  cannot  and  will  not  do  the  right  thing 
is  disproved  by  what  Wyoming  is  doing  in  irrigation.  It  is  in  effect  to  say  tha*- 
self-government  is  a  failure  and  must  be  replaced  by  bureaucratic  rule." 

This  message  of  Governor  Brooks  has  been  quoted  at  length,  because  the 
subject  of  conservation  of  natural  resources  is  one  in  which  the  people  of  Wyo- 
ming are  deeply  interested.  In  1908,  the  year  before  this  message  was  delivered 
to  the  Legislature,  it  cost  the  Federal  Government  more  than  one  hundred 
thousand  dollars  to  manage  the  forest  reserves  in  the  State  of  Wyoming.  There 
is  no  doubt  that  the  reserves  could  have  been  managed  by  the  state  authorities 
for  a  much  less  sum  and  in  a  more  satisfactory  manner. 

Governor  Brooks  again  called  the  attention  of  the  Legislature  to  the  inequali- 
ties existing  in  Wyoming's  system  of  assessing  property  and  levying  taxes.  On 
this  subject  he  said :  "Nearly  a  year  ago  I  determined  to  appoint  a  commission 
of  five  well  known  citizens  to  examine  the  taxation  laws  of  \\'yoming,  suggest 
changes,  correct  irregularities,  etc.  The  commission  appointed  consisted  of  Wil- 
liam R.  Schnitger,  William  E.  Mullen.  A.  D.  Cook,  John  E.  Hay  and  L.  G.  Duhig. 
Des]5ite  the   fact  that  this  commission  would  receive  no  compensation,  and  that 


the  duties  outlined  would  require  close  attention,  much  time  and  considerable 
personal  expense,  all  members  of  the  commission  accepted  the  appointment 
promptly  and  from  a  pure  sense  of  public  duty  assumed  the  responsibilities  with- 
out hesitation.  They  have  performed  their  work  faithfully  and  well,  and  I  take 
this  opportunity  to  express  my  deep  appreciation  to  every  individual  member  of 
that  commission  for  faithful  services.  They  have  gone  into  the  matter  carefully 
and  after  thorough  investigation  have  submitted  a  full  report  and  outlined  a  bill 
for  the  improvement  of  our  system  of  taxation.  ' 

In  response  to  the  governor's  recommendations  on  this  subject,  and  in  line 
with  the  report  of  the  commission,  the  Legislature  passed  an  act  creating  the 
ofifice  of  "commissioner  of  taxation,"  said  commissioner  to  be  appointed  by 
the  governor,  with  the  advice  and  consent  of  the  Senate.  The  bill  provided  for 
a  salary  of  $2,500  per  year  and  fixed  the  term  of  office  at  four  years.  The  commis- 
sioner was  to  have  and  exercise  authority  over  the  administration  of  all  assess- 
ments, to  advise  assessors  and  boards  of  county  commissioners,  make  appraisements 
of  all  railroad  property,  telegraph  and  telephone  lines,  express  companies  and 
sleeping  car  companies  doing  business  in  Wyoming,  etc.  John  McGill,  of  Albany 
County,  was  appointed  the  first  commissioner  of  taxation  under  the  new  law. 

A  state  board  of  immigration  of  three  members,  to  be  appointed  by  the  gov- 
ernor, was  created  by  the  tenth  Legislature,  and  the  sum  of  $11,000  was  appro- 
priated for  the  use  of  the  board  in  collecting,  publishing  and  disseminating  infor- 
mation regarding  the  state  and  its  resources,  and  state,  county  and  other  officials 
were  required  by  the  act  to  furnish  the  board  information  concerning  their 
respective  localities. 

Another  act  of  this  session  created  a  board  of  three  citizens  to  conduct  experi- 
ments in  dry  farming.  The  members  of  the  board  were  to  be  appointed  by  the 
governor  and  when  organized,  the  board  was  authorized  to  employ  a  director 
of  the  experiments  at  a  salary  not  exceeding  two  thousand  dollars.  An  appro- 
priation of  $5,000  was  made  for  the  purpose  of  conducting  the  experiments. 

Other  acts  of  the  session  provided  for  the  seizure  and  destruction  of  gambling 
devices ;  for  the  proper  ventilation  of  coal  mines :  for  a  system  of  recording 
brands  on  live  stock,  and  repealing  all  laws  in  conflict  therewith ;  for  a  branch 
of  the  Wyoming  General  Hospital  at  Casper :  creating  Park  Count\- ;  and  to 
encourage  the  destruction  of  predatory  wild  animals. 


In  the  political  campaign  of  ic;io  a  new  feature  was  introduced.  During  the 
session  of  Congress  that  began  in  December,  1909,  a  number  of  republican  mem- 
bers, dissatisfied  with  the  rulings  of  Speaker  Cannon,  united  with  the  democrats 
to  amend  the  rules  of  the  House  in  such  a  manner  as  to  deprive  the  speaker  of 
some  of  his  power.  These  republican  members,  most  of  whom  were  from  the 
western  states,  received  the  name  of  "insurgents."  Their  action  was  indorsed, 
however,  by  a  large  number  of  republicans  throughout  the  country  and  the  term 
"insurgents,"  first  used  in  derision,  became  popular.  Joseph  M.  Carey,  former 
United  States  senator  from  Wyoming,  dissatisfied  with  numerous  acts  of  the  Taft 
administration  during  the  first  years  of  its  existence,  and  with  the  republican  party 


management  of  state  affairs,  announced  himself  as  an  independent  candidate  for 
the  office  of  governor. 

The  repubhcan  state  convention  at  RawHns  on  Thursday,  September  15,  19 10, 
marked  the  active  opening  of  the  campaign.  William  E.  ^lullen,  of  Sheridan, 
was  nominated  for  governor;  William  R.  Schnitger,  of  Cheyenne,  secretary  of 
state;  Robert  B.  Forsyth,  of  Rock  Springs,  auditor  of  state;  John  L.  Baird, 
of  Newcastle,  treasurer  of  state;  Archibald  D.  Cook,  of  Douglas,  superintendent 
of  public  instruction ;  Charles  N.  Potter,  of  Cheyenne,  justice  of  the  Supreme 
Court;  Frank  W.  Mondell,  of  Newcastle,  representative  in  Congress. 

The  platform  adopted  by  the  convention  indorsed  the  administration  of  Presi- 
dent Taft,  and  also  that  of  Governor  Brooks ;  urged  the  reelection  of  Clarence 
D.  Clark  to  the  United  States  senate;  expressed  satisfaction  with  the  Payne- 
Aldrich  tariff  bill  enacted  by  the  previous  session  of  Congress ;  and  declared  in 
favor  of  the  contract  system  for  the  employment  of  prisoners  in  the  Wyoming 

On  Tuesday,  September  20,  1910,  the  democratic  state  convention  assembled 
at  Sheridan.  A  committee,  consisting  of  one  member  from  each  county  in  the 
state,  was  appointed  to  confer  with  Joseph  M.  Carey  in  relation  to  his  accepting 
a  nomination  for  governor  from  the  convention,  upon  a  platform  embodying  his 
views  on  certain  public  questions.  Mr.  Carey  gave  his  assent  and  made  some 
suggestions  as  to  what  the  platform  should  embrace.  The  name  of  W.  L.  Kuyken- 
dall  was  presented  as  a  candidate  for  governor,  but  it  was  immediately  withdrawn, 
and  upon  the  only  ballot  taken  Joseph  M.  Carey  received  105  votes  ;  J.  B.  Hen- 
derson, of  Lander,  thirty-six  votes,  one  delegate  not  voting.  Frank  L.  Houx,  of 
Cody,  was  then  nominated  for  secretary  of  state ;  George  C.  Forsythe,  of  Lusk, 
auditor  of  state;  Earl  Whedon,  of  Sheridan,  treasurer  of  state;  Rose  A.  Bird,  of 
Newcastle,  superintendent  of  public  instruction ;  Thomas  H.  Gibson,  of  Laramie, 
justice  of  the  Supreme  Court;  William  B.  Ross,  of  Cheyenne,  representative  in 

The  platform  declared  in  favor  of  a  constitutional  amendment  for  the  initiative 
and  referendum ;  the  enactment  of  a  law  pro\iding  for  the  nomination  of  all  state 
and  county  candidates  at  a  primary  election;  the  passage  of  a  corrupt  practices 
act;  the  conservation  of  natural  resources;  an  eight-hour  day  for  workmen  em- 
ployed upon  all  public  works ;  and  an  act  to  prohibit  the  use  of  large  campaign 
funds  by  political  parties. 

Li  this  campaign  the  socialist  party  placed  a  full  ticket  in  the  field,  to-wit : 
AMlliam  A\'.  Paterson,  for  governor :  Lyman  Payne,  secretary  of  state ;  Joseph 
A.  Johnson,  auditor  of  state;  Gabriel  Silfvast.  treasurer  of  state;  Lucy  Bode, 
superintendent  of  public  instruction  ;  H.  \'.  S.  Groesbeck.  justice  of  the  Supreme 
Court ;  James  Morgan,  representative  in  Congress. 

The  election  of  1910  was  held  on  the  8th  of  November  and  resulted  in  the 
choice  of  a  "mixed  ticket,"  the  democrats  electing  the  governor,  secretary  of 
state  and  superintendent  of  public  instruction,  and  the  republicans  electing  the 
auditor  and  treasurer  of  state,  the  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  and  the  repre- 
sentative in  Congress.  For  governor,  Carey  received  21,086  votes  ;  Mullen,  15.235  ; 
and  Paterson,  1,605.  Carey's  plurality  was  the  largest  received  by  any  of  the 
candidates.  Houx  was  elected  secretary  of  state  by  a  plurality  of  only  thirty- 
seven  votes,   and   Miss   Bird  defeated    Mr.    Cook   for   superintendent  of   public 


instruction  by  a  plurality  of  1,343.  The  pluralities  of  the  victorious  republican 
candidates  were  as  follows:  Auditor  of  state,  766;  treasurer  of  state,  207;  jus- 
tice of  the  Supreme  Court,  1,059.  Mondell  defeated  Ross  for  Congress  by  a  vote 
of  20,312  to  14,609.  Morgan,  the  socialist  candidate  for  representative  in  Con- 
gress, polled  2,155  votes,  the  highest  number  of  any  of  the  socialist  candidates. 


Joseph  jVI.  Carey,  sixth  governor  of  the  State  of  Wyoming,  was  born  at 
Milton,  Sussex  County,  Delaware,  January  19,  1845.  His  early  education  was 
acquired  in  the  schools  of  his  native  town,  after  which  he  spent  two  years  in 
Union  College  at  Schenectady,  N.  Y.,  and  then  began  the  study  of  law  with 
Benjamin  F.  Temple,  of  Philadelphia,  In  1867  he  graduated  in  the  law  depart- 
ment of  the  University  of  Pennsylvania  and  began  practice  in  Philadelphia. 
When  the  Territory  of  Wyoming  was  organized  in  the  spring  of  1869,  President 
Grant  appointed  Mr.  Carey  United  States  district  attorney  for  the  new  territory. 
This  office  he  held  until  1871,  when  he  was  appointed  associate  justice  of  the 
Territorial  Supreme  Court.  In  1876  he  retired  from  the  bench  to  devote  his 
attention  to  his  large  live  stock  interests,  in  which  he  engaged  in  1871  with  his 
brother,  R.  D.  Carey,  operating  in  both  Wyoming  and  the  Dakotas. 

In  1880  Mr.  Carey  was  elected  mayor  of  Cheyenne  and  was  twice  reelected, 
holding  the  office  for  three  consecutive  terms.  In  1884  he  was  elected  delegate 
to  Congress,  which  office  he  likewise  held  for  three  successive  terms.  While  a 
delegate  in  Congress  he  introduced  the  bill  under  which  Wyoming  was  admitted 
to  statehood,  and  in  1890  he  was  elected  one  of  the  first  United  States  senators 
from  the  new  state.  From  1876  to  1896  he  was  a  member  of  the  republican 
national  committee ;  was  one  of  the  organizers  of  the  Wyoming  Development 
Company  in  1885  ;■  was  for  a  time  president  of  the  W  heatland  Roller  Mill  Com- 
pany; and  he  and  his  associates  erected  some  of  the  best  business  blocks  in  the 
City  of  Cheyenne.  In  1894  Union  College  made  him  an  honorary  chancellor  and 
conferrred  on  him  the  degree  of  LL.  D.  In  1910  he  was  elected  governor  of 
Wyoming.  Upon  retiring  from  that  office  in  January,  191 5,  he  again  became 
actively  interested  in  stock  raising  and  real  estate  operations.  Mr.  Carey's  name 
is  inseparably  linked  with  the  "Carey  Arid  Land  Law,"  which  was  the  first  act 
passed  by  Congress  on  the  subject  of  irrigation. 


Governor  Carey  took  the  oath  of  office  on  January  2,  191 1,  and  the  eleventh 
session  of  the  State  Legislature  was  convened  at  Cheyenne  on  the  loth.  Jacob 
M.  Schwoob,  of  Bighorn  County,  was  elected  president  of  the  Senate,  and 
L.  R.  Davis,  of  Crook  County,  was  chosen  speaker  of  the  House.  In  his  message. 
Governor  Carey  devoted  considerable  attention  to  the  subjects  of  the  initiative 
and  referendum  and  the  recall  of  public  officials. 

"The  initiative  and  referendum,"  said  he.  "are  being  considered  and  adopted 
in  many  of  the  states,  and  I  believe  they  will  be -generally  tried.  I  earnestly  ask 
you  to  consider  the  matter.  Representative  government  is  not  destroyed,  but 
the  Legislature  is  able  to  secure  the  expressed  will  of  the  people." 


On  the  subject  of  the  recall  he  said:  "The  recall  of  an  elected  officer  who 
disobeys  the  will  of  the  people  and  who  proves  untnie  to  his  trust,  though  adopted 
in  several  of  the  states,  has  only  been  resorted  to  in  one  or  two  instances.  The 
power  to  exercise  this  power  seems  to  have  deterred  even  the  unprincipled  from 
violating  their  pledges.  It  simply  means  that  the  people  reserve  to  themselves 
the  right  that  the  employer  has  to  dismiss  an  unfaithful  and  dishonest  servant." 

Section  2  of  the  second  part  of  Article  3  of  the  state  constitution  provides 
that :  "The  Legislature  shall  provide  by  law  for  an  enumeration  of  the  inhabi- 
tants of  the  state  in  the  year  1895,  and  every  tenth  year  thereafter,  and  at  the 
session  next  following  such  enumeration,  and  also  at  the  session  next  following 
an  enumeration  made  by  the  authority  of  the  United  States,  shall  revise  and 
adjust  the  apportionment  for  senators  and  representatives,  on  a  basis  of  such 
enumeration  according  to  ratios  fixed  by  law." 

In  accordance  with  this  section,  it  became  the  duty  of  the  Legislature  of  191 1 
to  readjust  the  apportionment.  In  referring  to  the  matter  the  governor  said: 
"The  census  reports  for  Wyoming  have  been,  so  far  as  population  is  concerned, 
fully  determined  in  the  case  of  each  county.  It  is  to  be  regretted  that  these  appor- 
tionments are  not  always  followed  by  the  best  of  feeling  in  all  the  counties,  as 
the  claim  is  usually  made  that  the  ratios  are  fixed  so  as  to  give  some  counties 
an  undue  power  in  the  Legislature,  through  the  manipulation  of  the  fractions 
that  occur  by  the  use  of  arbitrary  divisions." 

On  February  18,  191 1,  Governor  Carey  approved  an  apportionment  act  which 
provided  that:  "Each  organized  county  in  the  State  of  Wyoming  shall  constitute 
a  separate  senatorial  and  representative  district,  and  until  otherwise  provided 
by  law,  each  organized  county  as  aforesaid  shall  have  representation  in  the  Wyo- 
ming State  Legislature  as  follows :'' 

Counties  Senators     Representatives 

Albany 2  ■  4 

Bighorn 2  3 

Carbon  .  . 
Crook  .  . . 
Fremont  . 
Johnson  . 
Laramie  . 
Xatrona  . 
Park    ... 


Sheridan   3  7 

Sweetwater 2  4 

Uinta 3  7 

Weston    I  2 


Among  the  acts  passed  during  the  session  was  one  submitting  to  the  people 
an   amendment   to   Section    i,   .Article   3   of    the   constitution,    so   that   it    should 


read  as  follows:  "Section  i.  The  legislative  power  of  the  state  shall  be  vested 
in  a  Senate  and  House  of  Representatives,  which  shall  be  designated  'The  Legis- 
lature of  the  State  of  Wyoming,'  but  the  people  reserve  to  themselves  the  power 
to  propose  laws  and  amendments  to  the  constitution  and  to  enact  or  reject  the 
same  at  the  polls,  and  also  reserve  the  power  at  their  option  to  approve  or  reject 
at  the  polls  any  act  of  the  Legislature." 

The  proposed  amendment  also  provided  that  the  first  power  (the  initiative) 
could  be  called  into  use  when  25  per  cent  of  the  legal  voters  of  the  state,  by 
petition,  asked  that  any  certain  measure  be  enacted  into  law,  such  petition  to 
be  filed  with  the  secretary  of  state  at  least  four  months  before  a  general  election. 
The  second  power  (the  referendum)  could  be  ordered  against  any  act  of  the 
Legislature  (except  those  relating  to  appropriations)  after  it  had  become  a  law, 
when  25  per  cent  of  the  legal  voters  petitioned  for  its  submission  and  filed  the 
petition  with  the  secretary  of  state  ninety  days  before  the  election. 

Seven  new  counties  were  created  at  this  session,  to-wit :  Campbell,  Goshen, 
Hot  Springs,  Lincoln,  Niobrara.  Platte  and  Washakie,  and  an  act  supplementary 
to  those  creating  the  above  counties  proxided  for  defraying  the  expenses  of 
their  organization. 

On  February  11,  191 1,  the  governor  affixed  his  signature  to  an  act  of  fifty- 
three  sections  known  as  the  "Direct  Primary  Law."  Section  i  of  the  act  provides 
that:  "From  and  after  the  passage  of  this  act,  the  candidates  of  political  parties 
for  all  offices  which  under  the  law  are  filled  by  the  direct  vote  of  the  people  of 
this  state  at  the  general  election  in  November :  candidates  for  the  office  of  senator 
in  the  Congress  of  the  United  States,  shall  be  elected  at  the  primary  elections  at 
the  times  and  in  the  manner  hereinafter  provided." 

A  political  party  is  defined  by  the  act  as  an  organization  "which  at  the  last 
preceding  general  election  cast  for  its  candidate  for  representative  in  Congress 
at  least  10  per  cent  of  the  total  vote  cast  at  said  election,"  and  the  time  fixed  for 
holding  the  primary  election  is  the  first  Tuesday  after  the  third  Monday  in 
.August.  The  act  further  provides  that  state  conventions  for  the  nomination  of 
candidates  for  presidential  electors  shall  be  held  on  the  second  Monday  in  May 
in  the  years  when  a  President  and  \'ice  President  of  the  United  States  are  to  be 

A  "Corrupt  Practices  Act"  was  approved  by  the  governor  on  February  17, 
191 1.  Under  the  provisions  of  this  act  the  campaign  expenses  of  candidates 
for  office  are  limited  to  20  per  cent  of  one  year's  salary  or  compensation  for  the 
primary  election,  and  a  like  amount  for  the  general  election.  Every  candidate 
is  required  to  render  to  the  county  clerk,  within  twenty  days  after  each  primary 
or  general  election,  an  itemized  statement  of  the  expenses  incurred  by  him  during 
the  campaign,  with  a  list  of  things  of  value  promised  by  himself  or  others  to 
secure  his  nomination  or  election. 

County  chairmen  of  central  committees  are  also  required  to  file  an  itemized 
statement  of  contributions  and  expenses  with  the  county  clerk;  district  and  state 
chairmen  with  the  secretary  of  state.  The  act  prohibits  any  campaign  committee 
from  receiving  contributions  from  corporations,  and  candidates  are  not  permitted 
to  hire  the  ser\'ices  of  any  voter.  Anyone  violating  any  of  the  provisions  of  the 
act,  or  failing  to  perform  the  duties  required  thereby,  is  subject  to  a  fine  of  not 
more  than  one  thousand  dollars,  or  imprisonment  in  the  county  jail  for  a  period 


not  exceeding  one  year,  or  both  such  fine  and  imprisonment,  in  the  discretion  of 
the  court. 

Two  state  institutions  were  estabhshed  by  the  Legislature  of  191 1,  viz.:  The 
Wyoming  Industrial  Institute  and  the  \\'yoming  School  for  Defectives.  By  the 
act  creating  the  former  it  was  provided  that  the  institute  should  be  located  by 
vote  at  the  general  election  in  November,  1912.  At  the  election  the  Town  of 
Worland  received  the  largest  vote  and  the  institute  was  located  there.  The  school 
for  defectives  was  located  by  the  Legislature  at  Lander,  "for  the  treatment  and 
education  of  epileptics  and  feeble-minded  persons."  The  10,000  acres  of  land 
granted  to  the  state  by  the  act  of  July  10,  1890,  for  the  poor  farm  in  Fremont 
County,  with  all  its  rental  and  income,  was  transferred  to  the  school  for  defectives, 
and  the  following  appropriations  for  the  institution  were  made:  $10,500  for 
equipping  and  furnishing;  $20,000  for  support  and  maintenance,  and  for 
providing  water  and  sewer  connections. 


An  appropriation  of  $7,500,  "or  so  much  thereof  as  may  be  necessary,"  was 
made  by  the  Legislature  of  191 1  to  purchase  a  silver  set,  or  other  suitable  token, 
for  the  Battleship  Wyoming.  This  vessel  was  launched  in  May,  191 1,  and  was 
christened  by  Miss  Dorothy  Knight,  daughter  of  the  late  Jesse  Knight,  one  of 
the  justices  of  the  Wyoming  Supreme  Court. 

The  silver  service  of  over  sixty  pieces  was  designed  by  the  Buechner  Jewelry 
Company  of  Cheyenne  and  was  manufactured  by  the  Gorham  Company  of  New 
York.  Upon  one  side  of  the  great  punch  bowl  was  the  figure  of  Sacajawea,  the 
Snake  Indian  woman  who  acted  as  guide  to  Lewis  and  Clark  in  1804,  and  who 
is  said  to  be  buried  on  the  AMnd  River  reservation  in  Wyoming,  and  on  the  other 
side  a  white  woman  dressed  in  civilized  costume.  In  the  main  platter  was  a 
representation  of  the  state  capitol  building  at  Cheyenne.  Each  piece  in  the  set 
U'as  bordered  by  the  flower  of  the  blue  gentian,  the  whole  making  an  artistic 
gift  of  the  state  to  one  of  the  greatest  battleships  in  the  United  States  navy. 

WESTERN  governors'  SPECIAL      ' 

Early  in  the  fall  of  191 1.  ex-Governor  James  H.  Brady,  of  Idaho,  conceived 
the  idea  of  running  a  special  train  from  the  states  of  the  Northwest  to  the  eastern 
part  of  the  country,  to  exhibit  the  products  and  advertise  the  resources  of  those 
states  for  the  purpose  of  encouraging  immigration.  He  enlisted  the  cooperation 
of  Louis  Hill,  president,  and  James  Hill,  chairman  of  the  executive  committee, 
of  the  Great  Northern  Railroad  Company,  which  bore  the  greater  part  of  the 
expense  of  the  undertaking.  These  gentlemen  foresaw  that  if  the  advertising 
of  the  Northwest  resulted  in  bringing  immigrants  to  those  states,  the  shipment 
of  products  would  naturally  increase  correspondingly  and  the  cost  of  the  "West- 
ern Governors'  Special,''  as  the  train  was  called,  would  be  bread  cast  upon  the 
waters  to  be  returned  after  many  days. 

The  following  states  were  represented,  chiefly  by  the  governors :  California, 
Oregon,  Washington,  Idaho.  ^Montana,  Colorado,  North  Dakota.  South  Dakota, 
Wyoming  and  ^Minnesota.     Each  state  was  furnished  space  for  a  display  of  its 


products  and  resources.  Wyoming  occupied  about  half  of  one  of  the  cars  and 
her  display,  collected  mainly  through  the  efforts  of  the  board  of  immigration,  pre- 
sented an  interesting  and  creditable  exhibit  of  the  possibilities  of  the  state.  The 
material  furnished  by  the  several  states  was  sent  to  St.  Paul,  Minn.,  the  starting 
point  of  the  "special.''  At  lo  P.  M.,  November  27,  191 1,  the  train  of  eleven 
cars,  consisting  of  new  steel  parlor  cars,  exhibition  cars  and  baggage  cars,  left 
St.  Paul  and  arrived  in  Chicago  the  next  morning.  From  that  point  the  trip 
included  the  states  of  Michigan,  New  York.  Pennsylvania,  Delaware,  Maryland, 
District  of  Columbia,  Ohio,  Indiana  and  Illinois.  In  his  message  to  the  Legis- 
lature in  1913,  Governor  Carey  said : 

"The  exhibition  cars  were  thrown  open  to  the  crowds  at  every  place  where 
there  was  a  stop.  The  representatives  of  the  states  included  in  the  train  were 
most  hospitably  received  everywhere.  The  people  all  along  the  route  showed 
their  anxiety  to  know  of  the  Northwest.  At  each  of  the  many  towns  and  cities 
visited,  speeches  and  addresses  were  made  telling  of  the  resources  of  the  North- 

At  Kalamazoo,  ]\Iich.,  the  public  schools  were  closed  while  the  train  was  in 
the  city  and  hundreds  of  school  children,  accompanied  by  their  teachers,  passed 
through  the  cars.  At  Harrisburg,  Pa.,  where  the  arrival  of  the  train  had  been 
well  advertised,  10,000  people,  many  of  them  farmers,  saw  the  display.  As  they 
passed  through  the  cars  frequent  remarks  were  overheard,  such  as :  "Why,  I 
thought  the  West  was  nothing  but  a  desert,"  "I  certainly  am  going  to  see  that 
country,"'  etc.,  showing  the  interest  of  the  visitors  to  be  more  than  mere  curiosity. 

The  train  arrived  at  St.  Paul  on  December  16,  igii,  having  been  "on  the 
road"  for  nineteen  days,  during  which  time  nine  states,  and  a  large  number  of 
cities  and  educational  institutions  were  visited.  Just  before  the  arrival  at  St. 
Paul  those  on  board  effected  a  permanent  organization  including  the  states  of 
California,  Oregon,  Idaho,  Arizona,  New  Mexico,  Kansas,  Nebraska,  Wyoming. 
North  Dakota,  South  Dakota,  Minnesota,  Montana  and  Utah.  James  H.  Brady 
•was  elected  president  and  Reilly  Atkinson,  secretary. 

CAMP.MGN  OF  1912 

L'nder  the  direct  primary  act  of  February  11,  191 1,  the  tirst  political  conven- 
tions in  the  state  to  nominate  presidential  electors,  etc.,  were  held  on  ]\Iay  13, 
191 2,  in  Cheyenne.  Bryant  B.  Brooks  was  chosen  chairman  of  the  republican 
convention,  which  nominated  for  electors  William  B.  Sleeper,  of  Bighorn 
County :  John  Higgins,  of  Converse :  and  Andrew  Olson,  of  Carbon.  Frank  W. 
Mondell  was  renominated  for  representative  in  Congress,  and  Cyrus  Beard  for 
justice  of  the  Supreme  Court.  As  the  national  convention  had  not  yet  been  held, 
the  following  delegates  and  alternates  were  elected :  Francis  E.  ^^'arren,  Clarence 
D.  Clark,  Frank  W.  iMondell,  Patrick  Sullivan,  W.  H.  Huntley  and  \\\  L,  Walls, 
delegates ;  C.  M.  Ebey.  John  Morton,  C.  E.  Carpenter,  J.  D.  Woodruff,  J.  A.  Gill 
and  John  Barry  alternates. 

C.  L.  Rigdon  was  elected  chairman  of  the  democratic  convention.  John  C. 
Thompson,  of  Laramie  County;  Peter  Kinney,  of  Weston;  and  Albert  L.  Brook, 
of  Johnson,  were  chosen  as  the  presidential  electors,  though  Mr.  Brook  was 
succeeded  on  the  ticket  by  Thomas  M.  Hyde.     Thomas  P.  Fahey  was  nominated 


for  representative  in  Congress,  and  Gibson  Clark  for  justice  of  the  Supreme 
Court.  Delegates  to  the  national  convention — A.  N.  Hasenkamp.  James  E.  Mayes, 
Roy  Montgomery,  John  D.  Clark,  B.  F.  Perkins  and  P.  J.  Ouealy.  Alternates — 
George  T.  Beck,  \Villiam  Reid,  R.  B.  Hackney,  J.  L.  Jordan,  T.  S.  Taliaferro  and 
C.  L.  Decker. 

The  socialists  nominated  Otto  Humberger,  Paul  J.  Paulsen  and  John  Snaja, 
Jr.,  for  presidential  electors ;  Antony  Carlson  for  representative  in  Congress ; 
and  H.  \'.  S.  Groesbeck,  for  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court. 

On  June  1 8,  1912,  the  republican  national  convention  assembled  in  Chicago. 
The  leading  candidates  for  the  Presidency  were  William  H.  Taft,  who  was  then 
President  and  a  candidate  for  a  second  term,  and  former  President  Theodore 
Roosevelt.  The  latter's  friends  charged  the  Taft  managers  with  unfair  methods 
in  seating  delegates,  etc.,  and  344  of  the  1,078  delegates  refused  to  participate 
in  the  nomination.  Only  one  ballot  was  taken.  President  Taft  receiving  the 
nomination  by  a  vote  of  540  to  107  for  Roosevelt,  with  sixty  votes  scattering  and 
si.x  delegates  absent.  \'ice  President  James  S.  Sherman  was  also  renominated, 
but  his  death  occurred  before  the  election,  and  the  vacancy  on  the  ticket  was 
filled  by  the  selection  of  Nicholas  M.  Butler,  of  New  York. 

The  democratic  national  convention  met  in  Baltimore,  Md.,  June  25.  1912, 
and  remained  in  session  until  the  2d  of  July.  Woodrow  Wilson,  of  Xew  Jersey, 
was  nominated  for  President  on  the  forty-sixth  ballot,  and  Thomas  R.  Marshall, 
of  Indiana,  was  nominated  for  Mce  President. 

The  ill  feeling  engendered  by  the  re]3ublican  national  convention  resulted  in 
the  formation  of  the  progressive  party,  which  held  a  convention  in  Chicago  on 
August  5-7,  1912.  Theodore  Roosevelt  was  nominated  for  President  and  Hiram 
W.  Johnson,  of  California,  for  \'ice  President.  In  Wyoming  the  presidential 
electors  on  the  progressive  ticket  were :  Thomas  Blyth.  Helen  B.  Grant  and 
Robert  R.  Selway.  Charles  E.  Winter  was  nominated  for  representative  in 
Congress,  and  E.  R.  Shipp  for  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court. 

On  November  5,  1912,  occurred  the  election.  The  democratic  presidential 
electors  carried  the  state,  the  vote  being  as  follows:  Democratic,  15.310;  repub- 
lican, 14,560;  progressive,  9,132;  socialist,  2,760.  The  republican  candidates 
for  Congress  and  justice  of  the  Supreme  Court  were  elected. 


In  organizing  the  twelfth  Legislature,  which  was  convened  at  Cheyenne  on 
Tuesday.  January  14,  1913,  Birney  H.  Sage,  of  Laramie  County,  was  elected 
president  of  the  Senate,  and  Martin  L.  Pratt,  of  Park  County,  speaker  of  the 
House.  In  his  message  Governor  Carey  expressed  his  regret  that  the  consti- 
tutional amendment  providing  for  the  initiative  and  referendum  failed  to  receive 
a  majority  of  the  votes  cast  at  the  recent  preceding  election,  and  on  the  subject 
of  taxation  he  recommended  the  creation  of  a  state  tax  commission  "consisting 
of  at  least  three  persons  who  should  devote  their  entire  time  and  attention  to  the 
questions  of  taxation  and  revenue  in  the  state,  in  the  counties,  in  the  cities  and 
in  the  school  districts.  The  powers  of  this  tax  commission  should  be  advisory, 
directory,  and  if  necessary,  compulsory." 

He  announced  that  the  tax  lew  for  the  establishment  of  the  \\'voming  Indus- 


trial  Institute  at  Worland  had  resulted  in  a  fund  of  about  one  hundred  and  thirty- 
five  thousand  dollars  during  the  years  lyii  and  1912;  suggested  a  change  in  the 
laws  relating  to  practice  in  the  courts,  to  avoid  delay  ;  commended  the  Kansas  "Blue 
Sky  Law,"  and  referred  to  the  operations  of  the  Penn-Wyoming  Oil  Company, 
through  which  millions  of  dollars  had  been  obtained  from  credulous  people  with- 
out giving  anything  in  return. 


For  several  years  prior  to  1913  the  state  fair  had  been  held  annually  at 
Douglas.  In  his  message  to  the  Legislature  in  1913,  Governor  Carey  said:  "The 
ground  upon  which  the  fair  buildings  stands  belongs  to  the  Chicago  &  North- 
western Railroad  Company  and  is  probably  worth  fifteen  thousand  dollars.  The 
company  leased  the  land  to  the  state  at  a  nominal  rental  at  the  time  the  state  fair 
was  inaugurated  and  the  state  has  improvements  thereon  to  the  value  of  about 
twenty  thousand  dollars.  The  time  has  arrived  when  the  matter  of  the  state 
owning  the  land  should  be  seriously  considered. 

"The  Fair  Association  and  the  governor  have  had  the  matter  up  with  the  proper 
authorities  of  the  Chicago  &  Northwestern  Railroad  and  they  have  offered  to  give 
the  lands  to  the  state  if  the  state  will  agree  to  make  $50,000  worth  of  improve- 
ments thereon,  the  land  to  revert  to  the  railroad  company  whenever  the  state 
ceases  to  use  it  for  fair  purposes." 

Appropriations  for  the  benefit  of  the  state  fair  were  made  during  the  session 
as  follows:  $22,000  for  premiums  and  expenses  of  the  fair  for  the  years  1913 
and  1914;  $20,000  for  the  erection  of  permanent  buildings  and  general  improve- 
ments :  $7,245,  or  so  much  thereof  as  might  be  necessary  for  paying  off  the  indebt- 
edness of  the  State  Fair  Commission  of  191 2. 


Two  constitutional  amendments  were  submitted  to  the  people  by  the  t\\elfth 
Legislature — one  authorizing  the  Legislature  to  provide  by  law  a  fund  for  the 
compensation  of  injured  employees  in  extra  hazardous  occupations,  or  for  the 
benefit  of  their  families  in  the  event  of  death  by  accident,  and  the  other  to 
provide  for  a  special  tax  on  live  stock,  the  proceeds  to  be  used  for  the  destruction 
of  predatory  animals. 

An  appropriation  of  $10,000,  or  so  much  thereof  as  might  be  necessary,  was 
made  to  pay  Wyoming's  share  of  the  cost  of  an  interstate  bridge  over  the  south 
fork  of  the  Snake  River  on  the  Idaho- Wyoming  line. 

Another  act  provided  for  the  establishment  of  an  experimental  farm  in  the 
County  of  Sweetwater,  to  consist  of  not  less  than  160  nor  more  than  320  acres, 
at  an  altitude  not  exceeding  6.300  feet,  to  "demonstrate  the  adaptability  of  the 
soil  and  climatic  conditions  for  producing  different  classes  of  grain,  grasses,  vege- 
tables, fruit  and  shade  trees,  etc..  at  such  an  altitude." 

\\'hat  might  be  termed  a  "pure  food  law"  was  passed  at  this  session.  It  pro- 
vided for  the  inspection  and  sanitation  of  all  places  where  food  products  are 
manufactured,  stored,  collected  or  sold,  such  as  canning  factories,  cheese  factories, 
slaughter  houses,  hotels,  restaurants,  etc.  The  state  dairy  and  food  commissioner 
and  his  deputies  were  authorized  to  make  inspections  as  often  as  they  deemed 


necessary.  Employees  in  such  places  were  required  to  wear  clean  clothing,  and 
penalties  were  provided  for  adulterating  milk,  selling  or  offering  for  sale  diseased 
meats,  feeding  offal  to  animals  intended  for  food,  etc.  An  appropriation  of 
$3,500  was  made  to  carry  out  the  provisions  of  the  act.  For  the  first  violation 
of  any  of  the  provisions  of  the  law  the  penalty  was  a  fine  of  from  ten  to  fifty 
dollars,  and  for  each  subsequent  oft'ense  a  fine  of  from  fifty  to  one  hundred  dollars, 
to  which  might  be  added  imprisonment  in  the  county  jail  for  thirty  days,  at  the 
discretion  of  the  court. 

Other  acts  of  this  session  were  those  requiring  coal  mining  companies  to 
install  and  keep  in  working  order  a  system  of  party  line  telephones  in  each  mine; 
creating  the  fifth  and  sixth  judicial  districts;  making  it  the  duty  of  the  county 
commissioners  in  each  county  to  provide  an  office  for  the  county  superintendent 
of  schools ;  extending  the  right  of  eminent  domain  to  pipe  line  companies : 
ordering  cities  and  towns  incorporated  under  special  charters  to  surrender  the 
same  and  reincorporate  under  the  general  law ;  creating  the  Oregon  Trail  Com- 
mission and  appropriating  $2,500  for  marking  the  trail :  and  to  license  and 
register  automobiles. 


In  1914  a  full  state  ticket  was  to  be  elected  and  the  first  nominations  were 
made  under  the  direct  primary  law  of  February  ii,  191 1.  The  republicans 
nominated  Hilliard  S.  Ridgely  for  governor;  Birney  H.  Sage,  secretary  of  state: 
Robert  B.  Forsyth,  auditor  of  state ;  Herman  B.  Gates,  treasurer  of  state ;  Edith 
K.  O.  Clark,  superintendent  of  public  instruction;  Richard  H.  Scott,  justice  of 
the  Supreme  Court ;  and  Frank  W.  Mondell,  representative  in  Congress. 

The  democratic  candidates  nominated  by  the  primary  were  as  follows :  John 
B.  Kendrick,  for  governor;  Frank  L.  Houx,  secretary  of  state;  Campbell  H. 
McW'hinnie,  auditor  of  state ;  Fred  L.  Thompson,  treasurer  of  state ;  Iva  T. 
Irish,  superintendent  of  public  instruction;  Charles  E.  Blydenburgh,  justice  of  the 
Supreme  Court ;  Douglas  A.  Preston,  representative  in  Congress. 

In  the  primary  the  progressives  voted  for  John  B.  Kendrick  for  governor, 
and  the  remainder  of  the  progressive  ticket  was  as  follows:  E.  C.  Raymond, 
secretary  of  state  :  Mortimer  N.  Grant,  auditor  of  state ;  F.  S.  Knittle,  treasurer 
of  state ;  Minnie  \\'illiams.  superintendent  of  public  instruction ;  Fred  H.  Blume, 
representative  in  Congress.  No  nomination  was  made  by  this  party  for  justice 
of  the  Supreme  Court.  Mortimer  X.  Grant  withdrew  and  the  vacancy  on  the 
ticket  was  filled  by  Thomas  Blyth,  who  had  been  one  of  the  progressive  candidates 
for  presidential  elector  in  1912. 

The  socialists  nominated  their  candidates  by  a  state  convention,  to  wit :  Paul 
J.  Paulsen,  for  governor;  \\'illiam  Hill,  for  secretary  of  state;  John  A.  Green, 
for  auditor  of  state ;  William  \\\  Paterson,  for  treasurer  of  state ;  Robert  Hanna, 
for  superintendent  of  public  instruction ;  E.  D.  MacDougall,  for  justice  of  the 
Supreme  Court ;  and  Antony  Carlson,  for  representative  in  Congress. 

John  B.  Kendrick  received  23,387  votes  at  the  general  election  on  November 
3,  1914,  to  19,174  cast  for  Ridgely,  the  republican  candidate,  and  1,816  for 
Paulsen,  socialist.  Frank  L.  Houx  was  reelected  secretary  of  state  by  a  plurality 
of  170,  and  the  republican  candidates  for  all  the  other  offices  were  elected. 


kendrick's  administration 

John  B.  Kendrick,  who  was  elected  governor  of  Wyoming  in  1914,  was 
born  in  Cherokee  County.  Texas,  September  6,  1857.  He  grew  to  manhood  on  a 
ranch,  receiving  his  education  in  the  common  schools.  In  March,  1879,  he  became 
a  cowboy  on  the  "Texas  Trail,"  and  that  season  trailed  cattle  from  the  Gulf 
coast  to  the  Running  Water  in  Wyoming,  a  distance  of  fifteen  hundred  miles.  In 
August,  1879,  he  located  in  ^^■yoming  as  foreman  on  the  ranch  of  his  father-in- 
law,  Charles  W.  Wulfjen,  where  he  remained  until  1883,  when  he  established 
the  Ula  ranch.  He  became  foreman  and  part  owner  of  the  Lance  Creek  Cattle 
Company  in  1885.  Two  years  later  he  accepted  the  position  of  range  manager 
for  the  Converse  Cattle  Company  and  in  1897  succeeded  to  the  business.  About 
that  time  he  became  interested  in  the  development  of  the  Sheridan  County  coal 
mines.  From  1900  to  1902  he  was  president  of  the  First  National  Bank  of 
Sheridan  and  was  also  extensively  interested  in  real  estate  operations.  In  1910 
he  was  elected  to  the  state  senate ;  was  the  democratic  candidate  for  United 
States  Senator  in  1912;  was  elected  governor  in  1914,  and  in  1916  was  elected 
United  States  Senator,  defeating  Clarence  D.  Clark,  for  the  term  beginning  on 
IMarch  4,  191 7. 


Governor  Kendrick  took  the  oath  of  office  on  January  4,  1915,  and  the  thirteenth 
State  Legislature  was  convened  on  the  12th.  Edward  W.  Stone,  of  Laramie 
County,  was  elected  president  of  the  Senate  and  James  M.  Graham,  of  Fremont 
County,  was  chosen  speaker  of  the  House.  Governor  Kendrick's  message  at  the 
opening  of  the  session  dealt  with  the  usual  topics  relating  to  the  financial  con- 
dition and  general  progress  of  the  state.  Governor  Carey,  in  his  message  of 
1913,  had  urged  the  construction  of  new  wings  to  the  capitol  building.  This 
matter  was  taken  up  at  some  length  by  Governor  Kendrick,  who  indorsed  the 
utterances  of  Governor  Carey  of  two  years  before?  He  also  recommended  the 
establishment  of  more  experimental  farms  and  announced  the  completion  of  the 
Institute  buildings  at  Worland. 

workmen's  compensation  ACT 

"At  the  last  general  election,"  said  Governor  Kendrick  in  his  message  of 
1915,  "an  amendment  to  our  constitution  was  carried  by  a  majority  of  the  electors 
of  the  state,  providing  for  a  workmen's  compensation  act.  The  vote  on  this 
amendment  was  duly  canvassed  and  the  proper  proclamation  of  its  adoption 
was  made  by  my  predecessor.  Governor  Carey.  An  amendment  to  the  constitution 
is  a  direct  mandate  from  the  people,  and  is  therefore  an  obligation  to  be  assumed 
by  the  Legislature  at  its  earliest  opportunity. 

"I  would  recommend  in  framing  such  a  law.  that  due  care  be  exercised  to 
fulfill  every  function  contemplated,  that  every  provision  be  included  to  render 
a  just  compensation  to  the  injured,  or,  in  case  of  death,  to  those  dependent  upon 
him.  But,  at  the  same  time,  such  a  law  should  be  calculated  to  avoid,  so  far 
as  possible,  the  working  of  a  hardship  on  the  industry  that  pays  the  tax." 


On  February  27.  191 5,  the  governor  approved  a  compensation  act  providing 
for  the  establishment  of  a  "State  Industrial  Accident  Fund."'  Extra-hazardous 
occupations  were  defined  and  an  appropriation  of  $30,000  was  made  at  the  state's 
first  contribution  to  the  fund.  Section  15  also  provided  that  "There  is  also  ap- 
propriated annually,  until  otherwise  provided  by  law.  out  of  any  moneys  in  the 
state  treasury  not  otherwise  appropriated,  a  sum  equal  to  one-fourth  of  the  total 
sum  which  shall  be  received  by  the  state  treasurer  from  employers  under  the 
provisions  of  section  16  hereof,  not,  however,  to  exceed  the  sum  of  $40,000.'' 

Section  16,  above  referred  to,  provided  that  every  employer  engaged  in  any 
of  the  occupations  defined  as  extra-hazardous  should  pay  into  the  Industrial 
Accident  Fund  a  sum  equal  to  two  per  cent  of  the  wages  earned  by  all  his  em- 
ployees. By  a  supplementary  act.  approved  on  February  19,  191 7,  the  state  ap- 
propriations were  discontinued  and  the  tax  on  employers  was  reduced  to  one  and 
one-half  per  cent.  The  amendatory  act  also  fixed  a  schedule  of  compensation 
for  all  classes  of  injuries,  ranging  from  $75  for  the  loss  of  a  toe  (except  the 
great  toe)  to  $1,000  for  the  loss  of  an  arm  above  the  elbow  ot  a  leg  above  the 
knee.  In  cases  of  permanent  total  disability  the  injured  person  receives  $1,400 
if  single  and  $1,600  if  married,  with  $60  per  year  for  each  child  under  the  age  of 
sixteen  years  until  such  child  is  sixteen.  Where  the  total  disability  is  only 
temporary,  the  injured  workman  receives  $18  per  month  if  single,  $24  if  married, 
with  an  addition  of  $5  per  month  for  each  child  under  the  age  of  sixteen  years, 
until  able  to  resume  work. 

In  the  event  of  death  by  accident,  the  surviving  widow  or  invalid  husband  is 
entitled  to  receive  $1,200  and  $60  per  year  for  each  child  under  sixteen  years 
of  age  until  said  child  reaches  the  age  of  sixteen.  Fifty  dollars  for  funeral 
expenses   are   also   allowed    in   addition   to   the   above. 

County  assessors  are  required  to  furnish  the  state  treasurer  with  a  list  of 
employers  in  their  respective  counties  and  the  state  treasurer  collects  the  i3-< 
per  cent  assessment.  Refusal  on  the  part  of  any  employer  to  pay  the  assessment 
subjects  him  to  a  fine  of  not  exceeding  five  hundred  dollars.  The  attorney- 
general  is  authorized  to  institute  proceedings  in  the  name  of  the  state  and  if 
judgment  is  given  by  the  court  the  assessment  is  doubled,  together  with  the  costs. 

A  report  of  the  Workmen's  Compensation  Department  of  the  state  treasurer's 
office  for  the  fifteen  months  ending  on  December  31,  1917,  shows  the  receipts  to 
have  been  during  that  period  ( including  a  balance  of  $246,502.57  on  hand  on 
October  i,  1916)  $520,763.24.  During  the  same  period  the  amount  paid  in  com- 
pensation and  expenses  of  administration  was  $107,999.80,  leaving  a  balance  in  the 
Industrial  Accident  Fund  of  $412,763.44. 


Two  constitutional  amendments  were  submitted  to  the  people  by  the  thirteenth 
Legislature,  to  wit:  One  authorizing  the  investment  of  the  state  public  funds  in 
farm  mortgages,  and  the  other  providing  for  the  construction  and  improvement  of 
highways  by  the  state. 

Following  the  recommendations  of  Governor  Kendrick,  the  Legislature  appro- 
priated $5,000  for  an  experimental  farm  in  Uinta  County;  $5,000  for  another 
in   Sweetwater  County,  and  $13,000  for  a  third  one  in   Goshen  County.     The 


farms  thus  established  are  so  located  that  the  soil  and  climatic  conditions  in  dif- 
ferent parts  of  the  state  can  be  studied  and  the  results  made  known  to  farmers 
of  all  classes. 

By  an  act  approved  on  February  19,  191 5,  a  tax  of  three-eighths  of  a  mill  on 
each  dollar  of  the  assessed  valuation  of  property  throughout  the  state  was  levied  for 
the  purpose  of  building  additions  to  the  capitol  at  Cheyenne.  The  capitdl  com- 
missioners were  authorized  to  obtain  plans  and  provided  for  the  erection  of  the 
new  wings  at  the  east  and,  west  ends  of  the  building.  The  commissioners  at  that 
time  were  Robert  B.  Forsyth,  Herman  B.  Gates  and  James  B.  True.  They 
employed  William  R.  Dubois  as  architect  and  the  contract  for  the  erection  of  the 
wings  was  awarded  to  John  W.  Howard.    They  were  completed  in  1917. 

The  sum  of  $12,000  was  appropriated  for  the  purchase  of  the  military  armory 
at  Lander,  and  $10,000  "to  be  used  under  the  governor's  direction"  in  making 
examinations  and  surveys  of  arid  lands  with  a  view  to  their  reclamation. 

Another  act  of  this  session  provided  that  no  woman  employed  in  any  manu- 
facturing, mercantile,  baking,  canning  or  printing  establishment,  or  in  any  hotel, 
restaurant  or  telephone  exchange,  etc.,  should  be  required  to  work  more  than 
fifty-six  hours  in  any  one  week.  Any  employer  violating  any  of  the  provisions 
of  the  act  was  rendered  liable  to  a  fine  of  from  twenty-five  to  fifty  dollars,  to 
-which  might  be  added  imprisonment  in  the  county  jail  for  a  term  of  not  less  than 
thirty  or  more  than  ninety  days. 

County  commissioners  were  given  power  to  acquire  real  estate  for  fair  grounds, 
parks,  and  for  other  purposes,  and  to  maintain  and  develop  the  same.  They  were 
also  authorized  to  render  financial  assistance  to  fair  associations. 

CAMP.MGN  OF   I916 

Under  the  primary  election  law  of  igti,  four  political  state  conventions  were 
held  in  Wyoming  on  May  8,  1 91 6.  The  republican  convention  met  at  Cheyenne 
and  was  presided  over  by  John  Dillon.  Dwight  E.  Hollister,  John  Hay,  Patrick 
Sullivan,  Curtis  L.  Hinkle  and  Thomas  Sneddon  were  chosen  delegates  to  the 
national  convention,  and  Dr.  H.  R.  Lathrop,  C.  P.  Plummer,  Mrs.  L.  E.  Hams- 
berger,  C.  A.  Zaring,  H.  J.  Chassell  and  T.  A.  Dunn,  alternates.  The  presidential 
electors  nominated  were  John  L.  Baird,  W.  E.  Chaplin  and  Jacob  A.  Del f elder. 

The  democratic  convention  was  held  at  Casper.  The  delegates  to  the  national 
convention  were :  Governor  John  B.  Kendrick,  \'ictor  T.  Johnson,  J.  J.  Cash, 
Peter  Kinney,  P.  J.  O'Connor  and  J.  Ross  Carpenter.  Alternates — Davis  Lewis, 
Mrs.  T.  S.  Taliaferro,  J.  J.  Spriggs,  N.  Farlow,  Alexander  Nesbit  and  Mrs. 
Mary  G.  Bellamy.  Benjamin  Sheldon,  John  L.  Jordan  and  T.  S.  Taliaferro 
were  named  as  presidential  electors,  but  Mr.  Sheldon  and  Mr.  Taliaferro  were 
afterward  succeeded  on  the  ticket  by  James  P.  Smith  and  A.  M.  Brock. 

The  prohibition  convention  nominated  as  presidental  electors  C.  J.  Sawyer, 
Luther  J.  Wood  and  Mrs.  Ella  Watson,  and  the  socialists  nominated  Matilda 
Hautamaki,  W.  S.  Oeland  and  Joseph  Dunning. 

The  only  nominations  made  by  the  primary  election  in  August  this  year  were 
the  candidates  for  Laiited  States  Senator  and  representative  in  Congress.  For 
United  States  Senator  the  republicans  nominated  Clarence  D.  Clark  for  reelection ; 
the    democrats    selected    as    their    candidate    Governor    John    B.    Kendrick:    the 


socialists,  Paul  J.  Paulsen;  and  the  prohibitionists,  Arthur  B.  Campbell.  Frank 
W.  Mondell  was  again  nominated  by  the  republicans  for  representative  in  Con- 
gress; John  D.  Clark  was  the  democratic  candidate;  the  socialists  nominated 
George  E.  Bateman ;  and  the  prohibitionists,  Orman  C.  King. 

In  national  politics  the  republicans  opened  the  campaign  by  holding  their 
national  convention  at  Chicago,  beginning  on  the  9th  of  June.  The  progressive 
national  convention  was  held  at  the  same  time  and  place  and  a  conference  com- 
mittee from  the  two  conventions  tried  to  arrange  a  plan  by  which  the  two  parties 
could  "get  together.'  The  progressives  insisted  upon  the  nomination  of  Theo- 
dore Roosevelt  for  President,  and  after  several  meetings  of  the  conference 
committee  the  attempt  to  establish  harmony  was  abandoned.  On  the  loth  the 
republican  convention  nominated  Charles  E.  Hughes,  of  Xew  York,  for  President 
on  the  third  ballot,  and  Charles  W.  Fairbanks,  of  Indiana,  was  named  for  \'ice 
President.  The  progressives  nominated  Theodore  Roosexelt  for  President  and 
John  M.  Parker,  of  Louisiana,  for  Vice  President.  Roosevelt  declined  to  accept 
the  nomination  and  the  national  committee  of  the  party  then  indorsed  the  candidacy 
of  Hughes  and  Fairbanks 

President  Wilson  and  \'ice  President  Marshall  were  both  renominated  by 
acclamation  by  the  democratic  national  convention,  which  met  at  St.  Louis  on 
June  14,  1916. 

The  prohibition  candidates  for  President  and  \'ice  I'resident  were  J.  Frank 
Hanley,  of  Indiana,  and  Ira  Landrith,  of  ^lassachusetts.  Allan  J.  Benson,  of 
New  York,  was  nominated  by  the  socialists  for  President  and  George  R.  Kirk- 
patrick,  of  New  Jersey,  for  Vice  President, 

At  the  general  election  on  November  7,  191 6,  the  democratic  presidential  electors 
carried  the  state,  receiving  28,316  votes  to  21,698  for  the  republican  electors, 
1,453  for  the  socialists,  and  ^7^  for  the  prohibitionists.  Governor  Kendrick 
defeated  Clarence  D,  Clark  for  United  States  Senator  by  a  vote  of  26,324  to  23,258. 
Frank  W.  Mondell  was  again  elected  to  Congress  by  a  plurality  of  537.  Two 
constitutional  amendments  were  adopted  by  substantial  majorities — one  authoriz- 
ing the  investment  of  the  public  school  funds  in  farm  mortgages  and  the  other 
relating  to  the  construction  and  improvement  of  highways  by  the  state. 


On  Tuesday.  January  9,  1917,  the  fourteenth  State  Legislature  was  convened 
at  the  capitol  in  Cheyenne,  Joseph  W.  Todd,  of  Johnson  County,  was  elected 
president  of  the  Senate,  and  W,  K,  Jones,  of  Laramie  County  was  chosen  speaker 
of  the  House,  The  session  lasted  until  February  17th.  In  his  message,  Governor 
Kendrick  reviewed  thoroughly  the  condition  of  the  state  finances  and  the  public 
institutions,  and  devoted  considerable  attention  to  the 


"Within  the  last  decade,"  said  the  governor,  "there  has  been  a  tremendous 
reversal  of  opinion  throughout  our  country  upon  the  economic  aspects  of  the 
liquor  traffic.  There  has  never  been  anv  question  as  to  the  moral  issues  involved, 
nor  as  to  the  desirability  of  prohibition  from  that  standpoint.     But  the  new  angle 


from  which  the  traffic  has  been  attacked  has  developed  a  veritable  wave  of 
negative  sentiment,  until  today.  W  yoming  stands  in  a  vast  dry  area,  as  the  one 
state  which  permits  the  sale  of  intoxicants  with  little  or  no  restriction. 

"In  view  of  the  many  petitions  presented  to  the  Legislature  two  years  ago 
and  the  great  interest  manifested  by  the  people  in  the  question  during  the  last 
election,  I  am  confident  that  there  is  a  growing  conviction  in  the  minds  of  the 
people  of  Wyoming,  that  the  time  has  come  for  the  state  to  move  into  line  with  her 
neighbors.  Therefore,  I  earnestly  favor  early  action  on  the  part  of  the  Legis- 
lature at  this  session  which  will  afford  the  citizens  of  the  state  an  opportunity  to 
vote  upon  this  question.  In  fact,  the  right  to  vote  upon  this,  as  upon  every  other 
vital  public  issue,  involves  one  of  the  fundamental  principles  of  our  government. 
All  of  which  makes  clear  the  part  of  duty  and  indicates  an  obligation  resting  with 
the  Legislature  which  is  but  little  less  than  mandatory." 

In  response  to  the  governor's  recommendations  upon  this  subject,  the  Legis- 
lature passed  an  act,  approved  on  January  20.  1917,  submitting  the  following 
constitutional  amendment  to  the  people  at  the  general  election  in   igi8: 

"Section  i.  On  and  after  the  first  day  of  January,  1920,  the  manufacture,  sale 
and  keeping  for  sale  of  malt,  \inous  or  spirituous  liquors,  wine,  ale,  porter,  beer 
or  any  intoxicating  drink,  mixture  or  preparation  of  like  nature,  except  as  herein- 
after provided,  are  hereby  prohibited  in  this  state.  Provided,  however,  that  the 
manufacture  and  sale  and  keeping  for  sale  of  such  liquors  for  medicinal,  pharma- 
ceutical, mechanical,  sacramental  and  scientific  purposes,  and  the  manufacture 
and  sale  of  denatured  alcohol  for  industrial  purposes  may  be  permitted  under 
such  regulations  as  the  Legislature  may  prescribe.  The  Legislature  shall,  without 
delay,  enact  such  laws,  with  regulations,  conditions,  securities  and  penalties  as 
may  be  necessary  to  carry  into  effect  the  provisions  of  this  section." 


On  this  subject  the  governor  said  in  his  message :  "In  a  new  and  sparsely 
settled  state  of  widely  separated  communities,  no  problem  is  more  important  than 
that  involving  the  construction  and  maintenance  of  highways.  Congress,  a  few 
months  ago,  passed  a  measure  providing  Federal  aid  in  the  building  of  high- 
ways in  the  difi'erent  states.  At  the  last  election,  the  voters  of  Wyoming  adopted 
an  amendment  to  the  constitution  making  it  possible  for  our  state  to  participate 
in  this  Federal  aid,  and  the  responsibility  now  devolves  upon  the  Legislature  of 
providing  the  necessary  machinery  for  working  out  the  best  plan  for  participation. 
*  *  *  A  highway  commission  should  be  provided,  with  an  active  secretary 
who  would  be  the  principal  executive,  who  would  give  his  entire  time  to  the 
work,  and  who  would,  among  other  qualifications,  be  a  competent  civil  engineer.'' 

An  act  creating  a  state  highw-ay  comnn'ssion  was  approved  by  Governor  Kend- 
rick  on  February  19.  1917,  two  days  after  the  adjournment  of  the  Legislature. 
r,y  the  provisions  of  that  act,  the  state  was  divided  into  five  highway  districts, 
to  wit:  I.  The  counties  of  Laramie,  Albany,  Platte  and  Goshen;  2.  The  counties 
of  Carbon,  Sweetwater,  Uinta  and  Lincoln ;  3.  The  counties  of  Niobrara,  Con- 
verse, Natrona  and  Fremont ;  4.  The  counties  of  Hot  Springs.  Washakie,  Bighorn 
and  Park ;  5.  The  counties  of  Sheridan.  Johnson.  Campbell.  Crook  and  \^'eston. 

The  governor  was  authorized  to  appoint  a  commission  of  five  members,  one 


from  each  of  the  above  districts,  and  not  more  than  three  of  which  should  be  of 
one  political  party.  Governor  Kendrick  appointed  M.  R.  Johnston,  of  Wheatland; 
Joseph  Kinney,  of  Cokeville;  Robert  D.  Carey,  of  Careyhurst;  Gus  Holms,  of 
Cody;  Francis  C.  Williams,  of  Sheridan,  as  the  members  of  the  commission  from 
the  respective  districts,  and  Z.  E.  Sevison,  of  Cheyenne,  was  employed  as  secre- 
tary and  state  highway  engineer.  Although  the  governor  recommended  the  ap- 
pointment of  a  commission  composed  of  citizens  interested  in  good  roads,  who 
would  serve  without  compensation  except  actual  expenses,  the  act  provides  that 
each  member  shall  receive  an  annual  salary  of  $600. 

The  act  of  Congress,  approved  on  July  16,  1916,  "to  provide  that  the  United 
States  shall  aid  the  states  in  the  construction  of  rural  post  roads,"  etc.,  was  ac- 
cepted by  the  Wyoming  Legislature  and  the  state  highway  commission  was 
authorized  to  enter  into  contracts  with  the  United  States  Government  relating  to 
the  construction  and  maintenance  of  public  highways,  the  roads  thus  designated 
and  improved  in  cooperation  with  the  United  States  department  of  agriculture  to 
be  known  as  "state  roads." 

By  an  act  of  the  fourteenth  Legislature,  approved  on  the  last  day  of  January, 
191 7.  a  state  flag  was  adopted.    The  flag  is  thus  described : 

"Be  it  enacted,  etc.,  That  a  state  flag  be,  and  is  hereby,  adopted  to  be  used  on 
all  occasions  when  the  state  is  officially  and  publicly  represented,  with  the 
privilege  of  use  by  all  citizens  upon  such  occasions  as  they  may  deem  fitting  and 
appropriate.  The  width  of  said  flag  shall  be  seven-tenths  of  its  length ;  the  outside 
border  to  be  in  red,  the  width  of  which  shall  be  one-twentieth  of  th^  length  of 
the  flag;  next  to  said  border  shall  be  a  stripe  of  white  on  the  four  sides  of  the 
field,  which  shall  be  in  width  one-fortieth  the  length  of  said  flag.  The  remainder 
of  said  flag  to  be  a  blue  field  in  the  center  of  which  shall  be  a  white  silouetted 
buffalo,  the  length  of  which  shall  be  one-half  the  length  of  said  blue  field ;  the 
other  measurements  of  said  buffalo  to  be  in  proportion  to  its  length.  On  the 
ribs  of  said  buffalo  shall  be  the  great  seal  of  Wyoming  in  blue.  Said  seal  shall 
be  in  diameter  one-fifth  the  length  of  said  flag.  Attached  to  the  flag  shall  be  a 
cord  of  gold  with  gold  tassels.  The  colors  to  be  used  in  said  flag  as  red,  white  and 
blue  shall  be  the  same  colors  used  in  the  flag  of  the  United  States  of  America." 

Section  2  of  the  act  provides  that  "All  penalties  provided  by  the  laws  of  this 
state  for  the  misuse  of  the  national  flag  shall  be  applicable  to  this  flag,"  and 
section  3  sets  forth  that  the  act  shall  be  in  force  from  and  after  its  passage. 

On  the  same  day  that  this  act  was  approved,  the  governor  approved  another 
act  designating  the  castillia  linariaefolia  or  "Indian  Paint  Brush"  as  the  state 
flower  of  Wyoming. 


Among  the  laws  of  a  general  nature  passed  at  this  session  was  one  providing 
that  no  new  county  should  be  organized,  nor  any  organized  county  already  es- 
tablished so  reduced  as  to  contain  fewer  than  three  thousand  bona  fide  inhabitants 
and  have  an  assessed  valuation  of  less  than  five  million  dollars. 


An  appropriation  of  $750  was  made  for  the  purpose  of  removing  Jim  Baker's 
cabin  from  Carbon  County  to  Cheyenne,  to  preserve  it  as  a  rehc  of  Wyoming's 
early  days  ;  a  branch  fish  hatchery  was  ordered  to  be  established  at  Daniel,  Lincoln 
County ;  cities  and  towns  were  authorized  to  establish  zoological  gardens,  in  or 
within  five  miles  of  said  town  or  city,  and  the  state  game  commission  was  directed 
to  furnish  any  city  or  town  establishing  such  a  garden  with  animals  and  birds, 
the  cost  of  collecting  the  same  to  be  borne  by  the  town  or  city  making  the  request. 

A  resolution  was  adopted  commending  President  Wilson  for  his  action  in 
severing  diplomatic  relations  with  the  German  Government,  and  recommending 
■  that  all  able-bodied  male  citizens  between  the  ages  of  eighteen  and  twenty-one 
years  be  compelled  to  take  at  least  one  year  of  intensive  military  training.  That 
resolution  was  adopted  several  weeks  before  the  Congress  of  the  United  States 
declared  war  against  Germany,  but  it  shows  the  trend  of  public  opinion  in 
Wyoming  at  that  time.  After  the  declaration  of  war,  Wyoming  was  one  of  the 
first  states  in  the  Union  to  pledge,  by  her  action,  the  loyalty  of  her  citizens  to 
the  national  administration. 


Governor  John  B.  Kendrick  resigned  his  office  on  February  26,  1917,  to  enter 
the  United  States  Senate,  and  on  the  same  day  Frank  L.  Hou.x,  secretary  of 
state,  by  virtue  of  his  office,  became  acting  governor. 

Frank  L.  Houx  was  bom  near  Lexington,  Mo.,  December  12,  i860.  His 
early  education  was  acquired  in  the  common  schools,  after  which  he  attended 
business  college  in  Kansas  City  and  then  read  law  for  two  years.  From  1876  to 
1885  he  was  employed  in  commercial  pursuits.  He  then  went  to  Montana,  where 
for  ten  years  he  was  engaged  in  the  cattle  business.  In  1895  he  removed  to 
Cody,  Wyo.,  then  a  young  town,  and  engaged  in  real  estate  and  fire  insurance,  at 
the  same  time  taking  a  keen  interest  in  irrigation  projects.  He  was  elected  the 
first  mayor  of  Cody  when  the  town  was  incorporated  in  1901  ;  was  police  judge 
during  the  years  1902-03;  was  elected  mayor  again  in  1905  and  held  the  office 
continuously  for  four  years;  was  elected  secretary  of  state  in  1910  and  reelected 
in  1914.  When  Governor  Kendrick  resigned,  Mr.  Houx  assumed  the  duties  of 

W.-\R    WITH    GERM/\NY 

The  principal  activities  of  Governor  Houx's  administration  were  in  connection 
with  the  "World  War.''  Congress  passed  the  declaration  of  war  on  April  6,  1917, 
and  soon  afterward  the  President  called  upon  the  governors  of  the  different 
states  to  recommend  persons  to  serve  on  the  boards  having  charge  of  the  regis- 
tration of  men  for  the  selective  draft.  Governor  Houx  recommended  members 
of  these  boards  in  each  of  the  twenty-one  counties  of  the  state.  His  recommenda- 
tion virtually  amounted  to  an  appointment. 

To  carry  on  the  work  of  the  war,  each  state  appointed  a  "Council  for  National 
Defense"  to  act  in  harmony  with  the  Federal  authorities  and  carry  out  their 
orders  and  suggestions.  Governor  Houx  appointed  the  Wyoming  Council  for 
National  Defense  on  April  13,   1917,  just  a  week  after  the  declaration  of  war. 


As  no  funds  were  available  for  the  use  of  this  council,  the  governor  made 
arrangements  with  a  number  of  the  banks  in  the  state  to  borrow  such  sums  as 
might  be  necessary  from  time  to  time,  trusting  that  the  Legislature  of  1919  would 
indorse  and  legalize  his  acts  in  this  respect  and  make  an  emergency  appropriation 
to  reimburse  the  banks.  Some  changes  were  made  during  the  year  191 7  in  the 
membership  of  the  council,  which  on  May  i,  1918,  was  composed  as  follows: 
Maurice  Groshon,  Cheyenne ;  Robert  D.  Carey,  Careyhurst ;  P.  C.  Spencer,  Lan- 
der ;  T.  C.  Diers,  Sheridan ;  Mrs.  R.  A.  Morton,  Cheyenne,  H.  M.  Rollins,  Lyman ; 
J.  M.  Wilson,  McKinley ;  J.  H.  Berry,  Basin ;  J.  W.  Bozorth,  Burns :  E.  A. 
Swezea,  Cheyenne. 

A  declaration  of  war  means  the  raising  and  equipping  of  soldiers.  L'nder 
Governor  Houx's  administration,  and  largely  through  his  personal  efforts,  the 
Third  Regiment  of  the  Wyoming  National  Guard  was  recruited  to  war  strength 
of  1,900.  It  was  one  of  the  first  volunteer  regiments  to  be  offered  to  the  United 
States  for  service  abroad.  The  regiment  was  merged  with  the  One  Hundred 
and  Forty-eighth  Field  Artillery  and  the  One  Hundred  and  Sixteenth  Ammunition 
Train  and  was  ordered  to  France  among  the  first  of  the  military  organizations 
to  leave  the  United  States. 

Upon  assuming  the  duties  of  the  chief  executive.  Acting  Governor  Houx 
endeavored  to  enforce  the  laws  of  the  state  fairly  and  impartially,  especially  the 
laws  aft'ecting  public  morality.  To  this  end  he  became  a  consistent  advocate  of 
prohibition  as  one  of  the  means  of  winning  the  war.  and  he  encouraged  local  of- 
ficials in  closing  up  notorious  resorts  and  shortening  the  hours  that  saloons  could 
keep  open  during  each  twenty-four  hours. 

A  few  months  after  Mr.  Houx  became  acting  governor,  the  State  Board  of 
School  Land  Commissioners,  composed  of  the  secretary  and  treasurer  of  state  and 
the  superintendent  of  public  instruction,  adopted  the  policy  of  placing  all  the 
income  derived  from  the  state  lands  into  a  permanent  fund,  the  proceeds  of 
which  are  to  be  used  for  the  benefit  of  the  public  schools  and  other  state  educa- 
tional institutions.  This  ruling  was  made  to  apply  with  special  force  to  the 
oil  lands.  The  time  may  come  when  the  yield  of  oil  will  decrease  to  such  an 
extent  that  the  fields  can  no  longer  be  profitably  worked,  but  under  this  decision 
of  the  land  board  the  state  will  have  reaped  its  share  of  the  profits,  which  will 
form  the  basis  of  a  fund  for  the  education  of  the  young  people  of  Wyoming  in  the 
vears  to  come. 





In  the  constitution  of  tlie  State  of  \\"yoming  there  is  the  following: 


"Sec.  1 8.  Such  charitable,  reformatory  and  penal  institutions,  as  the  claims 
of  humanity  and  the  public  good  may  require,  shall  be  established  and  supported 
by  the  state  in  such  manner  as  the  Legislature  may  prescribe.  They  shall  be  under 
the  general  supervision  of  a  State  Board  of  Charities  and  Reform,  whose  duties 
and  powers  shall  be  prescribed  by  law. 

"Sec.  19.  The  property  of  all  charitable  and  penal  institutions  belonging 
to  the  Territory  of  Wyoming  shall,  upon  the  adoption  of  this  Constitution,  become 
the  property  of  the  State  of  Wyoming,  and  such  of  said  institutions  as  are  then  in 
actual  operation  shall  thereafter  have  the  supervision  of  the  Board  of  Charities 
and  Reform  as  provided  in  the  last  preceding  section  of  this  article,  under  pro- 
visiojis  of  the  Legislature.'' 

The  First  State  Legislature  of  Wyoming  therefore  created  the  State  Board 
of  Charities  and  Reform  by  an  act  approved  January  8,  1891.  By  this  act  it 
was  decreed  that  "the  State  Treasurer,  State  Auditor  and  State  Superintendent  of 
Public  Instruction  shall  constitute  and  shall  hereafter  be  known  as  the  State  Board 
of  Charities  and  Reform,"  with  "general  supervision  and  control  of  all  «uch 
charitable,  reformatory  and  penal  institutions  as  may  be  established  and  sup- 
ported by  the  State." 

The  establishment  of  this  board  brought  order  out  of  chaos  in  many  ways.  The 
first  board,  which  was  composed  of  Otto  Gramm,  state  treasurer:  Charles  W. 
Burdick,  state  auditor:  and  S.  T.  Farwell,  state' superintendent  of  public  in- 
struction, immediately  assumed  jurisdiction  over  the  state  insane  asylum  at 
Evanston,  the  state  penitentiary  at  Laramie,  prisoners  in  other  penitentiaries, 
juvenile  delinquents  in  schools  outside  of  the  state  and  the  deaf  and  blind  who 
were  also  cared  for  outside  the  state  boundaries. 


In  1896  the  board  was  increased  from  three  to  five  members.  The  board 
members  in  1915-6  were:  John  B.  Kendrick,  governor;  Edith  K.  O.  Clark,  super- 
intendent of  public  instruction;  Frank  L.  Houx,  secretary  of  state;  Herman  B. 
Gates,  state  treasurer;  and  Robert  B.  Forsyth,  and  jurisdiction  was  assumed  over 
the  state  hospital  for  the  insane  at  Evanston,  the  Wyoming  state  penitentiary  at 
Rawlins,  the  Wyoming  Soldiers'  and  Sailors'  Home  at  Buffalo,  the  Big  Horn 
Hot  Springs  Reserve,  the  Wyoming  General  Hospital  at  Rock  Springs,  the 
Casper  and  Sheridan  branches  of  the  general  hospital,  the  Wyoming  School  for 
Defectives  at  Lander  and  the  Wyoming  Industrial  Institute  at  Worland. 

In  the  following  paragraphs  something  of  the  growth  and  development  of  the 
state  institutions  under  the  management  of  the  State  Board  of  Charities  and 
Reform  is  given. 


In  the  year  1887  the  insane  asylum  was  located  at  the  Town  of  Evanston  and 
completed  during  the  same  year.  The  control  was  vested  in  a  board  of  commis- 
sioners, which  board  first  consisted  of  A.  C.  Beckwith,  C.  D.  Clark  and  William 

It  was  in  the  previous  year  that  the  asylum  was  ordered  built.  The  act  for  this 
purpose  was  approved  March  9,  1886,  and  ordered  the  institution  to  be  constructed 
at  Evanston,  at  a  cost  not  exceeding  $30,000.  Bonds  to  that  amount,  "or  so  much 
thereof  as  may  be  necessary,"  were  ordered,  with  the  provision  that  none  of  the 
bonds  should  be  sold  for  less  than  their  par  value. 

The  Legislature  of  1888  passed  the  noted  act  in  regard  to  public  buildings 
over  the  veto  of  Governor  Moonlight.  This  act  provided  for  the  "erection, 
completion,  maintenance  and  care  of  certain  public  buildings  and  provided  for 
the  support  and  maintenance  of  certain  public  institutions."  The  capitol  building, 
the  penitentiary  building,  the  insane  asylum  and  the  poor  farm  buildings  were  af- 
fected by  this  act.  There  were  delays  since  the  original  bill  of  1886  and  the 
legislators  in  framing  the  act  of  1888  were  desirous  of  hastening  the  completion 
of  the  buildings  in  question.  Governor  Moonlight  took  the  view  that  the  territory 
could  not  afford  the  heavy  tax  which  such  a  course  would  create  and  by  many 
authorities  he  was  upheld.  However,  despite  his  official  veto,  the  bill  was  passed 
the  second  time  and  became  a  law. 

The  first  report  of  the  State  Board  of  Charities  and  Reform  gave  the  number 
of  patients  at  the  institution  as  twenty-three — fourteen  men  and  nine  women. 
Facilities  for  the  treatment  of  inmates  were  none  too  many  and  the  system  of 
financing  the  care  of  the  patients  was  yet  in  unsatisfactory  state.  The  various 
counties  which  had  residents  at  the  asylum  bore  the  expense  and  the  board  of 
control  experienced  difficulty  freciuently  in  obtaining  the  money  due.  However, 
the  first  report  of  the  State  Board  of  Charities  and  Reform  mentions  the  fact  that 
after  December  31,  1891,  the  insane  patients  became  a  state  charge  and  that  the 
funds  realized  from  the  state  tax  would  be  available  for  the  expense  of  the  in- 
stitution for  the  year  1892,  "but  all  expense  previous  to  the  year  1892  is  a  charge 
against  the  counties  as  provided  in  section  4,  chapter  93,  Laws  of  1890-91."  On 
the  first  day  of  August,  1891,  per  appointment  of  the  board.  Dr.  C.  H.  Solier 
assumed  charge  of  the  asylum. 


Under  the  new  management,  the  insane  asyknn  began  a  noticeable  improvement. 
Quarters  were  improved  gradually,  new  methods  of  treatment  were  inaugurated 
and  the  number  of  patients  increased  with  the  growing  population  of  the  state. 
By  an  act  of  the  fourth  Legislature,  which  met  on  January  12,  1897,  the  name  of 
the  State  Insane  Asylum  was  changed  to  The  Wyoming  State  Hospital  for  the 

In  1907  the  sum  of  $50,000  was  appropriated  for  the  erection  of  a  woman's 
building,  the  number  of  patients  justifying  such  an  improvement.  \\'ork  upon 
this  building  was  begun  during  the  summer  of  igo8  and  was  completed  in  1910. 
The  women  were  transferred  to  their  new  quarters,  known  as  "Brook's  Cottage,'' 
on  January  27,   1910. 

The  report  of  Doctor  .Solier  for  the  biennial  period  ending  September  30.  1916, 
places  the  number  of  patients  treated  during  that  period  as  325.  New  buildings 
are  either  under  construction  or  contemplated  in  order  to  accommodate  the  rapidly 
growing  number  of  patients.  The  institution  is  conducted  in  the  manner  of  similar 
institutions  in  the  United  States. 


Governor  Campbell,  in  his  message  of  October  13,  1869,  stated: 
"By  an  act  of  Congress,  approved  January  22,  1867,  the  proceeds  of  the  internal 
revenue  in  certain  territories  of  the  United  States,  to  the  amount  of  $40,000  in 
each,  were  set  aside  for  the  purpose  of  erecting  penitentiaries  at  such  places  in  the 
several  territories  as  might  be  selected  by  their  respective  Legislatures.  Under  an 
arrangement  I  have  entered  into  with  the  superintendent  of  the  House  of  Cor- 
rection, at  Detroit,  Mich.,  for  the  confinement  and  subsistence  of  prisoners 
convicted  in  our  territorial  courts,  the  details  of  which  will  be  submitted  to  you 
for  your  approval  or  disapproval,  all  criminals  must  be  transported  to  Detroit 
at  considerable  expense  or  with  great  liability  of  their  escaping.  From  motives  of 
economy  and  prudence,  we  should  have  a  penitentiary  at  some  accessible  point 
in  our  territory  and  it  would  be  well  for  you  to  select  a  site  for  a  penitentiary  at 
your  present  session,  in  order  that  should  Congress  pass  a  law  authorizing  the 
retaining  of  any  sum  from  the  internal  revenue  collected  in  the  territory  for  the 
purpose  of  building  the  penitentiary  the  work  may  be  proceeded  with  without  de- 
lay. The  Territory  of  Dakota  has  thus  far  reaped  the  benefit  of  the  revenue  col- 
lected in  what  now  forms  the  Territory  of  Wyoming."  On  December  8,  1869,  Gov- 
ernor Campbell  approved  a  memorial  asking  Congress  to  appropriate  "a  sum  not 
less  than  $60,000"  for  the  erection  of  a  penitentiary  at  Laramie  City. 

In  the  very  early  days  jails  were  erected  at  various  places  in  the  territory  and 
the  sheriffs  were  held  personally  responsible  for  the  prisoners  in  their  keeping.  The 
territorial  penitentiary,  when  located  by  the  Legislature  at  Laramie  City,  brought 
some  relief  to  this  situation.  Congress  was  memoriahzed  that  the  territory  had 
been  neglected,  had  been  deprived  of  the  internal  revenue  income  for  a  large 
portion  of  1867,  all  of  1868  and  the  greater  part  of  1869,  during  which  time  the 
internal  revenue  of  Wyoming  had  gone  to  Dakota,  and  for  which  loss  the  Legis- 
lature asked  reimbursement.  A  second  memorial  declared  that  in  and  about 
Sweetwater  mining  region  and  on  the  border  of  the  Shoshone  reservation,  set 
apart  by  Gen.  W.  T.  Sherman  and  his  commissioners  in  1868,  were  congregated 


many  of  the  criminal  class,  who  carried  on  a  continual  campaign  of  robbery  and 
depredation.  Some  assistance  had  been  given  the  authorities  by  the  military  posts 
at  Fort  Bridger  and  the  camp  on  the  Popo  Agie,  but  these  had  now  refused  to 
take  care  of  any  more  criminals  in  the  guard  houses. 

The  penitentiary  at  Laramie  City  was  completed  in  the  year  1872,  but  un- 
fortunately was  destroyed  by  fire  within  less  than  a  year's  time.  It  was  only 
partially  rebuilt  and  soon  after  an  act  of  Congress  approved  January  24,  1873, 
provided  "that  the  custody  and  control  of  certain  territorial  penitentiaries  exercised 
by  the  United  States  marshals  of  the  territories  be  transferred  to  the  respective 
territories  to  be  managed  and  directed  by  them,  etc.'" 

These  provisions  extended  to  Wyoming,  but  no  provisions  were  made  by  the 
laws  of  the  territory  for  control  until  December  13,  1873,  when  Governor  Campbell 
approved  an  act  "That  in  the  event  of  the  closing  up  or  abandonment  of  the 
penitentiary  of  this  territory,  located  at  or  near  Laramie  City,  in  the  County  of 
Albany,  by  the  authorities  of  the  United  States,  the  sheriflf  of  Albany  County 
take  charge  of  all  prisoners  therein."  On  December  11,  1875,  a  commission  was 
appointed,  consisting  of  Herman  Haas,  James  France  and  W.  H.  Holliday,  to  in- 
vestigate the  cost  of  keeping  prisoners  at  Laramie  City  and  at  other  prisons.  The 
result  of  their  investigations  was  that  the  Legislature  of  1879  named  the  Nebraska 
penitentiary  to  be  the  territorial  penitentiary  of  Wyoming. 

On  December  15,  1877,  the  governor  appointed  Luke  Murrin  of  Laramie 
County,  Simon  Durlacher  of  Albany  and  Thomas  Lanktree  of  Uinta  as  a  com- 
mission to  take  charge  and  control  of  all  prisoners  and  the  penitentiary  at  Laramie. 
As  late  as  1884  a  penitentiary  commission  existed  in  the  Territory  of  Wyoming. 

On  December  13,  i88g,  another  act  was  approved,  creating  a  board  of  three 
citizens  of  the  territory,  to  select  a  penitentiary  or  prison  for  Wyoming  convicts, 
but  without  authority  to  contract  for  the  keeping  of  prisoners  at  Laramie  at 
greater  cost  to  the  territory  than  could  be  made  outside  of  the  territory.  This 
act  also  provided  for  the  erection,  completion,  maintenance  and  care  of  certain 
public  buildings  and  institutions,  including  the  capitol,  penitentiary,  university, 
insane  asylum  and  poor  farm.  Section  19  of  the  bill  provided  that  "a  penitentiary 
building  for  the  use  of  the  territory  shall  be  erected  in  or  near  the  city  of  Rawlins 
at  a  cost  not  exceeding  $100,000.''  The  sum  of  $30,000  was  set  aside  out  of  this 
amount  for  the  purchase  of  the  site  and  the  commissioners  were  authorized  to 
build  all  of  the  penitentiary  at  once  or  part. 

The  penitentiary  building  at  Laramie  City,  which  had  never  been  fully  rebuilt 
since  the  fire,  had  become  a  burden  upon  the  people  and  was  far  from  popular. 
Convicts  were  sent  outside  of  the  territory,  the  Laramie  building  being  considered 
inadecjuate.  However,  it  became  necessary  that  a  certain  number  of  prisoners 
be  received  at  Laramie,  pending  the  construction  of  the  building  at  Rawlins  and  in 
November,  i8gi,  there  are  officially  recorded  thirty  prisoners  therein. 

By  the  year  1893  the  sum  of  $31,844.41  had  been  expended  upon  the  Rawlins 
penitentiary.  A  tax  levy  was  authorized  in  this  year  for  the  erection  of  a  portion 
of  the  building  and  George  East  was  awarded  the  contract  for  $44,740.  The 
third  State  Legislature,  of  1895,  authorized  a  special  tax  for  1895-96  for  the 
completion  of  the  building.  After  the  State  Board  of  Charities  and  Refomi  had 
advertised  for  bids  the  contract  was  let  September  14,  1895,  to  Robert  W.  Bradley 
of  Cheyenne,  h's  figure  being  $26,801.90.     Again  the  building  was  not  fully  com- 

Herhert   Coffwn   (.'nllectiun 



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pleted  and  in  June,  1898,  the  board  gave  a  third  contract  to  the  firm  of  Black  & 
Clark  of  Cheyenne,  for  $4,064,  for  the  absolute  completion  of  the  Rawlins  Peni- 
tentiary.   Under  this  arrangement  the  building  was  finished. 

The  old  penitentiary  building  at  Laramie  was  transferred  to  the  University  of 
Wyoming  for  the  use  of  its  agricultural  college  by  legislative  act  approved  Febru- 
ary 9,  1907.     The  building  is  used  by  the  school  as  an  experiment  station. 

The  penitentiary  at  Rawlins  has  been  improved  at  various  times  since  the 
completion  of  the  building  and  is  operated  in  modern  and  efficient  manner  by  the 
State  Board  of  Charities  and  Reform.  A  broom  factory  building  was  con- 
structed by  convict  labor  in  1913.  New  dining  rooms,  kitchen,  bakery,  chapel 
and  hospital  have  also  been  constructed  recently  by  the  prisoners,  for  which 
improvements  the  Legislature  of  191 5  made  appropriations.  Convict  labor  has 
also  been  used  extensively  in  building  and  improving  roads  throughout  the  state. 
The  prison  population  averages  over  250  now,  where  thirty  years  ago  twenty-five 
prisoners  was  considered  a  large  number. 

WYOMING   soldiers'  .AND  S.MLORS'   HOME 

In  company  with  most  of  the  other  states  of  the  Union,  Wyoming  has  provided 
a  comfortable  home  for  those  of  her  soldiers  and  sailors  unable  to  support  them- 
selves. The  movement  toward  the  establishment  of  such  a  home  began  in  the  year 
1895,  when  Governor  Richards  recommended  a  place  of  abode  for  the  state's  veter- 
ans, wherein  they  might  spend  the  last  days  of  their  lives  in  comfort  at  the  expense 
of  the  state.  In  the  same  message  he  suggested  the  use  of  the  building  erected 
for  the  deaf,  dumb  and  blind  at  Cheyenne.  This  building  had  not  been  used  for  the 
latter  purpose,  as  the  limited  number  of  deaf  and  blind  in  the  state  had  been 
educated  in  Colorado  institutions. 

The  third  Legislature,  1895,  recognized  the  value  of  such  a  home  and  ap- 
propriated $7,500  for  establishing  and  maintaining  the  same  for  the  years  1895 
and  1896,  at  the  same  time  donating  30,000  acres  of  land  as  a  permanent  endow- 
ment. The  building  selected  was  enlarged  and  made  to  accommodate  thirty-five 
or  forty  inmates.  By  December  7,  1896,  twenty-seven  veterans  had  been  admitted 
to  the  home. 

Pursuant  to  an  act  of  the  Legislature  of  1903,  approved  February  20th,  the 
home  was  moved  from  Cheyenne  to  the  Fort  McKinney  Reservation.  The 
soldiers  were  transferred  to  their  new  quarters  in  July  of  that  year.  L^pon  the 
extensive  acres  of  this  new  home  many  farming  activities  are  carried  on,  also 
stock  raising  to  some  extent. 

The  value  of  the  products  of  this  farm  almost  pay  the  entire  expenses  of  the 
institution,  thus  lessening  the  burden  upon  the  taxpayers.  At  this  writing  there 
are  thirty  members  of  the  soldiers'  and  sailors'  home. 


The  first  Legislature  of  the  State  of  Wyoming,  which  convened  November  12, 
1890,  and  continued  sixty  days,  provided  that  there  should  be  established  a  hos- 
pital for  disabled  miners  and  enacted  that  the  location  for  this  institution  should 
be  determined  by  popular  vote  at  the  November  election  of  1892.     Rock  Springs 


in  Sweetwater  County,  was  selected  by  the  people  for  the  site  of  the  new  hospital. 
The  second  Legislature  authorized  special  tax  levies  for  the  years  1893  and 
1894,  the  proceeds  of  the  former  to  be  used  for  the  erection  of  the  hospital  and 
of  the  latter  to  be  used  for  the  maintenance  of  the  same. 

The  building  was  erected  according  to  plans,  and  the  third  Legislature  author- 
ized a  special  tax  of  one-eighth  mill  on  all  taxable  property  in  the  state  for  the 
year  1895  and  each  year  thereafter.  The  name,  as  officially  adopted,  was  the 
"Wyoming  General  Hospital."  Something  of  the  popularity  of  this  institution 
and  the  need  for  such  is  well  illustrated  by  the  fact  that  during  the  first  year  over 
3,000  patients  were  treated. 

On  the  morning  of  January  4.  181)7.  ^^"^  broke  out  in  the  hospital  and  before 
sufficient  assistance  could  be  secured  in  fighting  the  flames  the  entire  building 
was  burned.  The  patients,  however,  were  removed  to  safety  and  the  furniture 
was  all  saved.  The  mayor  and  city  council  of  Rock  Springs  graciously  tendered 
the  use  of  the  second  story  of  the  city  hall  for  the  patients  and  this  offer  was 
gladly  accepted  by  the  hospital  force.  Fortunately,  insurance  amounting  to 
$75,000  was  available  and  with  a  like  amount  appropriated  by  the  fourth  Legis- 
lature, of  1897,  made  a  sufficient  sum  for  the  rebuilding  of  the  hospital.  The  board 
of  charities  and  reform  accepted  the  plans  drawn  by  J.  S.  Matthews,  architect, 
and  on  August  30,  1897,  gave  the  contract  to  James  R.  Grimes  of  Cheyenne.  The 
new  building  was  erected  and  first  occupied  May  15,  1898. 

The  Legislature  of  1901  enacted  a  law  authorizing  the  board  of  charities  and 
reform  to  build  and  equip  a  nurses'  dormitory,  for  which  a  special  tax  was 
levied  in  1901  and  1902.  This  was  built  and  in  1914  was  enlarged.  .A  two-story 
wing,  which  included  a  new  kitchen,  was  added  to  the  hospital  building  in  1908. 

The  Wyoming  General  Hospital  now  has  an  average  of  o\er  twenty-five 
patients  each  day. 


The  branch  of  the  \\'yoming  General  Hospital  located  at  Sheridan  was  pro- 
vided for  by  the  Legislature  of  1903.  The  board  of  charities  and  reform  secured 
a  tract  of  ground,  300  by  400  feet,  which  was  block  5  in  Westview  Addition  to 
Sheridan,  by  donation,  and  then  gave  the  contract  for  the  erection  of  the  hospital 
to  E.  C.  Williams  of  Sheridan,  whose  bid  was  $19,300.  The  hospital  was  con- 
structed to  accommodate  thirty  patients.  The  institution  was  opened  for  the 
reception  of  patients  July  7,  1905,  and  during  the  period  until  September  30, 
1905,  there  were  fifty-eight  people  brought  here  for  treatment.  There  is  an 
average  daily  attendance  of  patients  now  of  about  twenty.  At  first,  a  nearby 
home  was  leased  for  the  nurses  at  a  rental  of  $375  per  year.  This  home  was 
purchased  in  1908  for  $5,000,  also  a  wing  was  added  to  the  hospital  building. 
The  twelfth  Legislature  authorized  the  expenditure  of  $12,000  for  a  new  nurses' 
home  and  this  was  constructed  in  the  same  year. 

The  tenth  Legislature,  1909,  passed  a  bill  known  as  Chapter  20,  Session  Laws, 
1909,  providing  for  the  construction  of  a  branch  of  the  Wyoming  General  Hos- 
pital at  Casper.  An  appropriation  of  $22,500  was  made  for  this  purpose.  The 
Town  of  Casper  agreed  to  donate  the  site  for  the  hospital.  Some  difficulty  was 
experienced  in  securing  satisfactory  bids  for  the  construction  of  this  hospital,  but 


finally,  after  all  bids  had  been  repeatedly  rejected,  one  of  $22,204  was  accepted 
and  the  work  proceeded.  The  average  daily  attendance  at  Casper  is  six,  with  a 
total  of  about  two  hundred  and  fifty  treated  during  the  year. 


Something  of  the  earlier  history  of  the  Big  Horn  hot  springs  is  given  in  con- 
nection with  the  history  of  Hot  Springs  County  in  another  chapter.  This  health 
resort  has,  in  recent  years,  grown  with  great  speed  and  is  becoming  the  mecca  for 
health-seekers  from  the  entire  Middle  West.  Governor  Richards,  in  his  message 
to  the  Legislature  in  1895,  stated : 

"Upon  the  east  bank  of  the  Big  Horn  River,  in  the  northeast  corner  of  the 
Shoshone  Indian  Reservation,  are  situated  the  Big  Horn  Hot  Springs,  which  have 
medicinal  qualities  second  to  no  other  springs  in  the  United  States.  Ten  years 
ago  these  springs  were  known  only  to  the  range  rider  and  hunter  as  natural 
curiosities.  Some  health-seeking  invalid  tested  their  medicinal  virtues  and  was 
healed.  Since  that  day  the  fame  of  these  springs  has  increased.  *  *  *  With 
proper  accommodations  for  visitors  and  a  small  outlay  for  improvements,  these 
springs  would  soon  attain  a  world-wide  reputation,  and  prove  of  great  benefit  to 
the  state,  in  addition  to  being  a  boon  to  sufifering  humanity.  *  *  *  i  recom- 
mend that  the  Legislature,  by  a  memorial  or  otherwise,  invite  the  attention  of 
Congress,  and  especially  our  own  members  thereof,  to  the  advisability  of  having 
the  Indian  title  extinguished  to  the  small  portion  of  the  reservation  containing 
these  springs,  and  that  such  legislation  be  enacted  as  will  secure  them  to  the  people 
forever,  with  as  few  restrictions  and  as  little  expense  as  possible." 

In  accordance  with  the  above  recommendation.  Congress  donated  these  springs 
to  the  State  of  Wyoming,  giving  the  state  exclusive  control  over  them  for  all  time. 
The  Session  Laws  of  Wyoming  for  1899  state: 

"The  lands  granted  by  the  act  of  Congress,  approved  on  the  7th  day  of 
June,  A.  D.  1807.  ceding  to  the  State  of  Wyoming  certain  lands  in  the  northeastern 
portion  of  the  Shoshone  Indian  Reservation,  upon  which  are  located  the  Big 
Horn  Hot  Springs,  are  hereby  placed  upon  the  control  of  the  State  Board  of  Char- 
ities and  Reform  and  are  forever  set  aside  for  the  treatment  and  care  of  diseases 
and  for  sanitary  and  charitable  purposes." 

Early  in  1902  bids  were  received  for  the  construction  of  a  free  bath  house. 
However,  owing  to  many  difficulties,  not  until  October  7th  was  the  contract  let 
to  Jerry  Ryan,  of  Thermopolis,  for  a  building  to  cost  $2,525.  This  bath  house 
was  designed  for  the  use  of  a  portion  of  the  waters  of  the  main  spring.  Since 
the  opening  of  the  springs  many  improvements  have  been  made  each  year. 
Hotels  and  bath  houses,  attractive  landscapes,  trees,  flowers,  walks,  fences  and 
cottages  have  been  added.  The  resort  is  becoming  the  "Baden-Baden  of  the 
West,"  and  with  the  improvements  which  are  to  come  in  the  next  few  years,  will 
undoubtedly  become  one  of  the  most  popular  stopping-places  of  the  Rocky 
Mountain  region.  On  the  east  side  of  the  river  is  the  Maret  House  and  the  free 
bath  house,  located  at  the' Big  Spring,  while  on  the  west  side  are  the  Pleasant 
View  Hotel  and  bath  house  and  the  new  Hopewell  Hospital.  The  state  has  leased 
sites  for  twelve  more  large  buildings,  the  cheapest  of  which  will  cost  $25,000. 
The  state  has  also  constructed  a  hot  and  cold  water  system  of  waterworks. 



The  ninth  Legislature,  1907.  passed  a  bill  known  as  Chapter  104,  House  Hill 
No.  70,  being  an  act  to  establish  a  home  and  training  school  for  the  feeble-minded 
and  epileptic,  and  assigning  the  lands  and  property  of  the  state  poor  farm  for 
that  purpose,  also  making  an  appropriation  aggregating  $15,000.  The  property 
considered,  which  was  located  near  the  Town  of  Lander,  was  turned  over  to  the 
Board  of  Charities  and  Reform,  with  instructions  that  it  be  used  for  the  purpose 
indicated  by  the  bill. 

However,  the  old  poor  farm  property  was  located  fully  four  miles  from 
town  and  presented  hygienic  difficulties  which  made  it  highly  desirable  that  it 
be  sold  and  a  tract  of  ground  nearer  Lander  acquired.  This  question  was  dis- 
cussed by  the  authorities,  with  the  result  that  the  tenth  Legislature  autliorized  the 
board  to  sell  the  old  property  and  obtain  new  ground.  The  state  poor  farm  site 
was  finally  sold  for  $6,000.  The  board  then  purchased  ninety-four  acres  of  land 
one-half  mile  northeast  of  Lander  for  $6,000  and  let  the  contract  for  the  con- 
struction of  the  building  for  $43,197. 

Before  the  establishment  of  the  School  for  Defectives,  such  patients  were 
cared  for  outside  of  the  state.  The  number  within  the  boundaries  of  Wyoming 
hardly  justified  the  erection  of  a  local  home  until  1907.  The  last  report  of  the 
superintendent  gave  the  number  of  inmates  as  116,  mostly  young  boys  and  girls. 


Prior  to  the  year  1911  all  the  juvenile  delinquents  of  ^^'yoming  were  sent  to 
Colorado  schools,  the  males  to  the  State  Industrial  School  at  Golden  and  the 
females  to  the  Good  Shepherd  Industrial  School  at  Denver.  Occasionally  delin- 
quent youths  were  sent  to  the  Washington  School  for  Defective  Youth  at  Van- 

The  Legislature  of  191 1  passed  an  "Act  providing  for  the  establishment  of  a 
reform  institution  within  the  state  to  be  known  as  'The  Wyoming  Industrial 
Institute'  and  making  an  appropriation  therefor,  and  providing  the  means  of  its 
location."  This  bill  authorized  a  special  tax  levy,  which  amounted  to  $140,617.99, 
and  gave  the  people  the  right  to  decide  the  location  of  the  school  at  the  Xovember, 
1912,  general  election.  At  this  election  the  majoritv  of  votes  were  polled  for 
Worland.  in  Washakie  County,  and  this  town  was  therefore  chosen  as  the  site  for 
the  new  industrial  school.  The  twelfth  Legislature,  1913,  passed  another  bill 
providing  for  the  purchase  of  land  and  made  a  further  appropriation  of  $40,000. 

The  board  of  charities  and  reform  finally  purchased  960  acres  of  land,  located 
three  miles  south  of  Worland,  for  $53,200,  at  an  average  price  of  $55  per  acre. 
Upon  the  land  the  state  convicts  were  put  to  work,  clearing  the  ground,  building 
roads,  erecting  shelters  and  beginning  the  production  of  crops.  In  1913  the  board 
secured  plans  for  a  large  main  building,  power  house  and  barn.  The  contract 
for  the  main  building  and  power  house  was  let  for  $116,353. 

All  of  the  boys  from  the  Golden  school  have  been  transfeVred  to  the  new 
Worland  Institute,  hut  the  girls  are  yet  maintained  at  the  Good  Shepherd  School 
in  Denver. 



At  the  present  time  the  State  of  Wyoming  has  no  state  school  for  the  deaf, 
dumb  and  bhnd. 

By  an  act  of  the  Legislature,  approved  March  ii,  1886,  there  was  created  an 
institute  to  be  located  at  Cheyenne  for  the  deaf,  dumb  and  blind,  but  it  was 
"provided  that  no  institute  shall  be  opened  until  there  are  twelve  pupils  ready 
and  that  will  enter  said  school,  and  when  the  number  of  pupils  shall  fall  below 
the  number  of  eight,  then  said  institution  shall  close."  Three  trustees  were  ap- 
pointed by  the  governor.  A  building  was  constructed,  but  was  never  used  for 
the  education  of  deaf,  dumb  and  blind  pupils.  The  number  in  the  territory  and 
state  never  justified  such  a  course.  All  such  cases  were  cared  for  in  schools 
outside  of  Wyoming. 

Finally,  by  an  act  approved  February  9,  1907,  "the  buildings  and  premises 
of  the  state  deaf,  dumb  and  blind  asylum  at  Cheyenne"  were  temporarily  set 
aside  for  use  as  military  headquarters  of  the  state,  office  of  the  adjutant-general, 
and  for  storage  and  care  of  military  supplies.  The  building  is  now  used  in 
this  way. 

Deaf,  dumb  and  blind  pupils  of  Wyoming  are  now  educated  at  Colorado 
Springs,  Colorado ;  Ogden.  Utah ;  Boulder,  ^Montana ;  Omaha,  Nebraska ;  and 
Nebraska  City,  Nebraska.  The  last  report  of  the  Board  of  Charities  and  Reform 
gives  a  total  of  twenty-four  pupils  in  these  various  locations. 


On  March  4,  1886,  Governor  Warren  approved  an  act  providing  that  "a 
capitol  building,  for  the  use  of  the  territor}'.  shall  be  erected  in  the  City  of 
Cheyenne,  the  capital  of  the  territory,  at  a  cost  not  exceeding  the  sum  of  $150,000.'' 
By  the  provisions  of  this  act  the  governor  was  authorized  to  appoint  a  building 
commission  of  five  members,  which  should  acquire  a  site  by  donation  or  other- 
wise, approve  plans  and  award  the  contract  for  the  construction  of  the  building. 
Six  per  cent  bonds  to  the  amount  of  $150,000  were  authorized  also,  not  more 
than  $25,000  of  which  should  be  issued  at  any  one  time,  payable  twenty-five  years 
after  date  of  issue,  although  the  territory  was  given  the  option  of  redeeming 
one-tenth  of  the  bonds  at  the  end  of  fifteen  years  and  one-tenth  annually  until  all 
were  paid. 

Governor  Warren  appointed  a  capitol  commission  consisting  of  Erasmus 
Nagle,  Charles  N.  Potter,  Nathaniel  R.  Davis,  Morton  E.  Post  and  Nicholas  J. 
O'Brien.  This  commission  erected  the  central  portion  of  the  capitol  according 
to  plans  supplied  by  D.  W.  Gibbs  &  Company,  A.  Feick  &  Company  being  awarded 
the  contract. 

Then  came  the  additional  appropriation  for  the  capitol,  amounting  to  $125,000, 
which  was  a  part  of  the  bill  which  the  Legislature  passed  over  Governor  Moon- 
light's veto.  The  governor  claimed  that  the  additions  contemplated  would  cost 
more  than  the  af)propriation  and  that  the  building  as  it  stood  was  sufficient  for 
territorial  needs  until  the  people  could  bear  the  cost  of  construction  without 
assuming  undue  burdens  of  taxation.  The  bill  was  passed  over  the  governor's 
objections,    however,    and    Mr.    Moonlight    appointed    as    capitol    commissioners 


Lawrence  J.  Bresnahan,  George  W.  Baxter,  John  C.  Baird,  Arthur  Poole  and 
Andrew  Gilchrist.  The  Council  refused  for  a  time  to  confirm  the  appointment 
of  Mr.  Bresnahan  and  rejected  Mr.  Baxter  outright.  The  governor  then  named 
Thomas  A.  Kent  to  take  the  place  of  Baxter.  Mr.  Bresnahan  was  elected  chair- 
man o-f  the  commission  and  Mr.  Baird  was  chosen  secretary.  D.  W.  Gibbs  & 
Company  were  again  employed  as  architects  and  the  contract  was  awarded  to 
Moses  P.  Keefe.     The  additions  were  completed  in  1890. 

On  February  19,  191 5,  Governor  John  B.  Kendrick  approved  the  act  authoriz- 
ing the  construction  of  additional  wings  at  the  east  and  west  ends  of  the  capitol 
building.  The  act  provided  for  the  levying  of  a  tax  of  "three-eighths  of  a  mill 
on  each  and  every  dollar  of  the  assessed  valuation  *  *  *  (-q  constitute  a 
fund  in  the  state  treasury  to  be  used  under  the  authority  and  direction  of  the 
state  capitol  commission  in  the  erection  and  completion  of  suitable  additions 
to  the  state  capitol  building." 

The  state  capitol  commission  was  then  composed  of  Robert  B.  Forsyth, 
Herman  B.  Gates  and  James  B.  True.  They  employed  William  R.  Dubois  as 
architect,  and  the  contract  for  the  erection  of  the  wings  was  awarded  to  John 
W.  Howard.  The  additions  were  completed  late  in  the  year  1917.  The  total 
ccst  of  the  capitol  building  has  been  $413,779.13  to  May  15,  1918,  though  these 
figures  do  not  include  the  improvement  of  the  grounds. 

The  architectural  style  of  the  Wyoming  capitol  is  classic,  the  general  outline 
resembling  the  national  capitol  at  Washington,  D.  C.  The  building  occupies  a 
commanding  site,  bounded  by  Twenty-fourth  and  Twenty-fifth  streets,  Carey 
and  Central  avenues,  the  main  entrance  facing  Capitol  Avenue,  the  most  beautiful 
street  in  the  city,  extending  southward  from  the  capitol  to  the  Union  Pacific  Rail- 
road station. 








Wyoming  was  settled  and  organized  at  a  date  too  late  to  participate  in  any  of 
the  nation's  early  wars,  but  the  state  has  nevertheless  been  the  scene  of  military 
expeditions,  conflicts  with  the  Indians,  etc.,  and  the  site  of  military  posts  of 
more  or  less  historic  importance.  The  first  United  States  soldiers  in  what  is 
now  Wyoming  were  those  forming  the  little  detachment  of  twenty  men  who 
accompanied  Fremont  on  his  first  exploring  expedition  in  1842.  A  few  years 
later  came  the  tide  of  emigration  from  the  older  states  to  the  Pacific  Coast,  and 
with  it  came  a  demand  for  military  protection  along  the  line  of  the  Oregon  Trail. 
After  a  long  and  tiresome  discussion.  Congress  passed  an  act  providing  for 
certain  military  stations  along  the  route.  This  act,  which  was  approved  by 
President  Polk  on  May  ig,  1846,  appropriated  $5,000  for  each  post  established— 
$2,000  to  pay  for  the  ground  purchased  of  the  Indians  and  $3,000  for  the  erection 
of  buildings.  The  line  of  posts  began  at  the  Missouri  River  and  were  garrisoned 
by  the  "Oregon  Battalion"  of  five  companies.  The  battalion  was  raised  in  Missouri 
and  was  commanded  by  Col.  Stephen  W.  Kearney.  Posts  were  established  in 
Nebraska  in  1847  and  1848.  The  next  year  Lieut.  Daniel  P.  Woodbury,  of  the 
engineer  corps,  was  authorized  to  purchase  Fort  Laramie  of  the  American  Fur 
Company  and  the  post  was  bought  for  $4,000.  This  was  the  first  military  station 
established  in  Wyoming  by  the  L'^nited  States  authorities. 


During  the  two  years  following  the  purchase  of  Fort  Laramie  the  Indians 
gave  very  little  trouble,  and  in  1852  the  garrison  there  was  reduced  to  twenty- 
five  men,  under  Lieutenant  Fleming.  That  summer  an  Indian  fired  upon  the 
sergeant  in  charge  of  the  ferry  over  the  Laramie  River.  Lieutenant  Fleming  took 
twenty-three  men  (leaving  only  the  ferry  sergeant  and  two  others  at  the  fort) 
and  went  to  the  Indian  village  to  arrest  the  offender,  who  had  been  recognized. 
The  chief  happened  to  be  absent  and  the  young  braves  declared  in  favor  of  war 
when  Fleming  made  known  through  an  interpreter  the  object  of  his  visit.  The 


lieutenant  advanced  with  five  of  his  men,  shots  were  exchanged,  four  Indians 
were  killed  and  two  captured  without  loss  on  the  part  of  the  whites.  Later  the 
chief  surrendered  the  man  who  had  fired  upon  the  sergeant  and  the  captive 
Indians  were  released.  The  incident  had  the  effect,  however,  of  a  slight  addition 
being  made  to  the  garrison. 

The  following  year  a  Alormon  emigrant  reported  to  Fleming  that  a  Sioux 
Indian,  one  of  Chief  Bear's  band  and  a  man  noted  for  his  evil  disposition,  had 
killed  one  of  his  cattle.  Fleming  sent  Lieutenant  Grattan,  with  twenty-eight  men 
and  two  howitzers,  to  bring  in  the  Indian.  Grattan  was  just  from  West  Point 
and  knew  very  little  of  the  Indian  character  and  tactics  on  such  occasions.  His 
selection  to  lead  the  party  was  a  mistake,  as  Fleming  afterward  learned  to  his 
sorrow.  Upon  arriving  at  the  Sioux  camp,  Grattan  allowed  himself  to  be  drawn 
into  a  parley,  which  was  prolonged  until  he  discovered  that  his  party  was  about 
to  be  surrounded  by  the  savages.  He  ordered  a  volley  to  be  fired.  Chief  Bear 
fell  mortally  wounded  and  one  Indian  was  killed.  The  Indians  returned  the  fire 
and  the  howitzers  were  then  brought  into  play,  but  were  aimed  so  high  that  no 
damage  was  done  by  their  discharge.  The  Indians  then  rushed  upon  the  little 
detachment  from  all  sides,  and  though  the  troops  fought  valiantly,  only  one  man 
escaped  to  carry  the  news  to  the  fort.  The  Indians,  incensed  by  the  loss  of  their 
chief,  and  realizing  that  the  annihilation  of  Grattan's  company  had  so  weakened 
the  garrison  at  the  fort  as  to  render  it  practically  useless,  turned  their  attention 
to  the  trading  posts,  several  of  which  were  attacked  and  robbed,  after  which 
they  moved  off  toward  the  Black  Hills.  Three  companies  of  infantry  were  then 
sent  to  Fort  Laramie,  under  Maj.  William  Hoffman,  and  the  garrison  was  further 
strengthened  in  1855. 

Gen.  William  S.  Harney,  with  1,500  men,  marched  against  the  Sioux  Indians 
in  the  summer  of  1855.  On  the  3d  of  September  he  attacked  the  camp  of  Little 
Thunder  at  Ash  Hollow,  about  one  hundred  miles  southeast  of  Fort  Laramie, 
and  killed  quite  a  number  of  women  and  children  and  a  few  warriors.  He  then 
moved  northward  to  Dakota  and  in  the  spring  of  1856  held  a  "peace  council'' 
at  Fort  Pierre,  but  the  Sioux  apparently  soon  forgot  the  conditions  of  the  agree- 
ment and  continued  their  depredations.  General  Harney  also  established  Fort 
Randall,  in  what  is  now  South  Dakota,  while  on  this  expedition. 

In  1857  an  expedition  against  the  Cheyenne  Indians  was  organized  at  Fort 
Laramie  and  Port  Leavenworth.  It  was  commanded  by  Col.  E.  V.  Sumner,  of 
the  First  United  States  Dragoons,  and  operated  chiefly  in  Kansas  and  Colorado, 
but  it  wielded  an  influence  upon  the  tribes  farther  north  and  for  the  next  two 
or  three  years  emigrant  trains  were  permitted  to  pass  through  Wyoming  without 


During  the  winter  of  1862-63  the  tribes  inhabiting  Wyoming,  relying  upon 
the  fact  that  the  Government  was  engaged  in  prosecuting  the  Civil  war,  and 
encouraged  by  the  Sioux  outbreak  in  Minnesota  the  preceding  summer,  renewed 
their  hostile  activities  along  the  Overland  Route.  Several  miners  were  killed 
and  emigrant  trains  were  attacked.  These  demonstrations  were  made  by  the 
Bannock  and  Shoshone  Indians  under  Chief  Bear  Hunter  and  some  minor  chiefs. 


Col.  P.  E.  Connor  was  ordered  to  protect  the  Overland  from  Fort  Kearney, 
Nebraska,  to  Salt  Lake,  and  early  in  the  year  1863  came  into  Wyoming.  Soon 
after  his  arrival  he  began  to  make  inquiries  and  learned  that  some  of  the  Indians 
associated  with  Bear  Hunter  belonged  to  Washakie's  band,  who  were  supposed 
to  be  on  friendly  terms  with  the  whites.  The  chief  explained  that  he  had  remon- 
strated with  his  young  men,  who  argued  that  the  emigrants  would  be  robbed  any- 
how, and  that  they  might  as  well  have  a  share  of  the  plunder.  Between  Connor 
and  the  chief,  most  of  these  young  warriors  were  induced  to  abandon  Bear 
Hunter's  standard,  leaving  him  only  about  three  hundred  men  with  which  to 
continue  his  depredations.  Connor  also  learned  that  certain  Mormons  were  in 
league  with  Bear  Hunter  and  furnished  him  with  information  concerning  every 
movement  of  the  troops,  whereupon  the  new  commander  hit  upon  a  plan  to 
break  up  Bear  Hunter's  band  before  his  Mormon  friends  could  learn  what  was 
going  on. 

He  knew  that  Bear  Hunter  was  encamped  on  the  Bear  River,  near  the  western 
border  of  Wyoming.  On  January  22,  1863,  he  ordered  Captain  Hoyt  to  take 
Company  K,  Third  California  Infantry,  twelve  men  of  the  Second  California 
Cavalry,  two  howitzers  under  command  of  Lieutenant  Honeyman,  and  fifteen 
wagons  loaded  with  supplies  and  reconnoiter  the  Indian  camp.  Encumbered 
with  a  train  of  fifteen  wagons.  Captain  Hoyt's  progress  was  necessarily  slow 
enough  to  permit  the  Mormons  to  get  word  to  the  Indians  that  a  comparatively 
small  detachment  of  troops  was  on  the  way  to  the  camp.  This  was  precisely 
what  Colonel  Connor  intended.  Late  on  the  evening  of  the  24th  he  left  camp 
with  four  companies  of  the  Second  California  Cavalry,  and  by  daylight  he 
was  nearly  seventy  miles  away.  The  next  day  he  overtook  Captain  Hoyt  and  at 
daybreak  on  the  29th  the  entire  command  was  close  to  the  Indian  camp.  Connor 
sent  Major  McGarry,  with  part  of  the  cavalry,  to  get  in  the  rear  of  the  Indians 
to  prevent  their  escape,  but  the  ground  was  such  that  the  camp  could  not  be 
surrounded  and  his  movement  was  discovered.  The  Indians,  thinking  this  was 
the  small  force  mentioned  by  the  Mormons,  rushed  upon  McGarry,  who  dis- 
mounted his  men  and  poured  a  withering  fire  into  the  ranks  of  the  approaching 
redskins.  Hearing  the  firing,  Connor  brought  up  the  main  body  of  the  cavalry 
and  the  howitzers  also  began  their  deadly  work.  The  Indians  retreated  into  a 
ravine,  but  Major  McGarry  succeeded  in  turning  their  flank  and  driving  them 
out.  As  they  emerged  from  the  ravine  they  were  ruthlessly  shot  down  by  the 
cavalrymen.  The  fight  lasted  about  four  hours,  the  Indians  suffering  a  loss  of 
224  killed,  and  the  guards  stationed  along  the  river  before  the  engagement  com- 
menced reported  that  twenty-five  others  were  killed  while  trying  to  cross  the 
stream.  Connor's  loss  was  fourteen  killed  and  fifty-three  wounded.  Upon  Gen- 
eral Halleck's  recommendation.  Colonel  Connor  was  promoted  to  brigadier-general, 
his  commission  dating  from  March  29,  1863.  Bear  Hunter's  band  was  com- 
pletely broken   up. 

About  the  first  of  April,  1863,  a  band  of  Ute  Indians,  that  had  been  annoying 
the  stage  line  beyond  Salt  Lake,  came  into  Wyoming.  On  the  3d  the  station  at 
Sweetwater,  guarded  by  twenty-six  men  of  the  Sixth  Ohio  Cavalry,  was  attacked, 
but  the  Indians  were  driven  off.  One  trooper  was  slightly  wounded.  Ten  days 
after  this  attack  General  Connor  sent  the  following  telegram  to  General  Hal- 
leck :     "Unless  immediately  reinforced  with  cavalry,  the   Indians,  urged  on  by 


the  Mormons,  will  break  up  the  Overland  Mail  and  make  the  emigrant  road 

Halleck  referred  the  matter  to  General  Schofield,  commanding  the  Depart- 
ment of  the  Missouri,  who  ordered  Maj.  E.  W.  Wyncoop  to  reinforce  Connor 
with  four  companies  of  the  First  Colorado  Cavalry.  Two  troops  under  Major 
Wyncoop's  command  were  neither  mounted  nor  equipped  and  this  caused  a  delay 
in  carrying  out  the  order.  General  Connor  grew  somewhat  impatient  and  on  the 
28th  wrote  to  the  commander  of  the  Department  of  the  Pacific  that  the  Indians 
were  congregating  in  the  vicinity  of  the  Mormon  settlement  south  of  Fort 
Laramie,  that  they  were  encouraged  by  Brigham  Young,  who  was  supplying 
them  with  arms  and  ammunition,  and  that  there  was  no  doubt  that  Young's  object 
was  to  force  the  Overland  into  a  contract  with  him  to  protect  the  line  for  a  certain 
sum,  etc.  He  asked  for  reinforcements,  and  closed  his  letter  by  saying:  "Send 
me  the  men ;  I  will  do  the  rest." 

Reinforcements  were  sent  and  Fort  Halleck,  a  short  distance  west  of  the 
Medicine  Bow  Mountains,  was  established.  Early  in  June  Connor  made  a  peace 
agreement  with  one  of  the  leading  Shoshone  bands,  and  it  was  not  long  until 
other  bands  begged  for  peace.  Late  in  July  the  Ute  disturbers  also  sued  for  peace 
and  for  the  time  the  Overland  was  safe.    Connor  had  fulfilled  his  promise. 


Just  at  daylight  on  the  morning  of  November  29,  1864,  Col.  John  M.  Chiving- 
ton,  commanding  the  District  of  Colorado,  made  an  attack  upon  a  Cheyenne  vil- 
lage of  130  lodges  and  about  one  thousand  warriors  on  Sand  Creek,  Colorado. 
Chiefs  Black  Kettle,  Little  Robe  and  White  Antelope  and  about  four  hundred 
and  fifty  warriors  were  killed,  and  over  four  hundred  mules  and  ponies  were 

Fugitives  from  Sand  Creek  reached  the  Cheyenne  camp  near  the  head  of  the 
Smoky  Hill  River,  where  a  council  was  held  and  it  was  decided  to  "send  a  pipe" 
to  the  Northern  Arapaho  and  Sioux  and  invite  them  to  join  the  Cheyenne  in  a 
war  upon  the  whites.  The  chiefs  of  the  Arapaho  and  Sioux  "smoked  the  pipe," 
which  was  equivalent  to  accepting  the  invitation.  This  was  early  in  December, 
1864.  The  chiefs  waited  until  all  the  small  war  parties  came  into  the  camp  on 
Cherry  Creek,  where  a  force  of  about  one  thousand  warriors  were  gathered,  and 
it  was  then  determined  to  begin  the  war  by  an  attack  on  Julesburg,  where  the 
Overland  stages  formerly  forded  the  South  Platte.  Julesburg  at  that  time  con- 
sisted of  the  station  building,  of  cedar  logs,  the  stables,  corrals,  store  and  a  large 
warehouse  filled  with  the  stage  company's  supplies,  an  express  and  telegraph 
office,  and  a  few  dwellings. 

A  short  distance  west  of  Julesburg,  at  the  mouth  of  Lodge  Pole  Creek,  was 
Fort  Sedgwick,  which  had  been  established  in  August,  1864,  and  was  garrisoned 
by  a  part  of  the  Seventh  Iowa  Cavalry,  under  the  command  of  Capt.  N.  J.  O'Brien. 
Captain  O'Brien  was  afterward  chief  of  artillery  with  General  Connor's  Powder 
River  expedition.  He  established  Camp  Connor  (later  Fort  Reno)  and  was  one 
of  the  first  city  officials  of  Julesburg.  Subsequently  he  removed  to  Cheyenne, 
where  he  served  in  the  city  council,  was  sherifl^  of  Laramie  County,  a  member 
of  the  Legislature  and  United  States  marshal.     The  Indians  knew  his  reputation 


as  a  fighter  and  adopted  the  plan,  so  often  worked  successfully,  of  drawing  the 
troops  at  the  fort  into  an  ambush  before  the  attack  was  made  on  Julesburg. 

Accordingly,  about  daylight  on  January  7,  1865,  Big  Crow,  the  Cheyenne  chief, 
selected  seven  of  his  fleetest  footed  warriors  to  show  themselves  in  front  of  the 
fort,  with  the  hope  that  the  soldiers  would  pursue  them  into  the  sand  hills,  where 
the  main  body  of  the  Indians  was  secreted.  At  first  the  plan  promised  success. 
When  the  seven  Indians  appeared  a  small  detachment  of  troops  sallied  out  and 
began  the  pursuit,  but  some  of  the  younger  warriors,  in  their  enthusiasm,  acted 
too  quickly,  the  soldiers  saw  the  situation  and  returned  to  the  fort. 

A  few  hours  later  a  large  body  of  Indians  appeared  at  Julesburg.  The  few 
white  men  there  fled  to  the  fort,  leaving  the  savages  to  plunder  the  warehouse. 
They  also  drove  oft"  a  herd  of  cattle  on  the  opposite  side  of  the  river  from  the 
town.  During  the  remainder  of  the  month  they  wrecked  about  seventy-five  miles 
of  the  road,  burning  stations,  cutting  the  telegraph  wires,  etc.  On  February 
2,  1865,  some  of  the  Indians  started  for  the  North  Platte,  Julesburg  was  again 
plundered  and  this  time  the  stage  company's  buildings  were  burned.  During 
the  day  about  fifty  miles  of  telegraph  line  were  destroyed  and  that  night  the 
party  encamped  on  the